If Sam Houston was more for Independence and that the U.S. didn't want to anexxnation on the grounds that the Texans will allow the U.S. military access to fight a war against the Mexicans.
Mirabeau Lamar, as President of the Republic of Texas, he didn't support the idea of unification with the United States, and consider it to be Texas' "Manifest Destiny" to expand westward. I think he was working to secure a loan from Britain. Lamar only served one term as President, perhaps he serves a second. The Texan constitution is pretty interesting.
was n't there a Slider eposidr were - WhileThe US was busy with the ACW, Texas expanded taking the rest of the Country. While the Lone Star may have Annexed the Great Bear, ?how much more could they have gotten?.
That seems a realisitc possibility but finding a POD and a timeline is more difficult, and I suppose no surprise that no one has posted one here yet. The original post's comments about US troops doesn't feel right to me - Texas may rely to some degree on the US as a friendly backer of its independence but as soon as it starts toadying to the US in this manner, the end of its independence is on the table. It will become little more than a vassal state and eventually absorbed. Just consider if it DID allow US forces to cross its territory, supply etc - it will subsume the nation into the US military supply sphere
Texas had done pretty well since 1835 in defending its independence despite sporadic Mexican campaigns to harry them, raid Bexar etc. But it was pretty much bankrupt IIRC.
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Last edited by Grey Wolf; February 5th, 2004 at 07:00 AM.. Reason: completion
Texas had done pretty well since 1835 in defending its independence despite sporadic Mexican campaigns to harry them, raid Bexar etc. But it was pretty much bankrupt IIRC.
but what about the oil in texas? was oil in much demand at the time and had it been found yet? would texas be able to fund itself off the oil?
Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Western New Mexico, and Louisiana expelled.
The Condederate army survives and retreats to Texas and the war continues into 1866, with a greatly expanded Union army sending it's black contingent there to chases them, followed by a number of demobilized troops settling down. The election of 1876 leaves the agreement between the Republicans and Democrats contingent on the blacks leaving the US and moving to Texas. They comply.
Later on, the Nation of TexLas sponsers research and exploration for minerals. Most of the oil in the US is in TexLas and drilling around oil seeps finds the salt dome oil fields. Maybe they get dipmeters there earlier and are more successfull.
We get a black, english speaking, industrial economy on our border and supplying us with natural gas. It's sort of a southern Canada and we have about the same relationship. Ie, they ship us singers, scientists, business men, actors, etc, and we patronize them.
Here is an old Timeline of mine.
I've been doing research over the past two months towards continuing
the Lone Star Republic timeline onward beyond where I left it
(effectively, 1859). The next installment, as promised, will focus on
Mexico, specifically the Liberal-Conservative civil unrest and war
which will end in the faceoff between Benito Juarez and Emperor
Maximillian... and how the Republic of Texas, a nation with a
population of over half a million people and growing fantastically,
will become entangled in that war.
Other installments will cover the birth and growth of Virginia City,
Texas/USA, Texan Alaska, the Kingdom of Hawaii, and the Colorado Lode,
where Texas, USA, and CSA meet. There will also be more politics, more
personalities, and slowly more butterflies, as the presence of Texas
begins to have an effect in Europe and the Pacific. If there are other
events, esp. natural disasters and the like, which need to be
Unfortunately, I don't know when Episode XVI will come out, so until
then here's a quick reminder of the events which the first fifteen
LONE STAR REPUBLIC TIMELINE (exact dates given where available or
John Tyler succeeds William Henry Harrison, the first Vice President
of the United States to be promoted upon the death of the President.
Santa Fe Expedition, ordered by Texas President Mirabeau Lamar, is
captured without a struggle
Lamar's Presidency of Texas ends; David Burnet is defeated easily by
Sam Houston for a three-year term.
Mexican armed forces capture San Antonio, Goliad and Victoria briefly,
retreating south before Texan armed forces can react. No captives are
POINT OF DIVERSION: Santa Anna, president of Mexico, decides based on
the recognition of Texas by Great Britain, and by the successes of the
raids of April, to make plans to retake part or all of Texas by force.
He sends General Adrian Woll with 1,000 men to retake and hold San
Antonio (as he did in OTL) with additional orders to kill all
prisoners taken as rebels to the Republic of Mexico (which he did not
do OTL, although he ordered atrocities enough on other occasions).
Woll, stalling despite poor supply lines and rapidly growing enemy
forces, stalls after taking San Antonio. After the battle of Saltillo
Creek, he can no longer maintain his position, and so he has killed
over 200 male captives in the Frost Brothers warehouses, within sight
of the old Alamo. He then returns with what remains of his command to
Mexico, leaving Texas roaring for Mexican blood.
Sam Houston, yielding against his wishes to public outcry, authorizes
Colonel Alexander Somervell to take 200 men from the Texas standing
army, enlist a further 700 volunteers, and demonstrate along the Rio
Grande. Somervell is ordered sub rosa to avoid any actual combat if at
all possible and to commit no crimes against the Mexicans during the
campaign. Over a thousand volunteers actually show up under various
25 Somervell Expedition, numbering 1,289 men, leaves San Antonio.
8 Somervell captures Laredo without a fight. Three days later Guerrero
falls as well. In both cases, Somervell prevents Texan troops from
looting the towns on the north bank of the Rio Grande, to the troops'
19 Colonel Somervell, against his better judgement, decides to
continue the campaign, knowing that half his command or more will
refuse to disband or follow him if he returns to San Antonio.
22 Somervell reaches Mier, on the south bank of the Rio Grande. Scouts
under Tom Green and Ben McCulloch report a Mexican force assembling
23 Mexican forces retreat in the early morning hours. Somervell's
troops march into Mier unopposed and demand supplies from the town.
Expecting delivery on the next day, the Texans return above the Rio
Grande. That night, General Pedro de Ampudia arrives with 3,000 men to
defend the town, and he soon has full intelligence on the enemy force.
24 No supplies reach the Texans. Ampudia decides to remain on the
25 Texan troops capture a Mexican deserter and gain intelligence on
Ampudia's force and plans. Texans cross the river and begin assault on
Mier in mid-afternoon, outnumbered four to one by the defending army.
26 At 2 PM the Texans storm the town square, breaking Mexican
resistance. The one-sided battle, horribly mismanaged by Ampudia, ends
with over 1,200 Mexicans killed or wounded, about 400 prisoners
(including Ampudia himself), as opposed to 87 dead Texans and an
unknown, but relatively small, number of wounded.
27 Somervell begins his return march to San Antonio.
23 Colonel Jacob Snively, paymaster of the Texan Army, sends a
proposal to President Houston and Army commander General Albert Sidney
Johnston, proposing a 500-man strong force to travel into the open
plains country and disrupt trade along the Santa Fe trail within
15 Secretary of War George Hockley gives grudging permission for
Snively to raise 300 volunteers with a letter of marque to raid
Mexican commerce. They were not to be regarded as Texan Army soldiers.
24 The Snively Expedition, precisely 300 men strong, leaves Georgetown
on the Red River, crossing American-claimed territory on his way
northeast. He is not discovered or confronted before he returns to
Texan-claimed soil. He is followed by about 150 'unofficial' members
who refuse to be left out of the expedition.
27 After much difficulty and slow marching, Snively reaches the
Arkansas River, effectively Texas's northern border.
30 Snively spots a wagon train, only to discover it is American and,
according to Houston's orders, untouchable.
20 Snively captures intact an entire company of Mexican cavalry.
28 The expedition, divided from within by ambitious subordinates,
splits. Snively is left with fewer than 300 'Mountaineers' while over
150 'Home Boys' elect Eli Chandler, Snively's adjutant, as their new
30 The Mountaineers encounter United States troopers under the command
of Captain Philip St. George Cooke south of the Arkansas (and within
Texan-claimed borders). Cooke orders Snively to surrender his force's
arms. When Snively refuses, Cooke takes him captive and storms the
Texan positions, capturing the force with about thirty USA wounded and
about twice that many Texans wounded. Snively's Mountaineers are
marched to Missouri, where after some serious diplomatic troubles
between Texas and the United States, they are released.
13 The Home Boys capture a Mexican wagon train and its escort,
including Nuevo Mexico governor Manuel Armijo.
About this same time word reaches Texas that Santa Anna will enter
into armistice with Texas to discuss a lasting peace, with the
condition that Texas must never join the United States, on pain of war
Santa Anna is deposed for proposing peace with Texas. The new junta
pledges to uphold the armistice until it expires in May 1844.
19 The Bent brothers lead a mob of Mexican and American men to storm
the government buildings of Santa Fe. The Mexican authorities and
forces are put to full flight.
20 William Bent proclaims New Mexico as United States territory. New
Mexico erupts into massive civil war with no less than five separate
factions (not counting various Indian tribes).
USA presidential candidate Henry Clay sends several letters to
newspaper editors in North Carolina outlining his position on
annexation. In these letters he portrays his opponent, James Polk, of
seeking to conquer Texas against its will and, in so doing, bring
about war with Europe.
Mexico proposes a treaty granting independence to Texas and
recognizing all of Texas' land claims. The only restriction, as with
Santa Anna, is that Texas must never join the United States.
John Tyler and Andrew Jackson Donelson craft a treaty of annexation
for Texas; both US and Texan Congresses table it upon receipt.
Edward Burleson, Sam Houston's estranged vice-president and a
pro-independence candidate, narrowly defeats Anson Jones, Houston's
chosen pro-annexation candidate, 6,998 to 6,557. Congressional
representation is only slightly more favorable to independence.
Henry Clay, despite narrowly losing the popular vote 1,316,371 to
James Polk's 1,319,934, wins the Presidency of the United States with
an electoral vote of 167 to 108. The Whig President, however, will
have to deal with an openly hostile Democrat Congress.
Newly inaugurated Texas President Burleson restores Sam Houston to his
rank of Major General and command of the Texan armies, sending him to
secure the Rio Grande border.
The Mexican government narrowly ratifies the treaty recognizing Texas,
including its claim to Santa Fe.
The Texas Congress ratifies the treaty with Mexico, putting a
permanent end to hopes of annexation to the USA.
Santa Anna returns from exile to his home near Veracruz.
Manuel Armijo, released under terms of the peace treaty, arrives in
Mexico City to seek support in retaking Nuevo Mexico.
Henry Clay settles the border with British Canada at the 49th
Parallel, with the exception of Vancouver Island. The treaty is very
nearly the only Clay proposal ratified by Congress during his term.
Santa Anna returns to power in Mexico, having pledged to reconquer
Texas no matter the cost.
Brigadier General Johnston arrives with over 1,000 men in Santa Fe,
bringing word to the still-anarchic province of the Texas-Mexico
peace. With great difficulty (and with assistance from the threat of
Armijo's return) he brings peace to New Mexico.
During the fall and winter both Texas and Mexico build up forces on
8 Santa Anna takes personal command of a force of 5,000 Mexican troops
20 Texas declares war on Mexico.
31 Henry Clay declares American neutrality in the new war. The slave
states respond by sending thousands of volunteers to Texas to support
the cause. Thousands more emigrate to Texas seeking to profit from the
26 Houston shifts the bulk of his just-under-2000 man army to cover
his supply point on the Gulf Coast, leaving a garrison of 300 men at
Fort Jackson on the Rio Grande.
28 Santa Anna moves across the Rio Grande, bypassing Fort Jackson and
advancing against Houston with 4,000 men.
2 Battle of Palo Alto. Houston assaults Santa Anna's forces, but does
not break them. Santa Anna pulls back during the night.
4 Battle of Palma Resaca. Houston again attacks, this time turning the
Mexican right. Santa Anna retreats in good order from the field.
5 Battle of Matamoros. Houston's army, reinforced by the Fort Jackson
garrison, crosses the Rio Grande and routs Santa Anna's army.
8 Houston marches forward with over 6100 men.
10 Johnston meets Armijo's 3000-man army with a mixed force of 1800
men and, in a series of battles over a week, utterly routs or destroys
the Mexicans. Armijo flees back into Mexico, never to return.
26 Johnston takes 400 of his troops westward, crossing the Gila River
valley and the deserts of southern California. Leaving 200 men behind
in the tiny mining settlement of Tuscon, he crosses the Sierra Nevada
range in mid-July.
30 John C. Fremont, Captain U. S. Topography Service, raises the Bear
Flag at Sutter's Mill, organizing a 300-man army for the purpose of
conquering California for the United States.
8-21 Houston besieges Saltillo, held by 12,000 Mexicans under the
command of Pedro de Ampudia. Through a combined use of methodical
siege maneuvers and occasional uncontrolled bravado charges, the Texan
army forces Ampudia to surrender. Total Texan casualties are under
1,000 men (while Houston recieved nearly 2000 reinforcements in that
time); less than half of Ampudia's 12,000 men were able to march out
under the terms of the surrender.
15 Fremont seeks aid from US warships in harbor at San Francisco; he
narrowly escapes arrest for violation of the Neutrality Act. He begins
marching southward with his little army, at first meeting no
opposition, but gradually faced with serious guerilla resistance led
by the brother of the Mexican governor, Andreas Pico.
18 Johnston's 180 men arrive in Los Angeles, to a very lukewarm
21 Battle of Monterrey. The beginnings of a siege maneuver against a
Mexican army of 14,000 lead to Houston's 8,000 men outflanking and
overruning the Mexican defenses. Despite every possible advantage, the
Mexicans are routed or annhilated. Among the captives is a young cadet
from the local military academy, Pofirio Diaz.
28 Admiral Edwin C. Moore, commanding the Texas Navy and with 500
infantrymen as support, captures the port of Tampico.
5 Andreas Pico, setting a trap for the southward-marching Bear Flag
forces, accidentally charges the northward-marching Texas forces under
Johnston at dusk. Fremont's troops arrive in the twilight and help
drive off the partisans.
6 Fremont, under serious pressure from Johnston, furls the Bear Flag
and pledges allegiance to Texas. Johnston sends for reinforcements
from Tuscon and Santa Fe. The combined Texan forces, which would
number about 500 men by year's end, would only balance out the
irregular forces led by Pico. The war in California would consist of
indecisive skirmishes until word of peace came.
8 Santa Anna leaves San Luis Potosi with 20,000 men. By his order, the
road between San Luis Potosi had all its water cisterns destroyed in
the retreat from Monterey. The troops had only the water they carried
with them (if any), with no means of getting more on the march.
13 Battle of Buena Vista. Santa Anna's 20,000 troops attack Houston's
line of 5,000, push it back, and stall, taking terrible casualties.
Attempts to outflank the Texans are foiled by Ranger units guarding
the vital passes in the hills and mountains south of Buena Vista.
Santa Anna orders a retreat during the night.
17 The first remnants of Santa Anna's army reach San Luis Potosi. Only
about 5,000 of Santa Anna's 20,000 men will return, and most of those
are seriously dehydrated and unfit for duty.
23 Houston issues a statement that his armies will penetrate no deeper
into Mexico, calling for armistice and peace negotiations.
Santa Anna is deposed by a weak liberal coalition government.
George Hockley is sent by President Burleson to Mexico to negotiate a
peace. En route, he meets with Houston, who is appalled by the severe
and unrealistic terms of Burleson's proposal. He sends a second,
milder proposal along with Hockley's party, fixing the new border as
the Rio Grande to the thirty-first north parallel, then westward to
the Gulf of California, with both Alta and Baja California going to
Texas. The Mexican government almost instantly ratifies Houston's
proposal rather than even consider the official proposal and packs the
Texan negotiating party off to sea with the treaty in hand.
Burleson sacks Houston and, for the time being, holds the proposed
treaty from Congress, seeking enough votes to prevent its
Sam Houston files to run for President of Texas again.
Unable to block passage or support the armies in the field, Burleson
submits the treaty to Congress, who ratify almost without debate,
ending the War of 1846.
Houston is elected in a landslide, encountering no serious opposition.
Notable among newly elected Senators are two from Alta California,
Andreas Pico (representing the coastal missions) and John Fremont
(representing Sutter's Fort and environs).
The Texas Congress passes a proposed Constitutional Amendment to
reform representation in that Congress on a fixed basis of 90
Representatives and 30 Senators. (The old form had a fluctuating
number of Senators and one Representative for every county.) The
amendment must be passed in referendum by the people, and then
re-approved by the next Congress, to become law. If successful it will
be the first amendment of the Texas Constitution.
Santa Anna wins the Presidency of Mexico in an open election,
returning to power yet again.
President Sam Houston sends a proposal to the United States, offering
all of Texas north of the 36th parallel for sale to the United States.
12 Gold first discovered at Sutter's Mill.
The Senate of the United States, after much debate, fails to summon
even a majority to ratify the 'Colorado Purchase.' The proposal is
withdrawn by the Texas ambassador two weeks later.
First word of the Sutter's Mill strike reaches Houston and Washington.
A lukewarm turnout of voters maintains the Democratic majority in the
Texas Congress and approves the Congressional Reform Amendment.
Democrat Lewis Cass wins the US Presidency in a landslide over Whig
Gen. Winfield Scott.
President Houston makes a new proposal, offering only the land north
of a line drawn westward from the headwaters of the Arkansas,
approximately 39 degrees north latitude, for the same price as the
Colorado Purchase had been offered at. President Cass presents the
treaty to the Senate, but Senator Calhoun of South Carolina attempts
to tack on a proviso that the 'Deseret Purchase' must be made open to
slavery. The Calhoun Proviso is defeated, and the sale goes through in
May, but slavery has become an official 'issue' in Congress with this
The Texas Congress formally ratifies the First Amendment to the
Constitution of 1836, making it the law of the land, and passes a bill
to fund a census in 1850.
Death of Henry Clay.
John C. Fremont announces his candidacy for President of Texas and
founds the Federalist Party of Texas, advocating a confederation of
states within Texas and regional abolition of slavery. Andreas Pico
responds by founding the Whig Party of Texas, basically as an
anti-Fremont party. Both parties try to find support in Old Texas, but
the Federalists make no ground with their anti-slavery stance.
The Whigs in Old Texas name Peter Bell, veteran soldier and Ranger, as
their 1850 Presidential nominee. They form a more solid platform
calling for further territorial expansion, extermination of the
Indians, and a trans-Texas railroad and other internal improvements.
Houston forms the Democrat Party of Texas as the conservative and
moderate party, with a plank in the platform supporting Hispanic
sufferage. General Thomas Rusk is nominated as the Democrat candidate
Texan Congressional elections give the Democrats a plurality of the
Senate and a slim majority of the House. The Old Texas fronier and
Mexican-populated New Mexico and Baja California go Whig, while the
Federalists control Alta California.
Texas with British settlers?
Wm. Frehling's Road to Disunion spends a chapter on Texas's choices. Britain would've induced Mexico to recognize Texas in return for Texan abolition of slavery. I don't think Texas had acquired an overwhelmingly large slave population yet.
Given Texas' impecunity, they would've needed (as David pointed out) foreign loans to run the country and compensate the slaveowners. It seems that this could've been done with Texas government bonds using public lands as collateral. With slavery out of the question, bond holders would have an incentive to encourage free settlers (it was often these types who brought in settlers). It could be a mix of poor whites from the South (I'm thinking of the traditionally Unionist areas) and people from marginal areas in the UK (perhaps Scots, many of whom were cattlemen in Scotland and possibly some Irish once the potato famine hits).
Once settlement comes in, the loans will be less of a risk as the collateral would be worth more and non-settled public land would be sold at higher prices. I'm not sure of the exact sequencing but Texas had an abundance of land and a scarcity of people. The land's potential should be able to support loans.
Last edited by bill_bruno; June 3rd, 2004 at 03:40 AM.. Reason: Another point
Rethinking the financing
Perhaps the land isn't used as collateral per se but the expectation of income from its sale supports the bonds. Some land is sold to land speculators who bring in settlers. This increases the value of unsold land and enables the Texas government to pay off the issue. Possibly some of the compensation to slaveholders comes in the form of the emancipation bonds rather than in cash.
If texas doesn't get annexed I see the Second round of the Texas war of independence sucks in Dixie and its spread to california sucks in the US - US winds up with Cal, Utah, Colorado, baja. A southern supported Texas takes new mexico, Sonora, Chiuhuaha and a couple of other Northern mexican states. The march to mexico City never happens. A more western Texas sits out the US Civil War. My presumption is that Texas sends a few divisions of volunteers to the Confederacy - say what actually went in 1861-62 and acts
as a supply source. The supply line becomes meaningless when the Mississippi is taken by the Union, which is appreciably by late 1862. Taking Vicksburg is just the icing on the cake. Union already had the west bank from Helena Arkansas down to baton Rouge. Small parties could get thru - massive supply shipments could not. The west bank plus gunboats effectivelty ends that problem. With a neighbor who is a real military power, the post Civil War radical demobilization never occurs. This leaves the US with a real navy and army. It also leaves it more imperialist and expansionist. There is also the question of finding acceptable 'homes' for several hundred thousand armed black vets who in this TL are not left to the tender mercies of the Klan and Jim Crow. The US Civil War was North America's last war nort of the rio grande. From 1860-1920 Texas slowly conquered mexico in many wars and took central america. Texas has fought two border wars with Columbia over the Panamian border as Columbia still does not recognize the Texas theft of their province. Texas took part if the Great War of the Pacific on the side of Chile. Chile and Texas still have close relations. WWI ended with the mutiny of the French Army in 1917. Russia never recovered from the lost lands of Brest Litovsk. German middle Europe slowly made up with the French and Germans after a long Cold War but no WWII. Hitler became Minister of Public Works for the Bavarian government and died of old age in 1979. The US took a slice of Far Siberia as part of its joint intervention with Japan in the Russian CW. Japan has the rest of Far Siberia out to Lake Bikal, Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, North China including Shantung and Taiwan. India became a selfgoverning dominion in 1922 stretching from Tehran to Rangoon and including Afghanistan, Tibet and a big piece of what in OTL is Sov Central Asia. The tech level is maybe 10 years behind our own except for atomic power ( 30 years behind) and space travel -actually happened with space industries, the belt and all but SPS is just being tested.
Economic relations between the USA and Texas are very close with few tarrifs but high national feelings keep the two economies and societies QUITE distinct. The several millions of Confederate faithful migrated to Texas in this TL, taking their hates with them and swamping the original Texans. Thus there is no 'kiss and make up' as happened in OTL after 1876 when the nation abandoned Reconstruction.
as for texas's borders: Texas stetches from Panama to Arizona to Oklahoma to a bit of what's now western Louisiana. The US occupies the rest of the lower 48 plus Cuba, PR, Hati, the Dominican Republic, the Virgin Is and the British West indies (perhaps with Newfoundland and perhaps without). It also has Hawaii, alaska, all the former Japanese islands, all of Samoa, West New Guinea, the Phillipines, the Spratleys, the Parcels and perhaps Borneo.