View Full Version : If you wait you may become King of Sweden
August 1st, 2008, 03:29 PM
If you wait you may become King of Sweden!
Link to discussion thread
The saying refer to the situation in Sweden 1808-09 when during the Napoleonic wars had lost Finland to Russia and tried to conquer Norway in compensation for lands lost.
Under Russian pressure Denmark 1808 declared war on Sweden. Russia moved into Finland and Sweden tried to take Trondheims Len in central Norway. Field Marshall Duke Christian August, regent of Norway led the successful defence and repulsed the Swedish assault.
Marshall Bernadotte was to land in Sweden with a French army of 26000 a large part of which were Spanish troops. When Napoleon occupied Spain the Royal Navy transported 9000 Spanish troops from Nyborg in Funen to Spain.
1809 the last of Napoleons troops left Denmark.
The Swedish invasion army negotiated a settlement in Norway and the marched on Stockholm toppling mad King Gustav 4. Offered the the throne Frederick 6 rejects it on the grounds of the Swedish coupmakers being insurgents. Gustav’s uncle Karl 13 was elected King but being without offspring a heir was needed and Duke Christian August was then approached and at the peace negotiations in Jönköping December 10., 1809 Frederick 6 allows Christian August to accept the offer. The Swedish hope was that Christian August would be willing to incorporate Norway into Sweden as a compensation for the loss of Finland. This was rejected by Christian August.
Christian August dies 1810 of a heartattack and Frederick 6 is once again brought up as successor but Sweden wants Christian August’s brother, Frederick Christian who is blockaded in his home by Frederick 6th because of fears of having the age old strife of Sleswig-Holstein versus Denmark reinvigorated.
The Swedes then go for an approval of Frederick Christian by Napoleon but ends up with Bernadotte.
POD: But WI Frederick 6 had accepted the Swedish proposal?
1807 July, Tsar Alexander and Napoleon meet in Tilsit for peace negotiations.
The Danish army is stationed in Holstein as an address to Britain of the Danish intentions to fight Napoleon, but Denmark-Norway wants freedom of the seas and Foreign Secretary Canning is of the opinion that Denmark is too week to resist Napoleon in the present situation.
August 16., a British fleet lands 30000 troops in Sjaelland and on August 29., Wellington fights the Sjaelland Landevaern (Home Guard) at Koege. September 2. the bombardment of Copenhagen is initiated and on September 7. Copenhagen capitulates. The Danish Navy is the prize of the British.
Because of the loss of the Navy Denmark and Norway are de facto separated and a government commission is established in Norway headed by Duke Christian August.
1808 Robbed of the navy King Frederick 6 see no alternative to join Napoleon. When Tsar Alexander declares war upon Sweden Denmark follow suit. Sweden attacks Norway. 26000 French and Spanish troops under Marshall Bernadotte enter Jutland in anticipation of being landed in Scania.
1809 The Swedish army attacking Norway is repulsed and then marches on Stockholm toppling King Gustav 4. King Frederick 6 of Denmark-Norway is offered the Swedish crown but rejects the offer. Gustav’s uncle, Karl is then offered the crown and takes it as Karl 13. Duke Christian August, regent of Norway is offered the position as successor, as Karl 13 has no offspring and Frederick 6 allows this.
The events in Spain makes the British transport the 9000 Spanish troops in Denmark away.
1810 Frederick ask Christian August to ensure the safe passage of grain ships from Denmark to Norway to combat famine. Because of his love of Norway, Christian August allows this which account for much Norwegian trust in the Royal House.
Being worried about handling his difficult position Christian August has a stroke while reviewing troops and dies. King Frederick 6 is offered the position as successor to the Swedish throne and accepts. Even if some in Sweden would have preferred Christian August’s brother, Duke Frederick Christian. Frederick 6 is able to manoeuvre himself into position and being an ally of Napoleon he is seen by some as the man to re-install grandeur of former days in the unification of the three Scandinavian Kingdoms. Effectively he is seen as a man who won’t tremble at resorting to force if need be. King Frederick goes to Stockholm for formal acknowledgement by the Swedish Riksdag.
On returning to Copenhagen Frederick posts a prescript to the effect of Danish being church, school and legal language in parts of Slesvig-Holstein where the common peoples speak Danish.
1811 The gathering of La Grande Armee commences.
The Norwegian University is established in Kristiania.
Christian Frederick, son of Frederick who was the son of Frederick 5’s second marriage! is sent to Norway as regent.
1812 May: the war between Russia and the Osmannic Empire is ended by a peace treaty in Bukarest. Russia gains Bessarabia and parts of Moldova.
June: War of 1812 between Britain and the USA.
Napoleon and La Grande Armee enters Russia.
September: after the battle of Borodino the Russian army retreats and Napoleon enters Moscow on the 14. that burns on the next day.
October: Battle of Queenstown Heights. Napoleon leaves Moscow on the 19.
But with Napoleon on the run Frederick breaks away from alliance and enters into coalition with Russia, Prussia and Britain. The Scandinavian Kingdoms are to field an army of 50000 in Northern Germany. Britain is going to subsidy the Swedish contingent of 30000. Frederick insists on Prince Friedrich of Hesse as commander and Field Marshall von Fersen is commander of the Swedish contingent.
A part of the Danish army, what could be thrown together in the winter of 1812 was detached to Jutland to augment the Holstein, Slesvig and Jutish troops. With the stocks of Rendsburg depot they were amply supplied in arms but forced out by the French troops moving in. The total Danish troops number no more than 5000.
A determined French force moves into Holstein and proceeds into Slesvig and Jutland. The Danish forces take up flanking positions in Als and Funen after some skirmishing.
1813 March: at the outbreak of rebellion in Hamburg the city is occupied by Russian troops and the French troops in Jutland is hurriedly retreated. The Danish army is able to re-occupy Jutland, Slesvig and Holstein.
The Danish and Norwegian contingents, 5000 Norwegian and 15000 Danish troops muster at Copenhagen. The Swedish contingent is shipped to Malmö and the full contingent is shipped off to Pommerania. The Swedes laugh at the rag-tag appearance of the Danish army but the news from Jutland makes them think different.
April: the Scandinavian contingent arrived in Pommerania in early April 1813 and took part in the campaign.
May: the Russian army retreat from Hamburg and Davouts forces reoccupies it. The Danish army retreat into Holstein.
June-July: cease fire.
August: the Scandinavian contingent joined in the campaign in Mecklenburg and part of the Danish contingent moved on Ratzeburg in September to continue the pressure on Hamburg. The rest of the contingent goes south and take part in the Battle of Leipzig in October.
During the Battle of Leipzig the Scandinavian contingent earn a fighting reputation among the coalition forces but at severe losses. Friedrich of Hesse gives the troops a much needed rest.
Denmark-Norway is near bankruptcy and only the insistence of Frederick 6 makes Karl 13 ask Britain for further subsidies to keep the army in the field.
1814 Jews get full citizens rights in Denmark and Norway.
A new law of primary education is issued in Denmark and Norway. All of age 7 through 14 must enter compulsory education.
Historian Christian Molbech of Denmark begins issuing his “Letters from Sweden in the year 1812” where the Swedes are depicted as friendly and hospitable. This opens the eyes of many Danes to their brothers east of the Oeresound. The letters are later issued in Sweden.
March: as part of the coalition the Scandinavians led by Friedrich of Hesse enters France. A Danish brig is sent off to patrol the Danish West Indies and St. Bartholomew, Swedish possession in the West Indies.
Another Danish warship is sent off for the Danish West Indies/St. Bartholomew.
August: British troops enter Washington that is burned.
Cane sugar from the West Indies is again available in Europe.
During the congress of Vienna Frederick 6 is acknowledged as Karl 13 successor to the Swedish throne.
December: the War of 1812 is ended by the treaty of Ghent.
1815 January: Battle of New Orleans.
March: Napoleon leaves Elba. The 100 days.
Denmark-Norway and Sweden enters the last coalition and sends off an army alongside the Prussian.
June: end of the congress of Vienna. Pommerania is given to Prussia. Denmark-Norway does not get the Duchy of Lauenburg.
Frederick 6 is acknowledged as successor to the Swedish throne but the price is that the Union of Norway and Denmark is dissolved. When Frederick 6 succeeds to the Swedish throne he will become King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and hold the three Kingdoms in Personal Union.
Holstein becomes part of the German League, ruled by Frederick 6 as Duke of Holstein through the German Chancellery.
Frederick demand to be compensated for parting with Norway. He wants Slesvig separated from Holstein to be part of the Kingdom of Denmark. He argue that Slesvig has been a Danish fief since ancient times and that the Counts of Holstein upon becoming Dukes of Slesvig 1386 had recognized the sovereign of Denmark as their feudal lord. Since 1460 the Danish King had been Duke of Slesvig until this very day. And the great powers had acknowledged this in 1721. Russia had renounced her claims to Holstein in 1767 ratified 1773 by Tsar Paul. Thus the 1460 Ribe convention of tying Slesvig and Holstein together forever should be declared void and null.
And so it came to be. Norway was made an independent Kingdom in personal union with Denmark through inheritance by the Danish royal line and the Ribe convention of 1460 declared void and null with great support of Tsar Alexander.
Returning from the congress Frederick is hailed by all in Copenhagen. Later in the year he visits Kristiania, Norway. After much debate with, among others Professor Georg Sverdrup a parliament, the Storting is set up in Kristiania and a constitution given/written. This constitution is a mirror of its time with the Kingdom being hereditary and giving the King much power but with the legislative, executive and judicial powers clearly separated. Also most male above the age of 25 are accorded the right to vote at elections.
The King is hailed by the Storting and everybody else in Norway as Frederick 1.
A National Bank is planned and a Norwegian currency is to be issued.
A census of the Scandinavian countries shows these figures:
Sweden: 2,5 mill. Norway: 1,0 mill. Denmark: 1,25 mill. Holstein: 0,25 mil
Total: 5 mill.
Link to map Europe 1815 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812329&postcount=784)
Link to map World 1815 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812332&postcount=785)
1816 The economic depression in Britain increases immigration to the USA. In Europe the depression hit hard on Denmark-Norway, but the internal market with Sweden ease the pain.
The plantation owners of the West Indies are asked also to produce cotton for the internal market. This is mainly due to the explicit wishes of King Frederick, who during the war had to have his army cut their coats short in order to preserve cloth for repairs.
A plan for building a new Danish navy is brought up. Ten ships of the line and ten frigates are to be built along with 16 lesser warships.
The Norwegian navy will be built up to the same strength. An intermediate Naval Staff is set up in Bergen.
The Kings direct rule is diminishing due to the growing complexity of Government. This is seen in Sweden as a guarantee against too autocratic Government by Frederick 6.
The building of a royal castle in Kristiania is initiated.
Arc-duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar grants his country a constitution, the first in Germany.
Prussia declares compulsory military service.
1817 The Wartburg fest – German students gather to demand German unity and burns non-German books.
Britain suspends the Habeas Corpus Act in the wake of workers riots.
1818 King Karl 13 of Sweden dies; Frederick 6(1) is elected and crowned King Frederick 2 of Svear, the Goths and Wends in Stockholm. King Frederick declares that he is going to uphold the laws of Sweden and keep the Riksdag.
From Stockholm Frederick travels to Kristiania and then back to Copenhagen hailed by the crowd in the three cities.
There is some talk that the King should reside in each of the three capitols for a period of the year, but Frederick argues that the union Government has been set up in Copenhagen and he must be in close contact with his ministers. Frederick does promise to visit his three capitols regularly and set up a prince as regent in both Stockholm and Kristiania.
The name of the Kingdom is to be The Union of Scandinavian Kingdoms.
The negotiations regarding the Government of the Union are commenced in Copenhagen and the Act of Union settles that, the Storting of Norway and the Riksdag of Sweden is going to be represented at the Union Government in Copenhagen by a Minister, who’s going to be assisted by a Chancellery to take care of day to day business. Norway also represents the North Atlantic Union Lands. The Union Lands council in Reykjavik sends a representative to the Storting in Kristiania. In the Storting the Minister is elected whereas in Sweden the Estates comprising the Riksdag is to reach compromise for appointing a Minister. To soften things up each Estate is to send a representative to the Union council in Copenhagen as part of the Swedish Chancellery. This is an offspring of the Norwegian constitution.
Three golden crowns are added to the top corner of the flags of the Union Kingdoms to signify the new status.
The King is allowed to a regent in both Norway and Sweden. Prince Christian Frederick is sent to Sweden to reside at Stockholm as regent. His brother Ferdinand is sent off to Kristiania as regent.
A joint war council is set up with Field Marshal von Fersen as head to facilitate the command of units spread all over the Union. The council is in control of both army and navy forces of the Union. An attack on any Union Kingdom or territory is an attack on all. This is to counter any foreign (German) attack on Jutland and having only Danish forces to respond with.
The first practical issue of the joint war council is to expand the Danish-Norwegian Marines regiment to also supply Marines for Swedish men-of-war. The first assignment of the new regiment is to reinforce the Union presence in the West Indies, Africa – Gold Coast and India – Tranquebar.
A young Dane, Helmuth von Moltke enlists in the Union army.
In Sweden the ten ships of the line and the five frigates is going to be augmented by one frigate and a number of lesser warships. The war council is to coordinate the building programme with the building programmes of Denmark and Norway.
A new Admiralty is gathered in Copenhagen joining the Admiralty of Denmark and Sweden as well as the Naval Staff of Norway.
The Scandinavian occupation troops are pulled back from France. The lessons of the Napoleonic campaigns are to be studied closely the following years. One important lesson learned is the massing of artillery when committed to battle. Also the use of light troops is to be recognized.
With his new enlarged Union of Kingdoms King Frederick 6/1/2 asks to become part of the Great Powers conference. Frederick is politely told to mind his own business.
A Union warship arrests a plantation owner in the West Indies that tries to smuggle slaves to the islands. The slaves are confiscated and sold at a public auction. The plantation owner is sent to Denmark for imprisonment.
German liberal students unite in the Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenshaft.
Constitutions on a French/English model are given in Baden, Württenberg and Bavaria.
1819 The first steamship cross the Atlantic and the first steamship come to Denmark.
Riots in Copenhagen directed against Jews are dealt with harshly by the Government.
14 year old H.C. Andersen arrives in Copenhagen.
King Frederick visit Stockholm aboard the Union, former Swedish ship of the line “King Gustav IV Adolf”. This is to show the Kings interest in Sweden. The King is guarded by the newly formed Drabant-Guards clad in the colours of the house of Oldenburg – red and yellow horizontally striped coats and white trousers. This guard consist of only one company but is raised in all three countries among junior officers. They will only do 3 three years service in the Drabant-Guards, but that is going to pave the way for the highest positions. The Swedish Livsdrabanter are disbanded and the Guards regiment takes over their role in Sweden as well as the Norwegian Guards (Liv) Regiment and the Danish Guards regiment are kept as elite regiments in the three countries and as the Kings and Regents Guards, but the Drabant-Guards is in essence the Kings bodyguard, always travelling alongside him in contrast to the Guards regiments that remain in their respective countries.
For most of the years of his reign King Frederick would during summer visit his three capitols.
An army officer’s academy is founded in Stockholm.
A Union command is set up in Stockholm to counter possible Russian assault by way of the Aaland Islands.
All navy officers are trained at the naval academy in Copenhagen dating back to the 1620’ies.
Work is begun on a Union Flag.
The Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenshaft is reacted to by the German Princes after a number of attacks among those the murder of reactionary poet August von Kotzebue. Books and newspapers are to be censured, the Burschenshaft declared illegal and liberal university teachers thrown out of office.
Britain, August 16: The Peterloo massacre in Manchester.
Law on freedom of the Press is passed in France.
1820 Scientist H.C. Ørsted publishes his discovery of electro-magnetism.
In order to strengthen the economy and facilitate inter-union commerce the inter-union currency of “Krone” is introduced. Everybody is to exchange to the new currency. This is a move approved by the three parliaments and the three National Banks. The Scandinavian Union is mostly self sufficient in iron, copper, silver, timber and agricultural produce as well as in possession of a large largely Norwegian fishing fleet and a mostly Danish/Norwegian merchant fleet.
The internal market also means cheaper guns for the army and navy.
A stock exchange is set up in Kristiania.
The joint war council begin the design of a new Union army uniform based on the colours of the Oldenburg House – red and yellow.
Improvements in farming are spreading from Holstein to Denmark and Scania making for a greater agricultural production and lowering of prices on food stuffs, making for better health public as a result. This is sorely needed as bad harvest in Norrland of Sweden make it necessary to ship grain from Scania and Denmark there to avoid famine.
To improve internal communications a new network of roads paved with cobblestones is begun throughout the Union. The roads are to link up Kristiania and Stockholm and a southern road to Malmö to connect by ship to Copenhagen are also laid down as well as several other roads.
The events in Spain, Portugal and France spark off talks in Sweden of a new constitution and a more democratic Riksdag than the one based on the estates. In Denmark police infiltrate the liberals and J.J. Dampe who argues that the peoples should decide government and the military should aid in that is arrested and sentenced to death. King Frederick changes the capital punishment to life imprisonment.
Pure Quinine is made by French chemists Pierre Joseph Pellitier and Joseph B. Caventou to be used as medicine against malaria in the Scandinavian colonies of the Gold Coast and the West Indies.
1821 The Storting in Kristiania, Norway want to have its own flag for the Kingdom instead of the Danish Dannebrog with a Norwegian Lion in the top corner. As the Swedish Kingdom is using the blue flag with the yellow cross Norway also want to display its status as an independent Kingdom in the Union. King Frederick sees this as Norway drifting away from Denmark, but in the end gives in and sign the law. The new flag is a Dannebrog but with a blue cross in the middle (as per OTL) and seeing this, the King is not displeased. He also issues a decree that in the North Atlantic a Dannebrog with a Norwegian lion carrying an axe in the top corner is to be used; The Faeroe Islands displaying a sheep in the lower corner, in Iceland a fish and in Greenland a Polar Bear.
The work on a union flag is still in the early stages, as it is difficult to agree as to how to combine the red, white, blue and yellow. A cross and three golden crowns are to show, but that is about all that is agreeable.
Danish Lieutenant Helmuth von Moltke enters the Union Army Academy in Stockholm.
Revolutionary events in Italy and the Balkans once again put forward the demand in Sweden for a new constitution. The King is able however use the strength of nobility in the estates Riksdag to pull off a no change situation.
The experience of 1820 result in a Government decree of revision of farm lands in Sweden, joining the farmers lands into one or two parcels instead of several thus facilitating the working of the land. The revision was initially met with protest but eventually these voices were silenced as most could see the need for the revision but also as some saw not implementing the revision as the stepping stone for a Danish lead in the Union because of greater agricultural resources. Cereals would win the hearts and minds for Denmark. Potato farming is highly recommended by the Union government.
Napoleon Bonaparte dies.
The first steamship built of iron in Scotland.
1822 The situation in Latin America and the Caribbean makes the Union dispatch another Marines company aboard warships to signal Union steadfastness.
Henrik Nicolai Clausen, Professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen continue the era of liberalism in Denmark by arguing in private that autocracy must make way for individual freedom as it has already done in Sweden and Norway that is even part of the Scandinavian Union. A change of government is needed to give the three nations one common and free constitution. The words of Clausen are to spread through Danish society in the years to follow and later provide inspiration for men like Orla Lehman and D. G. Monrad in starting the liberal newspaper “The Fatherland” in 1833. Having learnt the lesson of Dr. J.J. Dampe two years previously H.N. Clausen is very careful who he approaches to spread the word.
The Great Powers congress in Verona decides to intervene in Spain. Britain leaves the congress.
The Greek declaration of Independence spurs off a number of Scandinavians as volunteers in the independence war. Some hotheads at the Army Academy fuelled by stories of teachers who came to know the ideals of freedom, liberty and equality during occupation duty in France 1815-18 want to take off, but all servicemen are barred from being granted leave to serve in insurgent forces against a legitimate government.
1823 Lieutenant von Moltke graduates the Union Army Academy and is elected for service in the Drabant-Guards.
President Monroe issues the Monroe doctrine. The Scandinavian Union declare that it is not going to interfere in American affairs but only keep order in its colonies and protect sea lanes of commerce by hunting down pirates of the Caribbean.
French troops moves into Spain to restore King Ferdinand 7. Outraged at this action Swedish newspapers calls for guarantees against misuse by the King of his powers. Parallels are drawn to King Frederick’s autocracy by Danes writing in the Swedish papers who also name King Frederick a Tsarist puppet. Field Marshall von Fersen swears loyalty towards the King and asks to be given orders to mobilize against the Revolution. Frederick calms his enraged Field Marshal but silently have the names of writers from the editors by referring to Union security and in a number of quiet trials the writers are sentenced to take up residence in the colonies for life. This action is quietly referred to St. Petersburg to calm a more than fuming Tsar.
As the price on grain is going for an all time low taxes are lowered to make farmers able to pay them.
1824 In a way to take the heat off the liberals in Sweden the Danish/Norwegian law of basic education is forced through the Swedish Riksdag making for every 7 to 14 year old to attend school. The law is seen by the nobility as a means of spreading the revolution by making the peasants (and workers) able to read and write, but the liberals hails it as a step of progress for the peoples of the Scandinavian Union.
A second burst of articles against the autocracy of Denmark are written by Danes in Norwegian and Swedish newspapers not being subject to the censorship of Denmark. The King use his well tried formula of the security of the Union this time to suppress the Norwegian and Swedish newspapers, but they keep re-appearing under new names.
The action of King Frederick does little to calm the Tsar’s irritation over the spread of liberalist and revolutionary ideas in Scandinavia.
Repeal in Britain of the Combination Act.
Death of Louis 18th; Charles X is new King of France.
The Ashanti on the Gold Coast goes to war against the British. The Scandinavian Governor at Fort Christiansborg is asked to support the British and does so. The Ashanti is defeated by a joint British-Scandinavian-Akim force, the Akim being allies of the Scandinavian Union.
It is decided to speed up the process of making a Union flag to get some rally point for all subjects of the Union apart from the King himself. A proposal is submitted to the King late in the year.
Link to Union flag proposal (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812334&postcount=786)
Of several proposed Union Flags -among those variants of the Dannebrog and the old Union flag of Erik of Pommerania - the decision is taken after advocacy of Field Marshal von Fersen, who demands a rally point for all Union armed forces, to go for not necessarily a traditional flag, so in the end the first proposal is decided upon. Traditionalist’s and church view it favourably as it keeps the tradition of the Scandinavian cross, Swedes view it favourably as it show the three crowns which also serve to please the Danes who view that as a reinstatement of the Kalmar Union symbols, liberals view it favourably due to its containing the colours of the Tricolore in the right order. The King is pleased with the colours of the Dannebrog as well as the royal arms of the three crowns. The flag is well received when flown from public buildings, army units on the march and navy ships on the last day of the year.
1825 Scandinavian immigration to USA has been growing for some years due to increased population growth. Norwegians are off first followed by Swedes and Danes. The Government is able to make part of the immigrants to go settling in the West Indies and on the Gold Coast of Africa after granting low interest loans. Parts of the new settlers are poor peoples moved forcibly out of their homeland to help build the colonies. Quinine is indispensable for the settling of the West Indies and the Gold Coast.
The Scandinavian Marines regiment is once again increased to be able to meet the demands of colonial duty. Service with the Marines has become a means for the young and restless to explore the world and for the junior officers to win laurels in combat. Captains Schleppegrell and Rye are given leave from the army to serve with the Marines.
Field Marshal von Fersen dies.
Count Frederick Adolph Holstein a leading figure in the advancement of the peasants’ situation, promoter of biblical societies and Christian mission is also an advocate of supporting the Greek War of Independence. In these circumstances the count becomes an unwilling rally point for the Unions impoverished in especially Sweden but also in the other countries. Because of his support of the Greeks he is seen as a lever for the liberals. The church on the other hand dislikes his entanglement of priests for the new mission, the nobility his advocacy of peasants education and improvement of situation and the government his support of the Greeks.
Holstein himself takes strength in God and with support of his wife, Wilhelmine Juliane (Reventlow) he continue his work to better the situation of peasants but not only in Denmark also as his reputation grow and deputies from the other Kingdoms arrive at his Manor House he accept this task as Gods testing of his devotion.
Another Holstein initiative to increase the peasants’ situation was the set up of savings and loan associations as well as cattle insurances. These didn’t provide much capital for investment but in time they would secure an uncertain future of many peasants. This initiative met with much nobility opposition when introduced in Sweden but was greeted by peasants and liberals alike.
Grain prices slowly rises.
Tsar Alexander dies heirless and the uncertainness about succession spurs off the Decembrist uprising that is put down by Alexanders heir and brother Nicholas 1. Nicholas 1 is an enemy of liberalism, will of the peoples and national state and the voice of the principle of legitimacy. Nicholas 1 view the Scandinavian Union as a conglomerate of weak willed individuals not fit for Government. He is especially enraged of the Swedish and Norwegian newspapers commenting of his putting down of the uprising and this is also linked to the Greek war of independence and calling on all sane men to reject the autocracy of King Frederick, puppet of the Tsar, in Denmark and grant a free constitution for Denmark. King Frederick once again tries to suppress the newspapers.
1826 A number of Union Naval officers are granted leave to serve in foreign Navies.
Lieutenant von Moltke finishes his service in the Drabant-Guards and enters service with the Joint War council.
Britain and Russia agree to mediate in the Greek war of independence on the basis of Greek autonomy under Turkish supremacy. As the Tsar has his attention diverted from the north King Frederick feel much relieved.
The kings relief is going to be short lived however, as he is met when arriving in Stockholm on his summer cruise by a much angered Swedish nobility that resent the Holstein initiatives. They view these as undermining their own position in society as well as in government. Frederick does his best to calm the Swedish nobility; among his efforts are the promotion of Swedish general Magnus Brahe to Field Marshal and head of the Joint War council. Frederick also defends Holstein as a Danish nobleman loyal to the crown. Grudgingly the Swedish nobility fall in.
Russia declares war on Persia over supremacy in the Caucasus which leads to another outburst in Swedish and Norwegian newspapers by liberal writers.
In West Africa the Ashanti moves 11000 warriors towards Fort Christiansborg on the Gold Coast. The British despatch troops to join the defence of the Scandinavian Marines. The Ashanti is virtually destroyed in the ensuing battle.
1827 In Sweden the Holstein movement is gathering momentum with peasants slowly accumulating capital making them less dependant on the nobility land owners. As Holstein also advocated small scale industry on a home basis to increase peasants’ family sustainability some poor peoples begin to make household utensils and “art” to sell to sustain them. Making life just a wee bit better for the poor or rather believe that tomorrow is going to dawn on them too.
Britain, Russia and France issue a note to the parties in the Greek War of Independence of secession of hostilities. As the Ottomans reject the note the Great Powers order their naval squadrons in the Med to stop all Ottoman and Egyptian shipping to Greece which leads to the Battle of Navarino. Valuable experience is gained by the participating Union Naval officers.
Count Holstein is deeply concerned about the Ottomans rejection of the Great Powers note.
The Copenhagen monopoly on trade with the West Indies is suspended.
1828 Heir to the thrones of Denmark and Norway Prince Frederick marries Princess Vilhelmine of Denmark, daughter of Frederick 6/1/2.
Former Swedish Prince Gustav of Vasa is engaged to Princess Marianne of the Netherlands, daughter of King Willem 1 and Queen Wilhelmina (of Prussia). The move is quietly encouraged by King Frederick 6/1/2 as he view it as a move to gather allies against simmering German nationalism. The Netherlands is one of the foreign powers, like the Scandinavian Union to hold lands in the German League.
Change of the British Corn Act increases Scandinavian export of grain. The crisis is over. Both Danish and Swedish grain producers; large and small begin to feel the effect. The “Holstein” savings and loan associations pop up all over the Scandinavian Union. With better income for the peasants and poor the migration to especially the US is stagnant. Forest is cleared in Sweden for more farming and small cities are founded along the new cobblestone roads now linking almost every part of the Union to the others – improving trade and exchange of ideas.
The first steam engine is built in the Scandinavian Union. Steam engines are going to give a boost to the logging industry in Sweden and Norway.
The rebuilt royal castle of Copenhagen is occupied by the royal family.
Gunsmith Löbnitz construct a breach loading rifle that enters service with the Scandinavian army. The rifle is not gastight and is phased out in 1848.
Russo-Persian war ends and the Russo-Ottoman war begin.
Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt enters a customs agreement. In reaction Saxe, Hanover, Kur-Hesse and Braunschweigh supported by Britain and Austria enters the Central German customs union. (Zollverein) Bavaria and Württenberg enter the South German customs union.
The German Confederation once again asks King Frederick for an assembly of the estates in Holstein. King Frederick grants the assembly and insists on Holstein joining the Central German customs union.
1829 Birth of Scandinavism of art by the coronation of Danish poet Adam Oehlenslaeger in Lund as king of Scandinavian poetry by Swedish poet Esaias Tegnér. The political Scandinavism has been fact for the last decade.
Prince Ferdinand, regent of Norway marries Princess Caroline, daughter of Frederick 6. They settle on the castle of Kristiania.
Frederick Laessoee enters the Union Army Academy in Stockholm.
A new Union conscription law is passed through the three parliaments: almost any young man residing in the country side is eligible for service. Teachers and students are exempt. With the much increased population the possible number of young men eligible for conscription also increases.
London conference: the Russo-Ottoman war is ended. Greece achieves independence, Serbia autonomy as well as does Moldova and Wallachia. Russia gains the Danube river delta, Black Sea east coast and part of Armenia.
An estates assembly is established in the Kingdom of Denmark having been promoted by Kingdom council member Anders Sandøe Ørsted, brother of H.C Ørsted who feels that such a move will serve to secure the position of autocracy. This decision is applauded by the newspapers of Norway and Sweden, but they also note the lack of a constitution for Denmark. Henrik Nicolai Clausen becomes a member of the estates assembly of Roskilde, Sjaelland. Count Frederick Adolph Holstein is asked by the King to also take up seat of the estates assembly of Roskilde.
1830 Prince Gustaf of Vasa and Princess Marianne are married. The marriage doesn’t pay off politically to the benefit of the Scandinavian Union. The couple settle in Austria.
Increasing prices on foodstuffs benefits farmers in the Scandinavian Union. The common basic education is another benefit as farmers are able to administer their property but also that common peoples are able to understand what is going on and want to know more of the affairs of state.
The July Revolution: King Charles X flees to Britain. Louis Philippe elected King of the French.
The revolution spreads to Belgium. The Great Powers convene in London and the independence of Belgium is recognized. A Russian-Austrian-Prussian demand of intervention is rejected by Britain and France. Rumours in Poland of use of the Army of Poland in Belgium provoke a revolution that is met by force of Russia.
The events in the Netherlands are a grim reminds to King Frederick that the Great Powers may still act arbitrarily towards minor nations. Frederick however feel as the ruler of a greater power; if a lesser, greater power.
King Frederick is asked to give Denmark a Rigsdag on basis of the estates assembly. Frederick rejects the idea but among the advocates are such persons as Anders Sandøe Ørsted and count Holstein. Both are going to promote the idea in years to come.
In Sweden some liberals and peasants ask for improved representation of their estates.
In the wake of the July Revolution students in Holstein demand the union of Holstein and Denmark dissolved and a republic created. The Ritterschaft of Holstein does not love the state of affairs but are not ready for such a move.
Britain and the Scandinavian Union conclude a peace treaty with the Ashanti.
Link to map Eur1830 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812337&postcount=787)
1831 The cholera-year. The epidemic claims deaths in the tens of thousands.
The climate of Revolution is about to spread to Scandinavia but the birth of Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete daughter to Ferdinand and Caroline (inspired by SteveW’s: The Tallyrand Plan) puts an effective stop to this. The birth is celebrated by student’s; followers of Scandinavism in all three Kingdoms.
Tsar Nicholas makes some angry musing about the Scandinavian succession but is too occupied in Poland bringing down the Polish revolution.
In the wake of the war with the Ashanti Scandinavian settlers probe inland on the Gold Coast establishing small plantations.
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is elected King of Belgium, inaugurated July 21,
September: The Polish revolution is crushed by the Russian army.
Kur-Hesse leaves the Central German customs union and joins Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt. The Central German customs union is blown. King Frederick view this as a setback, having had Holstein join the Central German customs union. This causes resentment in Holstein among the students and the Ritterschaft on the dispositions of their ruling Duke.
King Frederick continues trade cooperation with the former members of the Central German customs union: Hanover, Saxony and Braunschweig.
Saxony is given a constitution.
Austria fights revolutionary uprisings in Northern Italy.
1832 With Tsar Nicholas having his back free, he warns the Aaland Isles being a dagger poised at the hearth of Sweden. The Union Joint War council make the Stockholm command permanent and allocate forces for it. Until now the Stockholm command was only to be allocated forces in case of war. These forces consists of both Naval and Army units. The Naval units are both a coastal fleet and a deep sea fleet. This threat brings Swedes of every political observance together.
King Frederick as Duke of Holstein looking for possible German allies begins talks with representatives of the British government and the King of Prussia.
The Göta Canal linking Lake Vättern to the Baltic is completed. The inland waterway is along with the new road system a great improvement of internal communications. During the building of the Göta Canal the Motala works had been established, which are due to become one of the largest machine manufacturers in the Union supplying locomotives and steam engines for ships as well as building iron hull ships.
The use of steam engines in lumber mills in northern Sweden increases the need for labour. Poor peoples are transported for free by government to northern Sweden when they agree to work in the lumber industry.
News of the Great Parliamentary Reform of Britain reaching the Scandinavian Union is widely published and seen by the liberals and peasants as an ideal objective.
A son is born to Gustav of Vasa and Marianne. He is christened Gustav Willem.
The Hambach Fest in Bavaria. A German republic is publicly demanded. King Frederick is slightly alarmed at this outburst of German nationalism and especially as some Holstein students carry this outburst on at Kiel University.
Bavarian Prince Otto is elected King of the Hellenes. (Greece)
1833 A Union Bureau of Statistics is founded to supply government with reliable figures and provide a better basis for conscription.
A hole is punched in the censorship of Danish newspapers by a verdict in the Supreme Court. Freedom of press is obtained by responsible editors.
Alfred Nobel inventor of dynamite is born.
Parliament ends slavery in the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act.
Count Holstein advocates abolition of slavery in the Scandinavian colonies getting into conflict with the plantation owners. The government at this stage is not in opposition to Holstein as abolition would pave the way for more immigrants to the West Indies, because of the need for manual labour and the possibility that foreign planters would withdraw from the islands.
This creates tension in the Scandinavian West Indies and the Marines are alerted.
Deutscher Zollverein established with Prussia as the leading member without Austria. King Frederick approaches Austria’s Prince Metternich for an understanding, not to be left alone in Germany. Surprisingly Metternich is open to Frederick’s suggestions seeing this understanding as a counter weigh to Prussia dominating the German Confederation.
The Russian government decide that autocracy, orthodoxy and nationalism will be guidelines for ruling the country. An outburst against Scandinavia follows, King Frederick is held to not be able to rein in his peoples. Frederick is able to get support from Metternich who supports him and the Tsar calms. As the Frederick-Metternich understanding gets into the public of the Scandinavian Union the liberals of all three Kingdoms are on the back of Frederick – autocracy guaranteed by autocracy in its worst form – making Frederick give up the scheme of a possible alliance with Austria.
1834 During the early meetings of the Danish estates assembly conscription on a broader basis than just the population of the countryside is brought about. This is grabbed by King and Government to ask for passing of law in Norway and Sweden to call up more conscripts in all Kingdoms to ensure a stronger defence of central Sweden and reinforcements at the ready. The Norwegians are reluctant but the Swedes who know how close the fortress of Bomarsund is to Stockholm pass the law through the Riksdag. After this the Norwegian Storting gives in.
Part of the conscription law is a reorganization scheme for the Union army being set up in Brigades with Divisional staffs skeletons being kept on duty as Drabant-Guards and doing service at the Joint War council. At Stockholm however one Divisional staff is kept at full strength. Just in case.
In Sweden the debate of the representation of the estates once again surface. As the peasants gain better economic foundation and more political insight they demand to be better represented in the Riksdag and the liberals see this as a lever for themselves and allies with the peasants demanding changed representation.
The Slavery Abolition Act embitters the Boer population of South Africa and many participate in the Great Trek.
The Scandinavian Union government decides to free all slaves’ children. None are going to get born into slavery in the Union. As full emancipation is to take place in 12 years time some slaves are embittered. It is thus decided to reinforce the Marines in the West Indies by another company. This decision is questioned by count Holstein who’d like abolition to take effect now. The church and especially the missionary movement strongly ague that all men are equal to God – which spurs off a new round of liberal writers in Swedish and Norwegian newspapers but also Danish ones calling for an end of autocracy in Denmark by using the very arguments of the church, that is viewed as one of the pillars of autocracy!
King Frederick uses the new law on slavery to once again contact the British Government on German and Russian matters. The British are positive towards the Scandinavian Union but that is it as far as results goes.
1835 First Scandinavian meeting of natural scientists in Göteborg. A permanent Scandinavian board of natural sciences are set up during the meeting.
H.C. Andersen issue his first novel and the first fairy-tale.
Gunsmith Peder Rasmussen makes a musket with a revolving magazine. It is tested by the Scandinavian army that orders a few hundred for testing in units.
Captain von Moltke obtains leave from the army to serve with the Marines.
The army garrison of St. Croix in the West Indies are planning a mutiny but the plans are uncovered and the Marines, commanded by von Moltke act swiftly sealing off the garrison and the leaders are summarily tried and shot. Von Moltke’s action is noticed at the Joint War council as well as at court.
Education of slaves’ children is to be instituted. The law is passed in Denmark much to the credit of count Holstein. For his services to King and Union Holstein has the highest Swedish, Norwegian and Danish orders bestowed upon him.
The sight of a black face on the streets of Copenhagen, Stockholm, Kristiania and Bergen is still rare but no longer a curiosity, as the freed slave’s children are going for education in the Scandinavian Union along any other young person.
1836 John Ericsson of Sweden patents the screw as propulsion for ships.
German scientist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove points to the interrelations of weather in Europe and Equatorial and Polar air currents. Scandinavian scientific expeditions are sent off to Greenland and the Gold Coast to investigate Doves theory by the natural sciences board in Göteborg.
H.C. Andersen is invited to the court of Prince Ferdinand and Princess Caroline in Kristiania. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete absolutely loves his fairy-tales. H.C. Andersen writes a short story during his travel to Kristiania aboard the steamer Lindeness. The story tells of the advancement of engineering leaving the engineers all black! This story is also a great success at court.
Rasmussen muskets are supplied to the Marines for testing under every condition.
Death of count Holstein, thousand of peasants and poor peoples all over the Union mourn him and delegations are sent off from Sweden and Norway to offer their condolences. Count Holstein’s son is asked to take up his father’s legacy, which he does but as a more conservative politician in that he tries to unite the great land owners and the peasants.
In the Union army the punishment of running the gauntlet is abolished.
Charles Darwin returns to Britain after his five-year journey aboard the HMS Beagle.
1837 Governor Peter von Scholten tries to ease the tension of the slaves in the West Indies. Some free blacks are admitted to serve with the Marines.
Former King of Sweden, Gustav 4 Adolf dies in St. Gallen, Switzerland.
Norwegian painter Constantin Hansen returns from Rome and is contracted by the Copenhagen Art Union for a painting. During his stay in Rome Hansen was an associate of Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvalsen.
Interrogation using torture is abolished throughout the Scandinavian Union.
Victoria succeeds to the British throne. Because of Salic law the Union of Hanover and Britain are dissolved and Ernst Augustus becomes King of Hanover. The repeal by Ernst Augustus of the 1819 constitution of Hanover is protested by Scandinavian liberals.
Heir to the throne Prince Frederick divorces Princess Vilhelmine. This is followed by an outburst from Tsar Nicolas that the Aaland Isles are a dagger towards Stockholm. The Union navy are ordered on manoeuvres in the east Baltic and the Botten Bay around the Aaland Isles. The army units in and around Stockholm are put on higher readiness.
1838 Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvaldsen returns from Rome to a hero’s welcome in Copenhagen. He’s made an honorary citizen of Copenhagen and later on visiting Stockholm and Kristiania also of these cities. Swedish and Norwegian artist’s going to Rome had like their Danish counterparts been stopping at Thorvaldsen’s workshop and come to know his hospitality.
Industry is still in its infancy in Scandinavia but a Scandinavian Industrialist’s Union is founded to support new industries.
Rasmussen rifles are made standard issue of the Marines to increase their firepower, as they often lack heavy fire support besides what the Navy ships can provide when in range.
1839 King Frederick 6/1/2 of the Scandinavian Union dies. He is succeeded in Denmark and Norway by Prince Christian Frederick, taking the name Frederick so as not to upset the Swedes, as Frederick 7/2 and is elected Frederick 3 of Svear, the Goths and Wends. To smooth the election in the Riksdag a law of improved treatment of the impoverished is offered and passed. Only the most conservative nobility protest the law as they claim the impoverished is already well off due to the Holstein schemes.
The liberals expect a constitution for Denmark but are disappointed. The Tsar is satisfied with autocracy being upheld in the Scandinavian morass and tension ease off.
Prince Ferdinand, Princess Caroline and Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete move to Stockholm. New regent in Norway is Prince Frederick, son of King Frederick and heir to the Kingdoms. A change of residence is thought to improve the ways of the prince but a posting to Sweden seem too risky at this stage.
The new King is well educated and pays a visit to the natural sciences board in Göteborg where he is made an honorary member.
Willem 1 of the Netherlands acknowledges Belgian independence. Luxembourg is partitioned between the two countries.
As his son is a more conservative person the legacy of count Holstein is taken up in Sweden by member of the Riksdag and editor Lars Johan Hierta by writing editorials in his newspaper “Aftenbladet” (Evening (News)Paper) agitating the welfare of Swedish peasants and poor.
1840 A census reveals these figures of the Scandinavian Union Kingdoms:
Sweden: 3,2 mill. Norway: 1,3 mill. Denmark: 1,6 mill. Holstein: 0,35 mil
Total: 6,45 mill.
The Joint War council decide to have Copenhagen, Stockholm and Kristiania joined by Morse telegraphs. Later Bergen, Trondhiem, Haparanda, Slesvig, Kiel and Altona are linked up.
Upon return to Copenhagen von Moltke is ordered to serve at the Joint War council. He is despatched to Stockholm to streamline the staff of Stockholm Command. During his service in Stockholm von Moltke strongly argue the strategic needs for building railroads in the Scandinavian Union to facilitate the swift transfer of units.
The first Union railway is planned from Copenhagen to Roskilde.
John Ericsson is asked to deliver a boat to the Union Navy for trials of his propulsion screw.
Early breach loading smoothbore guns are manufactured at Aakers Iron casters in Sweden by freiherr Martin von Wahrendorff. Union army buys two guns for tests. Artillery commander A.F. Tscherning argues in favour of these guns to augment the firepower and rate of fire of massed artillery but the breach locks needs improvement.
Queen Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha who becomes Prince Consort.
German chemist Justus von Liebig publishes his work on the use of fertilizers in farming. Liebig had been the initiator of import of natrium nitrate for use as fertilizer in 1825. Nobody wanted to use it at that time, but soon the time will be ripe.
1841 Heir to the throne Prince Frederick marries the second time to Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelits. They take up residence in the castle of Kristiania, Norway. The Tsar is near to being positive towards the Scandinavian Union. Another joy of the Tsar’s is the news of Danish liberal politician Orla Lehman being sentenced to three months imprisonment for having induced dissatisfaction with the government.
One objective of count Holstein was local rule by the peoples. This year the Local Municipality Act is given in Denmark, setting up parish ruling and county councils whereby the landed gentry and peasants are given part in the local rule.
Another improvement in the peasant’s situation is the abolition of peasant’s obligation to supply wagons and manpower for public works like building of roads and transport of goods. This is passed by law in all three Kingdoms.
1842 Steamships begin ferrying passengers across the Oeresund. A weekly postal steamer is taking care of Copenhagen-Kristiania and Copenhagen-Stockholm communications.
The number of steamships is not only growing commercially but also in the Navy. Ericsson’s screw propulsion has been adapted and slowly the ships of the line and frigates are being converted to dual propulsion by steam and sail. This development leads to the Union Navy ordering coal to be mined wherever possible. Mines are setup in Greenland and Svalbard and the trade with Britain takes on coal as an important item in exchange for Norwegian export goods. A local way of producing coal is to burn charcoal. Less efficient but trees is at hand all over the Union. A new landmark of the Union Naval bases is the cloud of black dust hanging over them.
Danish and Scanian farmers begin import of nitrate fertilizer, which is going to give greater crop yields.
Treuille de Beaulieu invents the screw breach lock for guns.
The Local Municipality Act is passed in the Storting of Norway. The peasants of Sweden agitate, supported by Danish and Norwegian peasants for passing of the Local Municipality Act in Sweden too.
1843 The railway Copenhagen-Roskilde is planned to be extended to the west coast of Sjaelland.
De Beaulieu breach locks are fitted to Aakers guns and two are delivered to the Union artillery for trials. Another two are supplied to the Union navy.
Jenny Lind, picture (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812341&postcount=788) the Swedish nightingale (opera singer) performs in Copenhagen. H.C. Andersen immediately falls in love and follows her every performance, even back to Stockholm.
Burmeister and Baumgarten iron casters start their industry in Copenhagen. This is in time going to become Burmeister & Wain shipbuilders and ship engine manufacturers.
The commander of Copenhagen Fortress allows the opening of “Tivoli” on the ramparts of the city.
The Local Municipality Act is passed through the Riksdag in Sweden applauded by Hierta in his editorial in “Aftonbladet”.
1844 Magnus Brahe resigns as head of the Joint War council. Danish General Krogh is promoted Field Marshal and appointed new head of the council.
20 Aaker guns with de Beaulieu breach locks are delivered to the Union artillery. A similar number is delivered to the Navy.
Heir to the throne Prince Frederick hasn’t produced an heir and his wife Princes Mariane has had enough and leaves Norway for Mecklenburg-Strelits.
The Ritterschaft of Holstein voice that it will not accept female succession in Holstein. The Holstein student protest against female succession and demand Salic law adhered to. This pressure weighs heavy upon Prince Frederick and is thought to have brought about a depression made worse by his wife leaving.
Prince Ferdinand and Princess Caroline hire teachers to undertake the formal education of Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete. It is done in the anticipation of Ferdinand of his daughters now being in line for succession and having the example of Queen Victoria in mind.
The Princess takes a keen interest in mathematics which later leads to her discussing ballistics with colonel of artillery Tscherning. She also has a keen interest in the arts and languages from her growing up in Kristiania and Stockholm leading to her mixing Norwegian, Swedish and Danish into her own Scandinavian tongue, but she also catches up on English, German and French.
Railways linking Stockholm with Göteborg and Kristiania with Malmö is planned.
In Holstein a railway linking Altona with Kiel opens.
Jenny Lind does not share H. C. Andersen’s feelings towards her. To soothe himself he goes on a journey to Italy to visit Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvalsen in Rome.
1845 Scandinavian economy is getting stronger and the Krone is made exchangeable in silver.
Danish peasants and liberals unite in the Peasant Friends Society calling for better legal protection of farmers. The Society is also known as the Holstein Movement and soon branches are established in Sweden.
The Scandinavian Union navy is undergoing a refit getting steam engines with screw propulsion.
The construction of an iron railway bridge across the Götaelv in Göteborg is commenced.
The corvette “Galathea” commanded by captain Steen Bille is sent on a round the world scientific journey. During the journey it sets up a colony in the Nicobar Islands. A number of natural scientists of the Board of Göteborg are aboard the corvette. Among them are members of the Linnean faculty that are later to issue a monumental atlas of flora of the world.
Link to map World 1845 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812343&postcount=789)
1846 Aaker begins to manufacture rifled breach loading guns. The Union artillery and Navy are immediate customers. The number of guns is still low, but each ship of the line and frigate is fitted with two.
Danish liberal politician Orla Lehmann demands a free constitution for Denmark and Holstein being excluded from the Union with Denmark.
The Holstein movement develops into a political movement recommending the peasants to vote only for adherents of a free constitution in Denmark. In Sweden the Holstein Movement works for a reform of the Riksdag, abolishing the estates representation that secures power of the nobility.
1847 The Copenhagen-Roskilde railway line opens.
At the estates elections in Denmark the liberals and the Holstein movement gain the majority and King Frederick ask his legal advisor P. G. Bang to draw up a constitutional proposal.
Captains Helmuth von Moltke and Frederick Laessoee of the Joint War council tour Holstein making new maps for the council. They use their eyes well and upon completion of their mapmaking mission they submit a plan of a campaign in Holstein against German Confederation troops to the Joint War council.
The telegraph lines are completed.
Naval corvette “Ørnen” (Eagle) bombards rebellious villages on the Gold Coast. Following the bombardment the Marines enter the area and order is re-established. Two black children had been sacrificed and their blood spilled on the tribal drums to strengthen them and better call on the warriors of the tribe to do their utmost. Those responsible for sacrificing the children are tried and decapitated.
1848 King Frederick 7/2/3 gets through his illness without blood poisoning. The doctor uses a clean blade.
Ivar Asen issues his dictionary of the common Norwegian language.
Danish fisher Jens Vaever invents the net “snurrevod” to be pulled by a boat. This invention makes fishing much more profitable and soon spread to Norway.
Munktells of Sweden deliver the first Scandinavian locomotive to run on the Stockholm-Göteborg line. The line has reached Skövde in West Götaland. The Malmö-Kristiania line going north has reached Varberg in Halland and the line going south from Kristiania has reached Halden.
Munktells is also contracted by the Union Navy to supply steam engines for warships.
February: The Communist Manifesto is published in London by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The revolution breaks out in Paris and spread to Vienna and Berlin.
March: In Holstein the situation is out of control. Nationalist students hoist the German Tricolore in Kiel and demand abolition of the Union with Denmark and a republic. The commander of the Army in Holstein, Duke Frederick the Prince of Noer marches his brigade-size army towards Kiel but arriving there the Holstein officers recognize their brothers among the revolutionary students and refuse to shoot at them. Also the Ritterschaft is against arms being used against the students demanding what they dare not! The Danish officers serving with the Holstein units quietly make their way out of town during the night.
A large meeting of liberals and Holstein Movement in Copenhagen decides to address the King for a free constitution. The address argue that only Denmark of the Union Kingdoms is led by autocracy and a free constitution is needed for the peoples to continue as law abiding subjects of the Union King. Freedom of the individual is all important.
Receiving news of the events in Kiel the liberals of Denmark demands a free constitution and that Holstein leave the Scandinavian Union.
King Frederick rejects the demands and order Duke Frederick August the Prince of Noer to re-establish law and order in the Duchy.
The Holsteins reject the Kings proposal because of Salic law insisting upon a male heir. The King insists that Prince Frederick IS heir to the throne of Denmark and Holstein but the Union Government won’t accept him as heir and Sweden threatens rejection at election. Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg the leader of the Ritterschaft and hereditary Duke now argues that King Frederick must renounce his claim to Holstein which Frederick rejects flatly.
As Duke Frederick August the Prince of Noer makes no move in Holstein King Frederick wants the Union army to move into Holstein and re-establish law and order.
The Kings advisors advocate that he consult the Scandinavian parliaments before executing such a move as he by many in Norway and Sweden is regarded as acting in Holstein as ruling Duke and not King of the Scandinavian Union. By acting in the role of commander-in-chief of the Scandinavian armed forces in this situation, ordering Norwegians and Swedes into Holstein he might lose popular support in those countries.
King Frederick then asks the Norwegian and Swedish minister in Copenhagen of their assessment of the matter. The Norwegians will be reluctant to participate in the Kings war as ruling Duke of Holstein and the Swedes will be generally positive but only because of the nobility directing affairs of the Riksdag.
Frederick then offers a free constitution for Denmark to soften up the Norwegians but they are still reluctant. He then offers a free constitution for Denmark and that all men serving during the war will be given right of vote in their home country regardless of their meeting conditions.
The Storting of Norway and the Riksdag of Sweden unanimously express support of the King and Union Government.
Frederick gives Denmark a free constitution. The King retains executive power. The new 2 chamber parliament, Rigsdagen of Landsting (country thing) and Folketing (Peoples thing) is given legislative power and high court the judicial power. He declares that Holstein will be ruled by ducal decree. The right of vote to all servicemen immediately fills the enrolment offices throughout Scandinavia not only with conscripts but huge numbers of volunteers.
Von Moltke and Laessoee are ordered to adjust their plans and move off to Slesvig immediately.
April: As the Union army cross the border of Holstein Duke Frederick August, brother of Duke Christian Frederick, Prince of Noer and general of the Union army then joins the rebels and calls every able-bodied Holstein to join the army and fight for their rights.
The Holstein army seizes the depot at Rendsburg, Slesvig to gain weapons and munitions.
The new railway of Sweden is used to move troops, one division and a brigade towards Denmark. From Skövde it’s a 4 day march to Göteborg where the transport fleet awaits them. In order not to expose Stockholm all called up recruits and reserves in Svealand are kept there for training.
The division of Scania is mustered in Malmö a brigade is transported by ship and landed on Femern, off the Holstein Baltic coast. The rest of the division is moved to Slesvig.
The Norwegian troops of brigade size led by general Rye go by way of Göteborg to Aarhus and then march on the paved roads south.
The Army in Slesvig, two divisions and a cavalry brigade laid siege to Rendsburg and marches for Altona, close to Hamburg. A brigade size force is moved by ship from Fynen to land at Kiel. The swiftness of Union movement catches the Prince of Noer off-guard. He was not aware of the von Moltke/Laessoee plan being in his headquarters at Rendsburg when it was presented to the Joint War council.
The insurgents in Rendsburg are offered pardon if they surrender but they decide to sit out the siege and a gun-shot is the answer. Arriving at Rendsburg the Norwegian brigade relieves the Union troops that march towards Hamburg. The Norwegians close the ring around Rendsburg.
The Prince of Noer musters his troops in Segeberg to protect the new Holstein government that has taken seat there after the Union troops landing in Kiel.
The Holstein government calls upon the German Confederation to aid it against Union aggression. The German Confederation recognizes the Holstein government and asks its member states to support Holstein against Scandinavian Union aggression.
King Ernst Augustus of Hanover puts his army, one division at the disposition of the Confederation and other contingents begin to pour in.
Prussian King Frederick William 4 sends off a corps to drive the Union troops off German soil.
The Union government declare a naval blockade of all German ports that is immediately enforced. As the German states don’t possess any major warships the blockade is totally effective and German overseas trade drops to zero almost over night.
Hamburg is occupied by Union troops.
Freiherr Martin von Wahrendorff asks to leave Sweden for Germany. He is granted free leave and his industries are bought by the Union government.
May: The Confederation troops of division size assembled in Hanover commanded by general Halkett move into Lauenburg to close on the border with Holstein. The Union troops have occupied Hamburg and the north bank of the Elbe and are awaiting the Confederation force between Bergedorf and Sachsenwald. The Espignol (single or multi barrel musket loaded with a high number of shots that is fired in succession but has to go to the armoury for reloading) Company is with the Union army. The value is good in prepared positions but the weapon has to fire all its rounds in one go and the lack of field reloading is noted. The corps of engineers is tasked after the war with improving the weapon.
On the Elbe the Union frigate Rota was firing at the Confederation flank but being subjected to artillery fire the ship caught fire and had to be towed off to safety at Glückstadt. This incident led to Union warships being given armour plating.
The Prussian corps moves through Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelits into Lübeck. It then moves north into Holstein towards Kiel. After pushing Union troops out of Kiel the Prussians swing southeast to bag the Union army at Hamburg-Altona. Unknowingly the Prussian corps walks into the von Moltke/Laessoee trap.
Union troops on Femern cross the sound to the mainland and marches south east to cut Prussian lines of communications at Plön. The Union force, a reinforced division at Hamburg holds off the Confederation troops.
At Neumünster in central Holstein the Prussians makes contact with Union forces, a division commanded by general Bülow who fights a holding action. As the Prussians assault Bülow the Union main force, two divisions and a cavalry brigade forming a corps arrive from Rendsburg. This force is a nasty surprise for the Prussians especially the corps artillery commanded by colonel Tscherning with a complement of breach loaders, part of them rifled, which keeps up a continuous barrage of the Prussians. Outgunned and outnumbered the Prussians retreat towards Kiel only to find their line of communications severed and then march south towards Segeberg and the Holstein army.
Von Moltke and Laessoee moves the Union corps southeast. Union cavalry operating in squadrons is able to locate the Prussian corps and von Moltke deploys the Union corps to await the Prussian arrival.
On the old battlefield of 1227 at Bornhöved the Prussians run into the Union corps blocking their march. Outgunned and outnumbered the Prussians through sheer discipline manages to keep cohesion and when night falls they are able, due to bad reconnaissance by Union cavalry to skirt the Union lines and arrive the next morning at Segeberg. Laessoee leads the march towards Segeberg pursuing the Prussians.
A day later the Union assault on Segeberg unfolds. After a prolonged artillery barrage the Union troops close in and rout the Holsteins. The Prussian situation is untenable and von Wrangel retreat his corps into Lauenburg and Lübeck.
In the west the Union troops has stopped general Halkett’s Confederation troops east of the Elbe and is pushing them back into Lauenburg.
In early July Holstein is cleared of foreign troops and the Rendsburg Depot surrenders. A cease fire is agreed upon mostly due to the Scandinavian Union naval blockade ruining German overseas trade, even though Russia keeps Prussia supplied with everything needed. Only the utter rejection of revolution keeps Tsar Nicholas from openly supporting Prussia.
Stamps are issued but soldiers in service are exempt from using them on letters home. This brings about an enlargement of the Postal Services of all three Kingdoms as tens of thousands of letters are to be delivered each week.
Link to Map of the operations in Holstein May 1848 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812346&postcount=790)
1849 Engineer Ludvig August Colding, road and water supply inspector of Copenhagen travels to London to study sewers, water and gas supply in the city. His studies are not to be implemented in the Scandinavian Union until after the Cholera-epidemic of 1853.
The railway bridge across the Götaelv is completed as is the section of railway from Göteborg to Skövde, effectively linking Stockholm and Kristiania to Malmö in Scania.
The German constitution is finished in Frankfurt am Main. The Imperial crown is offered Frederick William of Prussia who refuses it and new revolutions break out in the Palatinate, Saxony and Bavaria. Austrian and Prussian troops are despatched to fight the revolutions. Prussia calls for negotiations on a German Union in Erfurt next year.
Russian armies enter Hungary to aid in putting down the Lajos Kossut rebellion.
Prussia exerts pressure on the Confederation in Frankfurt am Main to end hostilities with the Scandinavian Union. The Union government asks the British government to establish contact with its counterpart to end the war.
President Louis Napoleon of France also applies pressure to the German Confederation assembly if only to humiliate the Germans.
At a conference in London the German Confederation accedes to end hostilities. Prussia does not participate. The Scandinavian Union returns Hamburg to the German Confederation and lifts the blockade. Holstein is to remain in Personal Union with Denmark but is to be given a free constitution. The question of succession is to be dealt with when the issue is unavoidable – King Frederick acknowledges that Salic law is to be observed.
King Frederick asks to keep the Scandinavian Union envoy at the Frankfurt assembly. This is not rejected.
Church bells are ringing all over the Scandinavian Union to signal the end of war and thanksgiving services is held to commemorate the fallen heroes.
Von Moltke is promoted lieutenant colonel and appointed chief-of-staff of the Joint War council. Laessoee is also promoted and appointed chief-of-staff of Stockholm Command. Both are to lecture at the Union Army Academy on their planning and execution of the Holstein campaign.
Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete turns 18 and is celebrated by Stockholm students singing her grace. Present is among many other guests general of artillery Tscherning who must tell her all about the use, effect and ballistics of the new artillery in the war.
1850 H.C. Andersen travels through Sweden and issues a book “Sverrig” in which he praises Sweden and its peoples. His description of Lake Siljan sets off many a Danish painter to find inspiration.
H.C. Andersen also visits the regent Prince Ferdinand Princess Caroline and Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete in Stockholm where he is received as an old friend.
Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg is tried along with his brother, the Prince of Noer for treason against their duke and sentenced to have their estates in Slesvig and any hereditary claims to that duchy or the duchy of Holstein forfeited. The Prince of Noer is dishonourly discharged from army service without right to wear his general’s uniform. They are then forced to take up residence in Holstein.
All men of the Scandinavian Union that served their King during the war is granted right of vote. This prompts the Holstein Movement to raise the issue of mobility of the peasants. Most of the peasants still worked on farms owned by the nobility, renting the farm for life. The Holstein Movement wanted freedom for the peasants, freedom to buy their farm and freedom to settle where they wanted. With the number of new voters primarily from rural areas the Holstein Movement mandate is increased.
A new system of colonial administration is instituted. To reduce corruption and mismanagement each colonial governor or administrator is commandeered of to his posting for a specific number of years. At the termination of his administration a new administrator takes over and a mission from the Union colonial ministry checks the accounts. Any mismanagement is duly reported and taken action at.
The new system has the advantage of nobody knowing who is going to be new administrator and so to some extend blocs scheming according to whose in office. The drawback is mismanagement by uninterested administrators, though that is countered by the accounts checking and possible discharge.
March: meeting in Erfurt of the German States to discuss the Union. The Prussian Union proposal is accepted, but the Austrian re-appearance, after having fought fighting the Hungarian rebellion has Hanover and Saxony break off from Prussia and enter in the Union of Four Kings with Bavaria and Württemberg.
Austria then has the Confederation in Frankfurt am Main reopened and sends in troops into Hesse to aid the Elector fight his Parliament. This almost brings about war with Prussia. And Tsar Nicholas support Austria.
April: Tsar Nicholas wants to settle the unsettled question of Danish succession. The future heir to the thrones of Scandinavia is now recognized by all, but no one says so, to be a woman, Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete, whose father Prince Ferdinand is brother of the King and whose mother Caroline is daughter of the former King Frederick 6/1/2.
Tsar Nicholas sends a note to the Union Government rejecting the prospect of female inheritance and demanding a settlement of a male heir.
The choice of Nicholas is Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel, married to Alexandre Nikolaevna daughter of Nicholas who died giving birth to their son 1844 who also died shortly after. Duke Frederick William’s mother Louise Charlotte is the sister of King Frederick and Prince Ferdinand.
The Government and the liberals of Scandinavia are enraged. A despot on the throne – never!
The German Confederation headed by Prussia joins in with the Tsar and demand the 1849 treaty unsettled issues dealt with.
King Frederick declines the Russian and Prussian demands referring to the London agreement and being sure of German disunity and Russian inability to act due to the unstable situation in Germany. At the end of the year things cools down.
Just trying to find a peaceful solution to the succession King Frederick suggests his niece marry Duke Frederick William. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete says NO.
Prussia decides on a naval building programme. This is seen as a necessity to combat a blockade in future conflicts with the Scandinavian Union.
Link to map World 1850 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1812347&postcount=791)
State of the Union 1850:
Since the tying together of the three Scandinavian Kingdoms in 1815, well technically since Christian Augusts naming as successor to the Swedish throne in 1809, but the construction was sanctioned by the Great Powers 1815, then 45 years have elapsed.
The Kingdoms are unified by the Monarch in Personal Union.
1818 to 1839 King Frederick 6/1/3 of Denmark/Norway/Sweden of Iceland, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, Duke of Slesvig and Holstein.
Since 1839 the Kingdoms has been ruled by his successor King Frederick 7/2/3.
Heir to the throne is King Frederick 7/2/3 son, Prince Frederick. But as Prince Frederick hasn’t produced any issue in his two marriages; thus the succession question is open. The will of the peoples of Scadinavia is that Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete, whose father Prince Ferdinand is brother to the King, should be successor.
The war of 1848-49 with the German Confederation served to prove tri-national will to cooperate in the direst of circumstances. Peace has been achieved but the last part – the succession question is to be dealt with by Salic law in Holstein when it will be imperative.
Government is still done by the King in his capital of Copenhagen. The Union share government, army and navy.
The King is supreme commander-in-chief. The acting chief of Union Joint War council is Danish Field Marshal Krogh. In the other two Kingdoms a regent is residing to act on day-to-day business of that Kingdom.
Each Kingdom has its own institutions: Parliament, National Bank, Universities etc.
The currency in all three Kingdoms is the Krone. This has made for a stronger economy and the Krone is by now exchangeable in silver.
The Kingdom of Denmark is mostly an agrarian society, Norway has an export economy based on timber and iron but also fishing make up an important part as does the merchant marine. Sweden is a major producer of armaments, especially modern guns and iron build warships but also timber, copper and agricultural products. Together the three Kingdoms are able to procure most needed goods and are self-supplying in agricultural produce. An important import is fertilizer for the agricultural production.
In Sweden more land has been made to use for agriculture since 1820.
This is made possible because of the Holstein Movement originating in Denmark.
The Holstein Movement was an offspring of the ideas of Count Holstein who wanted to help improve the situation of the peasants. He did so by introducing savings and loan associations and cattle insurance. The ideas spread to Sweden and have served to improve prospects for Swedish peasants.
Early use of steam engines for timber logging and propulsion of ships and trains have also served to improve economy. Steam engines are manufactured locally.
The Scandinavian Union is a leader in the development of modern guns, its artillery and warships being issued breach loaders and is state of the art.
Politically Norway and Denmark have free constitutions and an elected parliament.
Sweden has an estates based parliament in which the nobility holds the majority. This nobility hold on power is being contested by liberals and the Holstein Movement.
The liberals benefit from the free press of Norway and Sweden until 1848 when Denmark also attained its free constitution and freedom of press is expected soon in Denmark. This have led to the liberals being more vocal which in turn have served to irritate the Tsar, who fortunately have been so preoccupied with wars and uprisings that he haven’t had the time to take military action against the Union.
The Holstein Movement benefited markedly by the giving right of vote to all servicemen of the war of 1848-49, as most conscripts were still drawn from the peasants.
The introduction of basic education in the three Kingdoms have served to make the populations aware of their rights as well as able to know what is going on in society and take part in the local rule as outlined in the Local Municipality Act of 1841/2/3. An idea fostered by Count Holstein.
Culturally the peoples of the Union are interested in getting to know each other.
The military service is party to this as it brings together young men from the three Kingdoms to serve together for several years. Understanding each other is essential in this business as the war of 1848-49 has showed. As such the languages serve to help cooperation as they do not differ greatly. And a sort of inter-Scandinavian service language of army and navy is developing.
Writers travel the Kingdoms and issue their perceptions to eager audiences. Painters meet at beautiful places or travel to Rome to find inspiration.
But inspiration from far away is not uncommon as the colonies provide the exotic and unexpected – black peoples in state service or on training in the Kingdoms, spices, fruits, plants and strange animals from the West Indies, Africa and India. But this is mainly a big city issue.
Another way to get inspired is to travel the colonies as a state servant or settle as many are induced by the government to do. The early days of rounding up the poor and send them off as settlers are over. The settlers are given low interest loans to establish themselves and foreign land owners are taxed harder than Scandinavians.
Generally a feeling of being Scandinavians, not Danish nor Norwegian nor Swedish is beginning to spread.
Scientifically the Union benefit from the Natural Sciences Board having been set up in Göteborg and from the extensive colonial empire reaching from the Arctic to the tropics making field work in almost any climate is possible within the Union.
The Galathea expedition has produced a wealth of information which is only being digested as has the results of the air current investigative expeditions of 1836.
Another result of the Galathea expedition was political; the setting up of a colony in Nicobar Islands and a treaty with the King of Hawaii. Captain Bille drew up the last on behalf of his Scandinavian majesty, with his majesty of Hawaii.
Slavery has been abolished in the Scandinavian Union and its colonies. To meet the demand of labour and the growth of populations Scandinavians as mentioned has been encouraged to settle in the colonies. This has been a success as the migration to the USA has dwindled markedly since the commencement in 1825.
August 23rd, 2008, 09:47 AM
1851 Law on Freedom of Press is issued in Denmark.
The primary railways of the Scandinavian Union have now been completed linking Stockholm and Kristiania to Copenhagen by steamship across the Oeresund. Anybody able to pay the price can travel by train from Hälsingborg to Stockholm or Kristiania in two days!
Quite a number of young men have travelled the route for free during their national service.
The Joint War council evaluate the experiences gained in the War of 1848. The artillery is strengthened with more breach loading guns.
The naval forces are to receive more steam-powered vessels to increase flexibility. Also a number of ships are to be armour clad to better resist hits from shore-based batteries. John Ericsson of Sweden takes this task upon him – to find the best solution of armament versus armour and speed. All placed in a new iron hull.
The Espignol is redesigned to be reloaded in the field. It is now a heavier weapon but with an exchangeable barrel. Each gun now goes into action with several barrels. Von Moltke has the gun re-designated an infantry weapon instead of being part of the artillery. Being mounted on a light wheeled carriage it is given some tactical manoeuvrability, but is principally seen as a defensive weapon.
The Rasmussen musket is abandoned for use with the army, as it is viewed to be time consuming to reload under combat conditions and too complicated for the average infantryman. Some improvement is undertaken: it is rifled and retained by the Marines who usually is engaged in small scale swift action and need the firepower to hold off superior numbers of opponents. The longer service time for the average Marine compared to the conscripted army makes for better field maintenance of the weapon.
Death of King Ernest Augustus of Hanover, the new King is George 5.
Louis Napoleon dissolves the National Assembly and is by referendum elected President for 10 years.
1852 King Frederick approaches King George 5 of Hanover for talks on commerce and defence in light of Prussia’s naval build-up. King George is aware of the vulnerability of Hanover’s overseas trade in case of war with the Scandinavian Union as 1848-49 did show. No alliance is made, but the two Kings are aware of their shared interests.
King Frederick also sends diplomats to Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 2 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin who is the ruler of a poor land and very well aware of the strength of the Scandinavian Union. Being a neighbour of Prussia he had no choice but let Prussian troops use his land as a staging area during the war of 1848-49 and was also hard hit by the Scandinavian blockade.
Both German princes refer to the German Confederation regarding matters of alliance in effect turning Frederick’s proposals down.
The Holstein Movement triumph in securing the peasants generally right of mobility and forces the nobility to sell part of their farms to peasants. The savings and loan associations has for 30 years made the peasants economically stronger and now make them able to buy their farms when put up for sale.
A colonial popular council is elected in the West Indies.
Prince Danilo of Montenegro rises against the Turkish yoke.
December 2: Louis Napoleon is proclaimed emperor of France.
1853 A cholera epidemic ravages Scandinavia except the city of Odense in Fynen that had a so well designed water filtration system that bacterium was barred from entering the city water supply. Actually no one had a clue at the time.
When the epidemic hits Stockholm Prince Ferdinand and Princess Caroline chooses to stay in the city. Their action endears them forever to the public. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete is in Lund at the University.
P.G. Bang initiate the passing of a new act on taxes making landed gentry and peasants both pay taxes according to their estates size. This raise objections among especially the Swedish nobility but they are forced to realize that times is changing.
John Ericsson present his first armoured ship fully built of iron and armed with two Aakers breach loaders in a central turret. The ship suffers from a weak engine and the navy is somewhat against it, as Ericsson has departed from sail!
Tsar Nicholas’ War:
With failure of a diplomatic scheme of uniting the Great Powers in dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire Tsar Nicholas move troops into Moldova and Wallachia. The Western Great Powers protest this move and a British Naval Force are moved to Constantinople.
On October 4, the Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia and on the 17 its forces attacks the Russians in Moldova.
1854 Engineer L.A. Colding begins work in several Union cities building sewers and water mains to counter another outbreak of cholera.
The first railway ferry “Freya” enters service between Helsingoer in Denmark and Hälsingborg in Sweden. It is now possible to travel by train from Copenhagen to Stockholm or Kristiania without a change of carriage.
John Ericsson have the Scandinavian Navy conduct tests of his new armoured steam ship “Surt”, named from a Norse mythology giant armed with a flaming sword.
The tests are actually quite satisfactory, but the navy still can’t depart from sails. Ericsson gets a contract to build another ship and to have “Surt (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902915&postcount=822)” rigged traditionally in addition to the steam engine.
Tsar Nicholas’ War:
A British-French Naval force enters the Black Sea to protect Ottoman merchantmen.
Russia recalls its ambassadors to Britain and France on February 6, which makes them address an ultimatum of retreat from the occupied territories, which the Tsar doesn’t answer.
At the end of March Britain and France declare war and a British Naval force is sent into the Baltic. This force is welcomed by King Frederick 7/2/3 and the Union Government open the ports of Copenhagen and Karlskrona to British ships for replenishment and repairs.
Austria and Prussia stay neutral but calls for the German Confederation troops to be formed. The Scandinavian King puts the Holstein brigade on a higher level of readiness to comply with Confederation demands but state that the troops will only be released for Confederation use in case of an attack upon the Confederation. The troops are to remain in barracks in Holstein.
King Frederick and the Union Government with liberal support see the development of the war as the opportunity to settle the succession issue and declare war on Russia.
August: General Alexander Reuterskiöld orders the Baltic Coastal Fleet of the Stockholm command in support of the British-French assault on Bomarsund fortress in the Aaland Isles and a Union force is landed there. The Union force clear the Aaland Isles of Russian forces and occupies the Aaland Isles for the remainder of the war.
Other Union naval forces, six ships of the line and ten frigates and the “Surt” commanded by Admiral Steen Bille augment the British force. The Russian Baltic Fleet sorties to test the Allied fleet. The Russians concentrate their effort on the Scandinavian squadron.
The determined aggressiveness of Admiral Steen Bille is quickly making the Russians retreat towards St. Petersburg. The armour plating of the Scandinavian ships pays off well minimizing damage due to hits.
October: In the second joint operation British and Union forces lands on Hiiumaa and Saaremaa islands off the Bay of Riga. The armoured Union naval units perform very well by giving support to the landing. The Baltic Fleet doesn’t interfere.
Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel marries Princess Anna of Prussia whose father Prince Charles is brother of the King of Prussia.
Tsar Nicholas’ War:
Sardinia joins in the fray and ships off 10000 troops for the Crimea.
The British and Union draws up plans to land in Estonia in April, but the death of Tsar Nicholas on March 2, postpones the landing to July.
The Scandinavian Union however decides on an important sideshow, initiated by Foreign Minister C.A. Bluhme; a landing in Finland to slice that Grand Duchy from Russia.
The time is used by John Ericsson to improve “Surt” and launch the sister ship “Lue” (Glow).
In late July a Union corps, commanded by von Moltke use the Aaland Isles as a stepping stone and is landed at Turku in Finland.
A Union division augmented by a regiment of Marines support a British-French corps landing in Estonia to march on St. Petersburg.
As the Allied fleet enters the Gulf of Finland the Baltic fleet sorties and gives battle. During the engagement the armour plating of the Union ships again pays off as they are able to sustain the most hits of all engaged parties. But they are also able to engage the enemy at long range using their Aaker rifled breach loading guns.
The Ericsson ships “Surt” and “Lue” handles very well and is able to sustain an amazing number of hits and also going through the Russian line at will. Losing 2 ships of the line and 3 frigates to the allied loss of 1 frigate the Russians withdraw to Cronstadt where they remain for the duration of the war.
The “Surt” and “Lue” patrols the Gulf of Finland for the duration of the war unopposed and takes part in operations along the coast.
After an unopposed landing von Moltke moves his forces westward towards Helsinki and north towards Vasa. The Finnish rifle battalions rebels and joins von Moltke’s troops.
Moving swiftly Scandinavian troops is in Helsinki in three days and makes Vasa in a week. The fortress of Svensksund outside Helsinki is invested and the Swedish engineer officers are despatched to the navy and artillery to direct fire against the fortress to maximize damage. Within the week
Scandinavian troops reaches Vaalimaa where Russian troops are encountered.
The fortresses of Hangö and Kotka/Svensksund are also invested. All fortresses are bombarded from the sea by the Scandinavian navy. Every ship is mobilized. The ships-of-the-line is manned by minimum crew just to manoeuvre them and fire the Aaker guns and part of the battery.
A smaller brigade size force crosses the Torneaa border and marches south.
The landing in the Estonia has the Russians scramble all available forces for Estonia to stop the Allied advance.
August: A third Scandinavian division is landed at Porvoo.
After some initial success the advance is stopped by Russian counterattacks outside Tallinn.
The war in the north then boils down to a trench war in which artillery and espignol plays a major role. Scandinavian Marines’ Rasmussen rifles breaks down Russian counter-attacks due to the high rate of accurate fire delivered.
In Finland almost all of the Grand Duchy is liberated when Russian troops advance.
The Russians are met at Vaalimaa and Lappeenranta by von Molkte’s troops.
Making use of the terrain the Scandinavians are able to check the Russian advance.
Von Molkte then has the division at Vaalimaa withdraw along the coast towards Kotka. As the Russians advance the fresh division falls on its rear at Vaalimaa cutting communications and blocking reinforcement. The main force of the division then heads west to attack the rear of the Russians.
Trapped and shelled by warships the Russians surrenders. The POWs are moved to Bomarsund and interred in the fortress.
The invested fortresses suffer badly from bombardment maximized by use of information of the Swedish engineers. At the end of the month they all give in, after having columns of Russian POWs marched past their walls.
September: With the surrender of Sebastopol and loss of Finland Tsar Alexander II accepts Austrian mediation and a peace conference are convened in Paris.
Tsar Nicholas’ War:
At the peace conference in Paris Russia faces Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, the German Confederation, the Ottoman Empire, Sardinia and the Scandinavian Union.
Russia cedes the mouth of the Danube to Moldova and all nations are allowed to navigate the river.
The Black Sea is neutralized and is not to be patrolled by Russian warships.
Tsar Alexander agrees not to interfere in the succession of the Scandinavian Union by ceding his claims in Holstein to King Frederick.
The Scandinavian Union Foreign Minister C.A. Bluhme manages to have Britain and France agree to demand Finland being granted independence with the borders of the Nystad treaty of 1721.
The Aaland Isles are demilitarized and the fortifications demolished.
King Frederick and C.A. Bluhme propose Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel as King of Finland.
Giving Frederick William a Kingdom is much to the liking of Tsar Nicholas and King Frederick William 4 of Prussia also support his candidacy because of his being married to Princess Anna, Frederick William’s brother’s daughter. But also because Frederick William see it in the moment as the advancement of the Germanic peoples! The Prussian support drags on the German Confederation and not wanting to be left out and to retain its position as premier state of the German Confederation Austria also supports the proposal.
C.A. Bluhme has just one thing up his sleeve – Duke Frederick William must renounce his claim to the Danish throne.
Realizing King Fredericks support by Britain and France and the goodwill of Tsar Nicholas as well as all the German states towards the enterprise Duke Frederick William accepts and renounces his claim.
He is then instated as King of Finland.
An international commission is to look into the possibility of a merger of the principalities of Moldova and Wallachia.
Serbian autonomy is guaranteed.
Signatories of the treaty are Russia, the Scandinavian Union, Britain, France, Ottoman Empire, Sardinia, Prussia, the German Confederation and Austria.
To follow the example of 1848 all veterans of the war are granted the right of vote.
The Marines leaving Hangö are sent on leave in Stockholm before being transported back to colonial duty. Especially the black soldiers make an impression in the city at the time and nine months later.
The fortress of Copenhagen is abolished.
The experiences of the war are debated in the Admiralties of the Scandinavian Union, Britain, France and Russia.
The general view is that it was the confined space of naval operations that made the spectacular performance of the Scandinavian armoured turret ships possible. Hence such would mostly benefit a coastal navy with limited range of action and shallow waters to make up for numbers.
In blue water long range engagement the sustainability of the new ships are questioned.
The Scandinavian admirals are convinced of the value of the armoured turret ship and orders more from John Ericsson’s workshop.
Motala Works, Burmeister & Baumgarden and any other local steel working industry is contracted.
The immediate need is to convert all the frigates of the navy from armour protected to armoured ones, giving those armoured decks and more armour plating. To raise additional funds some of the protected frigates are sold off to friendly states, i.e. like the Netherlands and Greece.
The Royal Navy Admiralty decides to do experiments with turret ships and orders one from John Ericsson for trails.
The French Navy do not depart from sail but start a programme to rebuild their main ships as armour protected ones.
The Russian navy see the importance of armoured ships and begin building a few for each navy but funds are in short demand at this time.
British – French war with China.
French engineer and diplomat Ferdinand Lesseps get concession of Mehmed Said of Egypt to build the Suez-canal. Work start on April 29. 1859.
1857 The negotiation of the peace treaty of Tsar Nicholas’ War is finalized.
Russia agrees to the Paris peace conference stipulations and accepts the fait accompli of Finland having been wrested from its grasp. Ratifying the Peace Treaty Tsar Alexander 2 and Emperors Napoleon III and Franz Josef elevates the Grand Duchy of Finland to the Kingdom of Finland.
Tsar Alexander 2 confirms the instatement of Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel as King Frederick William of Finland.
Tsar Alexander also transfers his claim to Holstein to King Frederick of the Scandinavian Union. (In fact as King of Denmark)
The Aaland Isles are ceded to be part of Finland and POWs are exchanged at Vaalimaa in Finland.
Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel is instated in Helsinki as King Frederick William of Finland after having renounced his claim to the throne of Denmark.
The last Scandinavian Union soldier leaves Finland.
A small navy presence is kept at Svensksund/Kotka, Helsinki/Sveaborg and Hangö to finish setting up or taking down of facilities for the infant Finn navy.
Two armour protected frigates are handed over to the Finn navy.
Allied troops leave Estonia and evacuate Hiiumaa and Saaremaa islands.
The Scandinavian Union negotiate an end to the Sound Toll for the price of 67 million kroner. C.A. Bluhme led the negotiations and ensures that Russia receives favourable treatment in return of her not objecting to Scandinavian Union military assistance to Finland.
Finland is counted as part of Russia and as such goes free of charge. Former allies are also given lenient treatment.
The USA having been instrumental in bringing about the negotiations is not given such treatment.
Having waited for his father to vacate the throne and having lived a life of indulgence and changing partners resulting in being deemed unfit by most for the throne, Frederick son of Frederick 7/2/3 dies at age 49 leaving no offspring. This make Prince Ferdinand first heir to the thrones.
Princes Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete is sent to Norway as regent.
The Swedish peasants and city dwellers, two of the estates of the Riksdag have been agitating a reform of the Riksdag for years through the liberals and the Holstein Movement which have been blocked by the nobility.
With the emancipation of the servicemen of Tsar Nicholas’ War the political strength of the peasants and city dwellers is increased.
To take off the pressure of Swedish political environment King Frederick asks Regent Prince Ferdinand, who enjoys much goodwill of the Swedes due to his remaining in Stockholm during the Cholera-epidemic of 1853 to stage an election of the estates.
Following the election the figures of the vote are circulated and the Swedish nobility finally gives in. A group consisting of all four estates is tasked with reforming the Riksdag.
All citizens, men and women of the Union are to come of age at age 25. A prerequisite of right of vote is possession of real-estate, which rules out most city dwellers and workers or national service during war.
As nurses who served field hospitals receive right of vote the nurse training is booming.
Reviewing the war the Scandinavian Union Joint War council decide to rifle all infantry muskets to increase their range. This is done in appreciation of the good impression the Marines Rasmussen rifles has made and as an interim until a suitable breach loading infantry rifle is available.
The espignol performed well in its new role but is still found too cumbersome to handle and still difficult to re-load.
A military mission is sent by the Scandinavian Union to Finland to assist in the build up of a Finn army and navy.
The Indian Mutiny breaks out.
The Scandinavian Union offers to aid the putting down with their Marines in India. The offer is turned down by the British who have sufficient troops available. A Marines company is transferred from the West Indies to India during the mutiny.
King Friedrich William 4 of Prussia goes mad; his brother William is made regent.
William put pressure on Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Hanover to allow for Prussia’s use of their territory to march troops against the Danish King. William wants to settle the issue of succession in Holstein. With the death of Prince Frederick the issue is now to be resolved.
King Frederick dismisses William’s demands because of Prince Ferdinand now being heir to the throne and thus Salic law will be abided to.
Her Majesty’s government find this in accordance with the London agreement of 1849 and so does the other signatory powers.
Hot air balloons are show off in the Scandinavian Union.
The navy develop a few to be used for observation. One is used at one of the outer islands off the coast of Stockholm to watch the Gulf of Finland for the possible advance of the Russian Baltic Fleet; another is used on the Danish island of Moen to watch Stralsund in Pommerania.
Map of Europe 1857 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901269&postcount=798)
1858 John Ericsson deliver two armoured turret ships for the Scandinavian Navy and more are to follow.
The Scandinavian Union joins in on the race for colonies.
The Gold Coast colony is named Ghana and is steadily enlarged by inland movement of settlers. Apart from this the colonies comprise the West Indies – St. John, St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. Batholemy and Tranquebar and other trading colonies in India as well as the Nicobar Islands.
A combined scientific and land-claiming expedition leaves Copenhagen aboard the armoured turret ship “Scania”. It is to travel to all parts of the Scandinavian colonial expanse and proceed from the Nicobar Islands to the old trading post in Celebes in the Dutch East India. It is instructed to proceed into the Pacific to claim colonies for Denmark.
In Ghana a local militia is recruited from among the black population. Civil servants are also recruited locally and sent for training in the Scandinavian Union. The small tickle of Scandinavian settlers moves the settled area inland.
Soon conflict erupts with the Akim and later the Ashanti in central Ghana and later to the east between the Volta and Todzie Rivers with the Akvambo and Augna tribes over the use of land by Scandinavians for agriculture and denial of the tribal peoples of using the areas.
To secure the Scandinavians in the Ghana another regiment of Marines is raised.
Part of the regiment is raised in the West Indies mostly among the poor black and white population.
Officers who find it difficult to settle down after the wars of 1848-49 and 1854-55 are numerous and make it easy to fill in the command positions of the new regiment.
The Marines are reorganized into the Marine Brigade consisting of two regiments each having eight companies. Brigade HQ is in Copenhagen.
The Reform of the Swedish Riksdag: a two chamber parliament is setup and election is to be by numbers.
To counter the strength of the peasants and liberals in the first chamber due to the seats being allocated to municipalities and cities the nobility get automatic representation in the second chamber due to the direct election by numbers.
The harbour at Roenne, Bornholm is enlarged and supplies of coal and ammunition is stockpiled to function as an advanced naval base in the Baltic.
An observation balloon is used on the highest Point of Bornholm, Rytterknaegten to watch the Baltic.
A naval building programme of armoured turret ships is initiated. John Ericsson works around the clock.
In Schwerin Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 2 is offered a 10 year cooperation agreement with the Scandinavian Union which he eagerly signs. The agreement includes trade and weapons procurement.
A similar agreement is offered King George 5 of Hanover who also signs.
Regent William of Prussia is furious at this. Austria is concerned but it is to the detriment of Prussia which is fine especially as long as Friedrich Franz 2 and Georg 5 vote in the Confederation to the satisfaction of Austria.
An Italian, Felice Orsini attempts to kill Emperor Napoleon and Empress Eugenie. This makes Napoleon decide to challenge the Austrians in Italy in cooperation with Sardinia.
The French-British war with China ends.
Russia is a cosignatory to the treaty and presses China to cede the territory north of the Amur River, Amur Province in Siberia.
1859 Encouraged by the success of Grundtvig’s popular lecturing on history and in enthusiasm of the day Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen set up his play “Fru Inger til Oesterraad” a drama centred on Scandinavian historic events of the past and present at his theatre in Kristiania. He has a minor success on this due to the Scandinavian victory in Finland. Ibsen is also a spokesman of the Norwegian peasants and as such seen as a Holstein Movement supporter in Norway.
As the Holstein Movement attracts followers all over the Scandinavian Union nobility estate owners form a loose union to serve their interests. This nobility union has its strength in Denmark and Sweden due to nobility being almost non-existing in Norway.
Some of the major Norwegian industrial managers and shipping men feel a bond by being employers with the nobility and connect to the union.
The “Scania” arrive at Papua in the Pacific. The islands and “mainland” are a treasure of diverse peoples, languages, flora and fauna where Scandinavian scientists and linguists are going to spend decades on exploring, registration and developing theories.
Prospectors are also going to invade the area to mine its metals and log timbers. Plantations will be founded to produce palm oil and coffee. The area of OTL Papua and Bismarck Archipelago is claimed for the Scandinavian Union as a colony and a small settlement made on Papua – Scania Havn.
“Scania” undertakes the long return journey across the Pacific and south of the Americas.
The Rasmussen Rifle is modified to use Smith & Wesson developed rim fire cartridges. This speed up the reloading process and firepower delivered from the well trained Marines.
The Smith & Wesson rim fire cartridge is also considered to use for modernizing the espignol. A system of a rotating magazine like the Rasmussen rifle is proposed but the difficulties of mechanically moving the cartridges into and out of the magazine remains unsolved at the moment.
The French/Sardinian – Austrian war in northern Italy.
November 10: Peace treaty of Zürich. The Habsburg dukes of Northern Italy are to be reinstated. Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia are furious.
Construction of the Suez-canal begins.
Charles Darwin publishes “on the origin of species”.
General Albrecht von Roon becomes minister of War in Prussia and initiates a reorganization of the Prussian army. General von Bonin is elevated to chief-of-staff of the Prussian army.
Von Moltke and Laessoee are ordered to make plans to counter a Prussian invasion of Holstein and Jutland.
Admiral Steen Bille conducts extensive naval exercises in the southern Baltic waters with the four turret ships and the armoured frigates.
1860 Census of the three Kingdoms give these population figures:
Sweden: 4,6 mill. Norway: 1,8 mill. Denmark: 2,1 mill. Holstein: 0,4 mill.
Total: 8,9 mill.
The figures have Danish and Norwegian politicians argue that Sweden should pay half the taxes of the Union something the Swedes strongly opposes.
The newfound unity of nobility landowners in Denmark and Sweden begin to crack.
The Holstein Movement on the other hand see no problem in changing the tax level of the Kingdoms.
The liberals are somewhat against change if only to be a counter weighs to the Holsteiners.
As Sweden is becoming economically stronger it is argued that that Kingdom should be prepared to lift a larger burden.
The discussion is going on in all three parliaments and in each it is argued that taxing is the business of King and each parliament. Change is only possible if parliaments concur or if constitutional changes should be brought about.
Then let’s change the constitution the Holsteiners demand and have one parliament elected by all subjects of the Union. But for such radical move there is no majority at the moment.
The scientific data of the “Scania” expedition is received in Göteborg with the greatest interest. The analyses of the data are to keep the Linnaean department of the Scandinavian Board of Natural Sciences occupied for years.
The political outcome brings joy to King Frederick.
The ability of the “Scania” to operate overseas for very long time lifts eyebrows in many Admiralties.
Field Marshal Krogh dies. Von Moltke is made head of the Joint War council and promoted to Field Marshal. Colonel Laessoee is appointed chief-of-staff and made general.
The development of the espignol carries on as the design of George W Morse of 1856 for a manually operated machine gun is studied. The design lacks from being gastight and often the gun jams.
The commerce treaties with Hanover and Mecklenburg-Schwerin are increasing Scandinavian Union income due to export of industrial products and for a large part of the commerce of the two German nations being transported by Norwegian ships.
Britain demands a stop to Scandinavian activities in some areas of Ghana. C.A. Bluhme is sent to London to negotiate a treaty with Britain of the partioning of Ghana.
A treaty limiting the Scandinavian activities reaching inland in the east and only trade on the coast in the west is agreed upon.
The communications with the colonies is secured through the growing Norwegian merchant marine. Settlers, letters, administrators and troops along industrial produce is shipped from the Scandinavian Union to its colonies and cane sugar, coffee, cotton, palm oil, spices and students to be trained in Scandinavia from the colonies.
The north Italian duchies vote for joining Sardinia, Cavour cedes Nice and the Savoy to France to placate Napoleon.
By use of encouragement, Garibaldi and force Cavour is able to join the Italian kingdoms and duchies with Sardinia.
1861 King Frederick 7/2/3 dies.
The dead king is mourned throughout the Scandinavian Union as the man that made it a democracy and led it to victory in two wars, the builder of empire and protector of sciences; but also as the father who lost his son.
The thrones of Denmark and Norway are inherited by Prince Ferdinand and he is elected King of Svear, the Goths and Wends.
King Ferdinand and Queen Caroline move to Copenhagen.
Princes Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete stays in Norway as regent.
General Alexander Reuterskiöld is made regent of Sweden and because of this elevation General Laessoee is made head of Stockholm Command.
Ambassador to St. Petersburg W.H.B. Scheel-Plessen is recalled to take up the post as Foreign Minister.
The Scandinavian colony Ghana is enlarged inland due to entrepreneurs making agreements with the Ashanti, Akim, Akvambo and Augna tribes. In reality the tribes are subdued to Scandinavian rule with the aid of the Marines. This action takes place within the agreement of 1860.
William 1 of Prussia: it’s a national duty to solve the Danish-German question. But he doesn’t bring forward any demands at this stage.
After defeat of the Kingdom of both Sicilies, Cavour is able to proclaim the Italian Kingdom under Victor Emmanuel.
The American Civil War breaks out. The Scandinavian Union declares neutrality but USA ships are allowed to enter Scandinavian West Indies ports.
The naval presence in the West Indies is strengthened by dispatch of two armoured frigates and transfer of a Marines regiment from Africa to the West Indies. These, upon arrival in American waters attract attention from USA naval officers.
The naval presence in the West Indies is mainly to protect Scandinavian shipping from the hazards of war. These actions are regarded as belligerent acts by the CSA but self-assured by the recent victory of 1856 the Scandinavian Union state its intention to protect its neutral shipping in American waters.
In Mexico the civil war ends but the creditors Britain, France and Italy decide to intervene to secure assets. December 17 troops are landed at Vera Cruz.
Map of the World 1861 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901273&postcount=799)
1862 The growth of Scandinavian Union colony Ghana makes for a division in an eastern part – Togo and a western part that retains the name of Ghana.
John Ericsson delivers one ship intended for service with the coastal fleet of Stockholm Command or the Danish narrows. It is an armoured ship with a very low profile. Only the turret, funnel and the wheel house rises above deck that is almost at the water line. The ship is called “Narhval” (Narwhal).
At this time the 30 ships of the line are being cut down and rebuild as 20 armoured frigates.
Four is kept as almost unarmed transports for the Marines and the oldest six are scuttled or sold off.
The frigates have all been converted during the past ten years to armoured ones except four that was sold off and two given to Finland.
The Scandinavian navy now consists of:
Armoured turret ships: 4 Surt, Lue, Scania, Holstein. 4x6” breach loaders.
Narwhal (OTL Monitor): 1 Narhval. 2x6” breach loaders.
Armoured frigates: 12 (20 rifled, 2x6” breach loaders) steam powered
Ships-of-the-line: 20 (refit to get 26 rifled, 2x6” breach loaders) steam powered
Brigs, Schooners: 10 (10 rifled, 1x6” breach loaders) for colonial duty
Transports: 4 (10 rifled, 2x6” breach loaders) steam powered - Marines
Coastal fleet: 100 various small craft, some steam powered
Marines: 1 Brigade of 2 Regiments, each 8 companies.
2 Armoured frigates, 4 Brigs/Schooners, 1 Marines Regiment less 2 companies
2 Brigs/Schooners, 1 Marines Regiment HQ, 3 companies
3 Brigs/Schooners, 1 Marines company
1 Marines company
1 Brig/Schooner, 1 Marines company
Prince Christian Frederick of Slesvig-Holstein-Soenderborg-Glücksburg who is living in Copenhagen and married to Louise of Hesse-Kassel is a favourite of the Tsar and has the backing of the Scandinavian Union. As such his daughters are a decent match for a royal marriage. And they are promoted by their mother as the beautiful sisters.
Alexandra, the eldest is engaged this year to Prince Albert Edward of Britain.
Louis Pasteur discovers a method for pasteurizing through heating. The method is primarily used for milk and beer and is going to be widely used in Scandinavian diary-farming and brewing.
A military revolt breaks out in Greece.
On the advice of Minister for War von Roon, King William 1 of Prussia recalls the Prussian ambassador to France, Bismarck to Berlin to take up position as chancellor on September 23. Bismarck immediately takes up the conflict with the Parliament on the military budget.
Having noted the armoured frigates of the Scandinavian Union, USA naval officers have some US ships armoured by adding steel plating to the hulls. This is to make USA ships able to enter battle with the CSA armoured steamships.
October 23: King Otto 1 is deposed and forced to leave Greece. The crown is offered prince Alfred of Britain. The British government decline the offer.
Britain and Italy withdraw their troops from Mexico following a satisfactory settlement.
Napoleon 3 let his troops remain having plans of making Mexico a French vassal.
January: King Ferdinand dies at age 71 and his daughter Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete ascends the throne as Queen Margrete 2 of Denmark, Norway and Sweden to take up the thread of Queen Margrete 1, founder of the Kalmar Union.
Students praise her in singing and all over the Union her ascending the thrones is regarded as a good omen for the future.
The Queens full title are Her Majesty Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete Queen of Denmark, of Norway, of Svear, the Goths and Wends, of Iceland, Faeroe Islands and Greenland, Duchess of Slesvig, sovereign of Tranquebar, Tanjore, Calicut, Serampore, Ghana, Nicobar Islands, St. John, St. Thomas, St. Croix, Cameroon, St. Bartholomew, Togo and Papua.
As her first action as ruling Queen, Margrete absolves the Union of Denmark and Holstein due to Salic Law and the London Agreement of 1849. The action is carried out by the new Prime Minister W.H.B. Scheel-Plessen in accordance with the signatories of the 1849 agreement but actually taking Bismarck and King William of Prussia by surprise. The reaction in the German Confederation is led by Austria that is satisfied that the Queen is going to adhere to the London agreement of 1849 regarding the status of Holstein.
The estates assembly of Holstein is asked to elect an interim government that will take care of the abolition of the Union.
Members of the Ritterschaft holding estates in both Holstein and Denmark are told to choose in which country to become citizens. Estates in Denmark belonging to members of the Ritterschaft choosing to become Holstein citizens will be confiscated by the Crown and small reparation paid.
This is absolutely unexpected and the Ritterschaft ask for time to consider their situation.
As the revolution in Poland erupts no Russian help can be expected for the Ritterschaft.
W.H.B. Scheel-Plessen works to convince Russia that the actions taken are in accordance with the London agreements and the peace treaty of 1857.
The Ritterschaft as well as other land owners are given a month to decide their future nationality.
The Polish revolution is put down by Russian troops to the protest of Austria, Britain and France. The Scandinavian Union press is strongly pro-Polish but no official protest is coming forward.
Scheel-Plessen does not want Russia to cross the dissolving of the Union and especially the succession to the Duchy of Holstein.
Bismarck is supporting Russia in its actions so as not having the revolution spread to Prussian areas.
The throne of Greece is offered to William (Vilhelm), 17 year old son of Prince Christian Frederick of Slesvig-Holstein-Soenderborg-Glücksburg who has the support of the Tsar. At a plebiscite he is unanimously elected.
March 1: The date of decision.
The German chancellery is dissolved, its secretaries offered jobs in the Union administration or leave from service. All Danish civil administration servants in Holstein are moved north to Slesvig.
The officers of the Holstein contingent of the Army are recalled to serve in the Union and the units disbanded.
Part of the German chancellery archives are transported to Kiel and handed over to Holstein.
The German Confederation in Frankfurt is notified of the end of Holstein’s personal Union with Denmark. The notification is celebrated in Frankfurt.
Holstein asks to become a member of the German Confederation.
Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg tries a comeback as hereditary ruler of Holstein but is rejected by the Holstein government.
Queen Margrete, strangely in concert with Tsar Alexander 2 promote as ruler of Holstein Prince Christian Frederick of Slesvig-Holstein-Soenderborg-Glücksburg who is heir by Salic law in Holstein, and a favourite of the Tsar’s and Christian Frederick is elected Duke. Prince Christian Frederick was the only male pretender of Holstein who remained faithful to Queen Margrete.
The new title of ruling Duke is a bonus when his daughter Alexandra marries Prince Albert Edward in Windsor.
Bismarck however is against Holsteins becoming an independent state. He claims that Holstein is defenceless as its army has been disbanded and is ruled by a Scandinavia Union puppet. Prussian troops enter the Duchy putting it under Prussian rule. Bismarck counts on everybody being preoccupied with the situation in Poland to get away with his coup.
The Greek delegation to enthrone Prince Christian Frederick in Kiel is denied access to Holstein.
Queen Margrete’s next major issue is the position of regent of Norway which is solved by naming General Olaf Rye as regent.
Von Moltke asks the Queen to have foreign and war ministries to work in conjunction in matters regarding the security of the Union. Not that he wants to become a politician but for the government to have all necessary information available when about to make important decisions.
The Queen is open to the suggestion and takes it to government asking the foreign office to establish day-to-day exchanges of information in security matters with the Joint War council.
Queen Margrete has Scheel-Plessen confirm the cooperation agreements with Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Hanover.
The cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck are beginning to look to the prospect of having their commerce transported by ships flying the Scandinavian Union flag protected by Scandinavian Union warships.
April: The Greek succession crisis develops.
The Greek parliament complains the denial of access to the German Confederation. Austria supports the Greek case.
Bismarck still refuses the Greek delegation entry as they haven’t asked permission in Berlin to enter Holstein.
Arriving in Berlin Bismarck is delaying the Greek delegations appearance to King William of Prussia.
Britain and France side with Austria in the question.
Russia is silent due to its agreement with Bismarck. But Tsar Alexander is dissatisfied.
May: Austria with the backing of Britain, France, Italy and the Scandinavian Union asks the German Confederation to back its action against Prussia.
Hanover and Mecklenburg-Schwerin joins Austria as does the Kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria and Württemberg. With the major states of the German Confederation and Britain, France, Italy and the Scandinavian Union Austria gives Prussia an ultimatum to admit the Greek delegation to Holstein or face the consequences.
Faced with overwhelming pressure King William decide to step down and gives in to Austria’s demands in the Confederation.
Prince William of Slesvig-Holstein-Soenderborg-Glücksburg is enthroned as King Georg 1 of the Hellenes. Britain cedes the Ionian Isles to Greece in honour of the new monarch.
A contingent of German Confederation troops are sent to guard the borders of Holstein in replacement of the Prussian troops.
June: The independent Duchy of Holstein is admitted to the German Confederation.
King William of Prussia is still resenting Holstein being admitted as an independent state but being the romantic he cannot veto the admission of Germans.
French troops occupy Mexico City and Mexico is proclaimed an Empire.
Archduke Maximillian of Austria is proclaimed Emperor on the wish of Napoleon 3.
July: Bismarck convinces King William 1 not to attend the Princely convention at Frankfurt. The convention does convene at Frankfurt without Prussia and the end document calls for Prussia to support the restructuring of the German Confederation.
Prussia is left alone but Bismarck and King William is convinced of Russian support.
Autumn: After a long struggle in Prussian parliament where Bismarck resorts to his usual ruling by decree, the parliament asks King William to remove Bismarck in the interest of the state. As this is not done strikes and unrest breaks out initially in Schlesia but soon spread to the rest of Prussian territory.
As Bismarck has the army put down the unrest it only increases and in the end of October Prussia is not in revolution but close. The call is for removal of Bismarck.
Bismarck asks for support by the Tsar, which Alexander turns down.
The German Confederation openly, in an ironic way asks King William if he is in need of help to put down the insurrections.
Seeing the writing on the wall King William sack Bismarck and sends him off to St. Petersburg as ambassador.
Henrik Ibsen set up his new drama “The pretenders” a commentary to the succession of the Scandinavian Union ending in a strong, proud, self-assured, blond Scandinavian Princess acquiring the thrones of Scandinavia after defeating the pretenders several of which is Germans.
Tivoli in Copenhagen rigs a balloon for amusement rides.
1864 Queen Margrete 2 marries Prince Gustav Willem of Vasa. He is one of a few male royals of suitable standing willing to become Prince Consort – and it also pleases the Swedes.
H.C. Andersen writes a new song praising the couple.
After the wedding the Queen and her Consort tour their lands on a summer cruise. The royal couple is immensely popular throughout their lands.
After the first year the Queen and her family is going to stick to the traditional summer cruise each year.
The Scandinavian Union Foreign Office and the Joint War council formalize the meetings taking place to exchange information. The meetings are after a cautions start deemed to give both services valuable information and the director of the Foreign Office is able to deliver much more detailed information to the Foreign Minister.
Queen Margrete asks the Universities to admit women students, she herself being a graduate of the University of Lund. The Universities are only too eager to please her majesty.
The railway Copenhagen – Elsinore opens.
Former Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg being a broken man asks Queen Margrete permission to take up residence in Slesvig – the permission is granted.
Some members of the Ritterschaft among those Carl Moltke who had argued in favour of staying in union with Denmark decide to live in Denmark still being loyal subjects of the monarch. In years to come quite a number of the former Ritterschaft migrate into the colonies to set up plantations or do prospecting for mining minerals.
The Scandinavian Navy finds the “Narhval” a most promising design for shallow waters defences and orders 4 more from John Ericsson to join the Stockholm and Danish coastal fleets. Also more turret ships are ordered.
Building of the Bergen – Kristiania railway is begun.
Prince Gustav Willem is eagerly promoting closer Scandinavian – Dutch cooperation. A trade agreement is signed. Realizing they will be next on the German nationality list the Dutch proposes talks of a military alliance with the Scandinavian Union.
John Ericsson is allowed to export armoured turret ships for the Netherlands. Aakers is also allowed to export guns to the Netherlands.
Norwegian whaler and businessman S. Foyn develop a harpoon gun with an explosive grenade intended for whaling.
The Danish settlement Bimbia in Cameroon was set up in 1802 and with the influx of more settlers is now elevated to colonial status. Settlers are encouraged to go there.
A company of Marines are despatched to Bimbia.
Bismarck works in Russia for an alliance of Russia and Prussia against Austria and her support in the German Confederation. But the Tsar is still occupied with bringing down the Polish revolution, is pissed off on Bismarck because of Holstein and has set his eyes on the Far East. As time goes by Bismarck realizes that he is unable to change that view.
Napoleon 3 promises to retreat the French garrison from Rome within 2 years. The Italian capital is moved from Turin to Florence.
The First International is instituted in London, inspired by the ideas of Karl Marx.
An international congress in Geneva on the initiative of Swiss banker Henri Dunant agree to a convention on humanising the conduct of warfare, especially the treatment of wounded and prisoners of war. The Red Cross organization is real.
Maximillian arrive in his new Empire. His position is entirely dependent on the presence of French troops.
1865 Prince Gustav Willem has from his mother inherited an interest in art and is a popular guest at dances and banquets. He associates with artists and attracts beautiful women. Even if rumour has it that he is unfaithful to the Queen during her pregnancy he is actually true to her throughout his life.
In fact he is a fresh breath from the outside world to the somewhat peasant-ish Scandinavian society and any soldier making remarks of the Prince Consort being an aesthete womanizer not fit for field service will be harshly rebuked by soldiers of his regiment “The Prince’s Guards” who’d be used to his marching them into numbness and then have them perform Austrian “stoss” tactics, the Prince Consort having graduated the Austrian Military Academy and being an acting colonel of the Austrian army.
Queen Margrete 2 gives birth to a son, Ferdinand Gustav Frederick Håkon.
The royal couple goes on an official visit to Finland’s king Frederick William. Among their entourage are Field Marshal von Moltke, generals Reuterskiöld and Tscherning and Admiral Bille.
The visit is to strengthen the relations between the Scandinavian Union and Finland and deliver the first class of Finn officers graduated from Scandinavia’s army and navy officers’ schools. These are now going to set up similar institutions in Finland.
In her official speech Queen Margrete praise the age old good relations between Scandinavia and Russia and thank Tsar Alexander for making her able to visit her royal cousin as King of Finland by elevating it to a Kingdom and for supporting King Frederick William in his duties as King.
The Scandinavian royal couple is also interested in Finnish art and performance and visit exhibitions and are regular guests at the Helsinki theatre.
In Ghana, Togo and Cameroon members of the former Ritterschaft is a formidable driving force in the acquisition of new land for plantations. Their initiative is highly appreciated by the Union government but a side-effect is economic conflict with Britain on the Gold Coast.
The Scandinavian navy is reorganized into a Baltic Squadron based in Karlskrona with a forward base at Roenne, Bornholm. The Eastern Coastal Fleet based in Stockholm; The Southern Coastal Fleet based in Copenhagen; The North Sea Squadron based in Bergen and the Overseas Fleet based in Copenhagen.
The two squadrons control the turret ships and the armoured frigates; the Overseas Fleet the Marines transport ships and a number of Brigs and Schooners for maintaining the presence overseas.
The coastal fleets have the five Narwhals and a large number of smaller ships and boats.
The Admiralty and the naval officer’s academy are still situated in Copenhagen.
The main supplier of sailors for the Union navy is Norway due to its large fishing and merchant marine. Most of the rest are Danes.
Von Moltke continues the Army reorganization at the operational level. A corps command is set up in Stockholm and Slesvig as well as two division commands and a cavalry brigade command subordinate to each corps.
The Army officer’s academy is still in Stockholm.
General Laessoee is head of Stockholm command which control the corps and eastern coastal fleet.
The Joint War council has its offices in Copenhagen. Sweden is due to its population base the major supplier of conscripts for the army with Denmark a strong second.
To pay for the reorganization of the armed forces the Queen through the government negotiates a small tax increase in every country.
The Holstein Movement, Danish and Norwegian politicians bring about the debate of one parliament to ease negotiations and weeding out bureaucracy. This time the resistance to the proposal has slightly decreased even if the Swedish nobility still are staunchly against.
The armoured turret ship “Surt” visit Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The ship takes part in Dutch naval manoeuvres.
The first velocipede is shown in Copenhagen.
The Scandinavian currency is made exchangeable in gold.
Austria and Prussia hackle over the reform of the German Confederation proposed by Austria and still vetoed by Prussia. The minister of Austria in Copenhagen asks Queen Margrete of the Scandinavian position in regards to the Austrian-Prussian dispute. Queen Margrete and W.H.B. Scheel-Plessen keep their distance of both parties.
April: End of the American Civil War.
December 18: The thirteenth amendment to the US Constitution. Slavery and other forms of involuntary serfdom are forbidden.
1866 The regent of Norway General Olaf Rye dies. O.G. Ueland is made regent of Norway. This step is questioned by many in the Scandinavian Union but strongly applauded by the Holstein Movement as Ueland is a peasant who’d been working his way to the Storting. The nobility of Sweden and Denmark snort at having to socialize with a peasant, but the Queen is very fond of Ueland and find his democratic views to be an asset in the long run.
This action by the Queen gains her massive popular support internally and is hailed by Henrik Ibsen.
Abroad it is hardly noticed as Ueland’s position is strictly an internal one.
Stor-Skandinavisk Bevægelse (Greater Scandinavian Movement) or SSB is a growing political phenomena. It originated among conservative and national-liberals who viewed the victories of 1849 and especially 1857 as a tell tale sign of growing Scandinavian strength and wanted to use this to win more territory for the Scandinavian Union. The dissolving of the Danish-Holstein Union in 1863 was viewed by the SSB as a treacherous move as they find the Scandinavian Army strong and able to crush any German opposition!
The movement is viewed by the large majority of Scandinavian subjects and politicians as nationalist fools with no real sense of the political realities.
Field Marshal von Moltke decides to terminate the efforts of making the espignol into a machine gun and buys Gatling guns for the Scandinavian army and Marines.
As women students are barred from entering the Students Association Queen Margrete show up in Lund at the University and ask women students to attend a meeting in which she proposes a Women Students Society.
Applauded the Queen is asked to become the president of the society which she accepts.
After the meeting Queen Margrete is the guest of the dean and during dinner reveals she has accepted the president-ship of the Women Students Society and she is pleased that young women are ready to take up the gauntlet.
The Queen also muses that it could be bad for discipline to have two Students associations at one university; on the other hand it will serve to increase competition which is desirable.
The dean, deeply embarrassed of getting royal attention on this basis is sure that his group of female students will do very well in their studies.
Armour piercing projectiles are used in several navies among these the Scandinavian Union navy.
The Austrian – Prussian conflict over the German Confederation reform continue. The Austrian minister in Copenhagen again asks for the Scandinavian position regarding the Austrian-Prussian dispute. Scandinavian Foreign Minister Count Manderström politely rejects the Austrian probe.
The Scandinavian Union has in accordance with the London treaty of 1849 dissolved the personal union of Holstein and Denmark and as such has no interest in German internal affairs.
But reacting to the European political climate the Scandinavian Union navy continue to build armoured turret ships, Narwhals and armoured frigates, the last being mainly cut down and armoured ships-of-the-line – all propelled by steam engines and the former build wholly of steel.
Queen Margrete has Count Manderström renegotiate the 1860 Ghana treaty and suggest Her Majesty’s Government a trade of colonies.
The Scandinavian Union is interested in enlarging the operations in Ghana on the Gold Coast and the resulting economic conflict with British interests prompts a proposal of exchanging the Scandinavian Union colonies and trade stations on the Indian sub-continent for the British held area on the Gold Coast between Scandinavian Union trade stations Fredericksborg and Accra, making the coast between Carolusborg and Prinsensten controlled by the Scandinavian Union.
As the British don’t want an exchange of colonies count Manderström puts forward a second proposal that Britain acknowledge Scandinavian interests in Togo and Cameroon.
In return the Scandinavian Union will step down its engagement in its western part of the Gold Coast area.
A settlement is reached in which the Scandinavian Union cedes its trade stations of Carolusborg and Fredrickborg to the United Kingdom and has its interests in Togo and Cameroon acknowledged by Her Majesty’s Government.
Plantation owners in Ghana are encouraged to begin or step up operations in Cameroon. Settlers and plantation owners, i.e. Scandinavian subjects are offered reparations in Cameroon when going there from Carolusborg-Fredricksborg area.
Britain annexes Burma.
The US demand French troops recalled from Mexico which Napoleon 3 agrees to.
Napoleon 3 plans to annex Belgium to gain back his lost prestige. He proposes a plan of partition to King William of Prussia, who is quite interested.
1867 Queen Margrete attends the ceremony demitting the students of this year at Lund University and is very pleased to hand over a gold medal to the no. 1 student – Ms. Sofie Ulrikke Friis who majors in medicine and offers her a job at the new Municipality Hospital of Copenhagen.
During summer Queen Margrete and Prince Consort Gustav Willem visit King Willem 3 of the Netherlands. They arrive in Amsterdam aboard the Royal Yacht “Tre Kroner” escorted by the armoured turret ship “King Frederick” commanded by Admiral van Dockum.
Alfred Nobel produces dynamite.
In Ghana and Togo the Scandinavians headed by former Ritterschaft members are steadily enlarging their territory in conflict with the Africans.
The colony of Cameroon benefits from the treaty with Britain and is growing rapidly. This new piece of territory is descended upon by former Ritterschaft members ruthlessly exploiting its resources and peoples. The colonial administration is just able to avoid the worst excesses.
The prospectors in Papua discover copper and gold which leads to a small-scale gold rush. Very small scale as the journey itself is prohibitive. But slowly the Scandinavian number of settlers is rising.
Great Britain organizes the Straits Settlements crown colony of Pulo Penang, Singapore and Malacca Peninsular.
The discovery of diamonds in Oranje Free State, prompt British annexation of the diamonds field on the Oranje River.
Parliamentary reform in Britain increases the number having right of vote with 50 %.
The French troops leave Mexico in March and in May Emperor Maximillian is captured by the republicans and executed on June 19.
Following the retreat from Mexico Napoleon III conclude an agreement with King Willem 3 of buying the Grand duchy of Luxembourg.
The agreement raises a public storm of protest in Germany. The German Confederation will not accept German territory being sold off to France and Austria lead the German protest.
King William of Prussia argue that France be given part of Belgium as satisfaction which sets off Britain as guarantee of Belgium. As Germans should be subjects of a German Nation so should French be subjects of France.
Napoleon III is in top gear insulting almost any- and everybody in Europe.
Lord Derby calls for an international conference in London to settle the issue.
At the conference Britain is the only major power interested to continue the guarantee of Belgium – Austria, Prussia and France are only interested in getting their disputes settled. Russia isn’t interested in Belgium. The issue is settled by setting the 1831 treaty aside and let King Leopold 2 of Belgium know that he is to find his rightful place in the European concert. The conference then concentrates on the Luxembourg issue. The Queen is not amused!
Willem 3 of the Netherlands withdraws his offer. Queen Margrete tells Willem that a military alliance will only be possible if concluded between two responsible parties! She is not going to join in alliance with somebody ready to sell out his territory.
Both Franz Josef and William stick to Luxembourg being party to the German Confederation and could not be sold off without consent of said Confederation.
The result is just another nail in the political coffin of Napoleon 3.
Garibaldi has tried several times to gain power in Rome. A new coup provokes action from Napoleon 3 who land troops armed with Chassepot rifles that defeat Garibaldi’s rabble at Mentana and reoccupies Rome.
The US buys Alaska of Russian for 7,2 mill. $.
Russian troops enter Samarkand.
1868 Queen Margrete 2 gives birth to a daughter Caroline Marianne Margrete Frederikke.
Scandinavian Union army and navy officers are sent off to Siam to help building a modern military.
Listerine antiseptics are implemented in Union hospitals.
February: Knowing that something is going to happen in Germany soon and with German rhetoric being aimed at the Netherlands, King Willem 3 asks Queen Margrete for a formal alliance.
The government argue the pros and cons of alliance; it is obvious that Prussia is the adversary and it might bring the German Confederation into the fray. It is hoped that the north German states will stay neutral and it is decided to send off missions to Hanover and Mecklenburg-Schwerin to get their view of the situation.
Britain is thought to be friendly if neutral and Russia neutral.
Austria will possibly be friendly due to its conflict in the German Confederation with Prussia.
Italy is far away but France is the joker.
Emperor Napoleon 3 is unpredictable due to his search for something that will enhance his reputation.
The utterings of William of Prussia regarding French belonging to France is viewed as a sign of Napoleon 3’s possible action.
The conclusion is to rely on Austria keeping the rein on the German Confederation and no intervention from other great powers against Prussia.
A land war with Prussia would most probably lose the Union Slesvig and Jutland but a naval war would be a sure Union win.
The hope would be Hanover and Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Holstein not participating because of Austrian pressure and Prussia not intimidating fellow German states.
The Union government dispatch representatives to the Netherlands, Austria, Mecklenburg-Schwerin via Holstein and Hanover.
The representative to the Netherlands is Admiral van Dockum whose Dutch ancestry is an absolute benefit to his mission. A defensive alliance is formed with the Dutch. The representative is then by cable ordered to Bruxelles to open talks with the Belgian government.
In Vienna Scandinavian Foreign Minister Scheel-Plessen deliver a statement of the Scandinavian position in the expected conflict; that it will honour its treaty with the Netherlands initiating a blockade of Prussian ports but will respect the passage of goods on neutral ships except contraband of war destined for its opponents and that it expects any responsible German state to advocate neutrality and to ensure that war isn’t brought to member states of the German Confederation.
Austria regrets the Scandinavian rejection of proposals in previous years but assures that it has no interest in furthering war upon the members of the German Confederation by any party. Luxembourg however is to be part of the German Confederation as a free nation.
In Hanover, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Holstein the governments are very open to hear Scandinavian arguments and indicate that they have no interest in participating in war.
The city of Slesvig is developing into the capital of the former Ritterschaft. The riches from overseas adventures are expressed in large town houses of the families. The railway station is rebuilt to reflect the wealth of the city and its nobility. This show of power is tolerated as the former Ritterschaft is loyal subjects of the Scandinavian Union and thus reining in the occasional expressions of German nationalism in Slesvig.
Freedom of press and gatherings are instituted in France. Republican newspapers shoot up in great numbers.
Emperor Napoleon III is looking for ways of improving his image due to the failed Mexican adventure and the Luxembourg sale. He secures an alliance with William 1 of Prussia who, as the Holstein subject slipped through his fingers is going to demand the Netherlands cede its part of Luxembourg. Supporting William Napoleon is going to annex parts of Belgium.
As the scheme unfolds Hanover and Mecklenburg-Schwerin as well as Holstein declares neutrality.
The Luxembourg War:
During March William 1 of Prussia on behalf of all Germans demand King Willem 3 take his part of Luxembourg as fief or he cede it to Germany. As the Netherlands refuses and asks for an international conference to settle the issue William rejects the idea.
The only legal conference for William 1 would be a German one and the majority of the German Confederation voice support of William which makes the Austrians work against Prussia by proposing the German Confederation states in Frankfurt to act militarily only if subjected to aggression from outside powers. The proposal is generally met especially as Hanover, Holstein and Mecklenburg-Schwerin has declared neutrality in the conflict.
This is unacceptable to Willem 3 and on April fools day Prussian troops enters the Netherlands Luxembourg to the cheer of Germany. As Willem 3 refuses to accept this fait accompli, the Prussian troops also enter Limburg in southern Netherlands a few days later where the Dutch fiercely resist the Prussian advance.
Only Napoleon 3 support Williams war on the Netherlands exclaiming that the Netherlands should abide by the Great Powers’ will as in 1830 and as all German nations should be part of Germany so should all French-speakers be citizens of France.
This leaves the Belgians outraged and rally to the King as the symbol of the Nation not to be divided. The Belgians in this situation declare their support of their Dutch neighbours and enter negotiations with the Scandinavian Union representative Van Dockum. The Belgian declaration makes Napoleon 3 mobilize the army which prompts Belgian mobilization. This is regarded as a hostile act by Napoleon.
Willem 3 calls upon Queen Margrete to fulfil the alliance of that year and the Scandinavian Union navy sail off to blockade Prussian ports.
The Prussian navy sortie from Stralsund and Stettin unreported by the balloon observers due to poor visibility but the superior Scandinavian Union Baltic Squadron has no problem in handling the Prussians “in the best tradition of the navy”.
Within a few days the blockade of Prussia is effective, cutting off any seaborne trade. This soon begins to tell on the Prussian ability to wage war.
Imports through the ports of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck are subject to Scandinavian Union inspection not to let contraband goods through to Prussia. This brings off the necessary official protests from the three cities but nothing more than that.
Having successfully blockaded the German ports Admiral Johan Ludvig is despatched from the North Sea Squadron with a strong squadron of 2 turret ships, 2 narwhals and 8 armoured frigates into the North Sea to fulfil alliance obligations towards the Netherlands and join with the Dutch squadron of two turret ships and two armoured frigates.
The corps command in Slesvig is brought up to strength by call up of reservist’s.
Napoleon 3 has his army invade Wallonia after demanding its being ceded by Leopold 2. The Belgians are not going to give in and show to be a tough nut to crack for the French.
In London demonstrators hails the brave Belgian resistance.
In Limburg the Dutch is able to hold the Maas river line which makes the Prussians shift their forces north to move into Gelderland and Overijssel going for the centre of the Netherlands. In several instances the massed Prussian infantry is easy prey to Dutch troops using Minie-rifles.
Opposing the allied fleet are 10 French armoured frigates which Napoleon sends north along the coast to engage the allies and take off the naval pressure of Prussia.
The initial engagement is made just south of Vlissingen where the Scandinavian narwhals “Gotland” and “Bornholm” are lurking in the West Schelde estuary.
When the French ships engage the narwhals, Admiral Ludvig at the head of the allied main fleet steams south from East Schelde estuary hammering the French ships.
The Aaker guns once again prove their value as they at long range showers armour piercing grenades on the French ships penetrating the decks and exploding inside wrecking havoc on the battery decks. The four turret ships are able to close on the French ships and sustain hits while blasting away at the enemy.
Within 4 hours 3 French armoured frigates are sunk to the loss of one allied. The rest of the French fleet flee south hotly pursued by the allies that damages 4 more French ships.
Arriving in port the news of the French naval disaster runs like fire through France setting off demonstrations in Paris and angry editorials in the press. Countering the demonstrations with troops just makes matters worse with the press crying out for a republic. Also the poor performance of the French army in Wallonia is page one news.
One paper depicts an over muscled Scandinavian dwarf in a Viking ship hurling huge stones at sinking French warships while a Belgian midget holds the Poilu off at bayonet point.
The Scandinavian – Dutch naval victory is celebrated in London and a popular address of support and greetings is handed to the Scandinavian and Dutch ministers.
Scandinavian Marines is transported to the Netherlands to take part in the defence. At Deventer the dug-in Marines repel a Prussian attack. The Rasmussen rifle once again is a Marines best friend.
After a few weeks of fighting with Prussia hampered by blockade, but having attained its war aims and France on the brink of revolution, King William 1 of Prussia asks Lord Derby to call a conference in London.
The Netherlands cede Luxembourg but apart from that it doesn’t lose any territory and Prussia moves its troops out of the Netherlands.
At the instigation of Austria with the backing of the German Confederation and France Luxembourg is made an independent Grand Duchy and takes seat at the German Confederation as such. William of Prussia protests feeling robbed of victory.
The Scandinavian Union has Holstein propose the German Confederation that Duke Carl (Charles) of Glücksborg; older brother of Duke Christian Frederick of Holstein would be suitable for the throne of Luxembourg.
The German Confederation recommends the suggestion and Austria is willing to partake in this scheme as it is also going to annoy Prussia.
As Duke Carl is 55 and without issue it is suggested that Prince Valdemar of Holstein, Duke Carl’s nephew is to be successor to the throne of Luxembourg.
Working at the conference count Manderström and Austria gets Russian approval of this construction and then Austria entices Britain. With this backing King William sees no alternative to follow suit.
Belgium is made to cede the area between rivers Sambre and Meuse to France but Britain ensures it gets Dunqurque and Hazebrouck as reparations.
As the peace treaty of the Luxembourg War is known in Paris the city erupts in revolutionary fighting. The Prussians has left the French out on a limb. The Emperor is demanded to step down. The sailors of the French navy are embittered of their losses for no gains and marches on Paris to join the revolution. The embitterment spread to the army and soon Napoleon 3 has no loyal army units put down the rebellion. As Napoleon see the armed mob approaching he and Empress Eugenie leaves France for Britain. The third Republic is declared.
The battle of Schelde Estuary has the European navies look towards steam powered armoured ships with fewer guns but greater ability to sustain enemy fire and deliver a deadly punch. A race in armoured turret ships is the result with the Scandinavian Union being the leader at the time.
Still sail ships are looked upon as the instrument of world wide strategic power projecting because of steam engines not being regarded as reliable to discard sail and in these remains an auxiliary.
September: Queen Isabella of Spain name her lover minister which sets off a coup that topples her rule.
Russia conquers the Emirate of Bokhara in Central Asia.
Map of Europe 1868 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901277&postcount=800)
1869 Queen Margrete gives birth to a second son Frederick Sven Harald Erik.
To rein in the former Ritterschaft its members are extensively used as ambassadors to north German states and cities in an effort to strengthen the Scandinavian Union alliance system.
King William 1 rhetoric following the ridicule of Prussia by Austria at the peace conference is being realized to bring Prussian into war with Austria soon. Having won a new Arch Duchy for the German Confederation King William weren’t even allowed to name its ruler much less incorporate it in his kingdom.
King Georg 5 of Hanover, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 2 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Duke Christian Frederick of Holstein are now very interested in staying out of an inter-German showdown and ask for a formal alliance with the Scandinavian Union.
Queen Margrete is very reluctant to join in alliance with the German states but on the other hand they have proven a good buffer towards Prussian aggression; they did declare very useful neutrality during the Luxembourg War.
A defensive alliance is concluded in Copenhagen to the outrage of King William. He uses the Confederation assembly in Frankfurt am Main to rant against Hanover, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Holstein and the Scandinavian Union.
That Mecklenburg-Strelits, Oldenburg and the cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck decide to throw in their lot at this stage with the alliance has William close to choking. Only his isolation in Germany restrains him from mobilizing the Prussian army.
At this point the Scandinavian Union de facto controls German foreign trade by the North Sea ports being carried on Scandinavian Union, mostly Norwegian ships.
Hanover is building its railroad network into a north German hub and at this time it is possible to go by train from Antwerp in Belgium to Kristiania in the Scandinavian Union by just having to use railroad ferry three times.
The Austrian government decides to buy new rifles in France for the army. The delivering of Chassepot rifles begin.
Queen Margrete participates in the opening of the Suez Canal. On the way to Egypt she pays a visit to Brussels and The Hague. The defence treaty of the Scandinavian Union and the Netherlands is augmented by Belgium joining in.
A Scandinavian – Dutch naval mission is going to Belgium to help build its new navy. Rights of purchase of Belgian coal are secured by the Scandinavian Navy. The Northwest Alliance has been created.
Queen Margrete then goes to Britain to visit Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Count Manderström, new Scandinavian Foreign Minister tries to negotiate a defence alliance with Britain but only manages to agree on joint naval exercises in the Baltic and North Sea.
It is agreed that the naval units of the Low Countries will join in when on exercises in the North Sea.
The opening of the Suez-canal makes for at much shorter voyage to the colonies in India and the Pacific. Prospectors report findings of iron, gold and copper in Papua. Mining companies is setup by economy strong ex-Ritterschaft men to explore the minerals.
The Scandinavian army decides in the light of the experience of the war to acquire an easily maintained breach loading rifle for the infantry. The Dutch experiment to change rifled muskets to breach loaders is adopted as a second interim measure until a modern breach loading rifle can be acquired.
The major powers of Europe are equipping their infantry with breach loaders.
Hanover preside a negotiation with Holstein, Oldenburg, the two Mecklenburgs and free cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck to set up a North German sphere of corporation. The area is mostly agricultural but houses the great trading cities of Germany making it an economic giant. King William warns the north German princes that their actions may backfire.
The French army is reformed following its poor performance in the Luxembourg War. Conscription is part of the reform.
A Social democratic party is set up in Eisenach by Bebel and Leibknecht.
May: The Cortes decides to find Spain a new monarch.
The French pull the troops out of Rome. Italian troops then move in and the Papal state is joined with Italy after a plebiscite. Rome is made the capital of Italy.
1870 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 5 mill. Norway: 2,1 mill. Denmark: 2,35 mill. Total: 9,45 mill.
H. Malling-Hansen invents the typewriter-ball, the first practical typewriter. It is to be used in the growing bureaucracy of the Scandinavian Union and makes for a tool that is thought of as a major advancement because of all legal papers and bills have to be done in the Unions several official languages – Danish, Norwegian Bokmål, Norwegian Landsmål, Swedish and Icelandic.
At the same time Scandinavian spoken languages was changing to pick up words from each other because of the closer interaction of the peoples in various bodies such as common compulsory service; trade and interaction between related organizations, scientific, agrarian, politic etc. of the three Kingdoms.
With the death of Scandinavian Primeminister C.A. Bluhme the government is headed by former Foreign Minister Scheel-Plessen who has been the de facto leader of government since 1869.
The Scandinavian Army buys the necessary parts in the US from Remington to manufacture rifles. Three rifle factories are set up in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The factory in Sweden is merely a reserve plant as the main produce in that country is guns.
June: The Cortes of Spain asks Prince Leopold of Hohenzolleren-Sigmarinen to become King of Spain. King William 1 of Prussia decides to support Leopold and to advance him as candidate to increase his position versus Austria!
The choice shakes France to an outcry and it mobilizes the army.
The Northwest Alliance declares neutrality as do the North German Corporation.
The reaction from Vienna reaches Berlin. Emperor Franz Josef isn’t pleased and put up as his proposal the Wittelsbach Prince Adalbert of Bavaria as King of Spain. Prince Adalbert is married to Infanta Amalia Philippina of Spain.
Bavaria, Baden, Saxony and Württemberg support Franz Josef’s candidate.
King William uses the unwillingness of the North German Corporation to settle his score with it.
The German Confederation War:
The Prussian army is mobilized and invades Hanover and the Mecklenburgs. The Scandinavian Union place the corps in Slesvig on war-footing and makes preparations for the navy to blockade Prussian ports.
In the German Confederation Emperor Franz Josef rally support for action against Prussia’s aggression towards Confederation members. Prussia is demanded to discontinue its operations and withdraw its armed forces or face the consequences.
As Prussia ridicule the Confederation demand Austria calls for action against it.
The Austrian and Saxon armies invade Schlesia in March and the armies of Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg join up and move on the Palatinate.
The Prussian general staff works frantically to reposition the Prussian army, halting advances in the North German Corporation and moving units from the Rhineland to Prussia. In the second week of April the armies clashes at Liegnitz.
Unsure of French intentions William 1 is forced to secure the Palatinate and Rhineland with a sizeable army, leaving just barely adequate forces to counter the Austrians.
With superior artillery and better cavalry the Austrians win the day at Liegnitz, sends off a force to invest Breslau and the main force moves northeast towards Berlin.
In the north the North German Corporation forces are able to hold their ground and locally go on small scale offensives.
The naval part of the defence alliance with the Scandinavian Union is invoked and the Prussian ports are blockaded.
In the Palatinate the South German Army gets in contact with the Prussians and in the ensuing battle the South German Army is thrown back and retreats from the Palatinate with the Prussians on their heels.
The major part of the western Prussian army is kept in reserve in the Rhineland to watch the French army that is moving up to the border.
The South German Army is thus able to withdraw and reorganize for the expected Prussian push into Hesse and Pfalz.
Massing the army on the border of the Rhineland pressure is kept on William 1 in the west by the French and in the east the Austrian army is advancing.
William 1 calls up every Prussian able to carry a rifle.
Reaching Kottbus the Austrian and Prussian army once again clashes. This time the Prussian organization tells and the Austrians are defeated by the timely arrival of a reserve corps moving south from Frankfurt an der Oder. The Austrians retreat into Schlesia.
William 1 wanted his generals to press on for the relief of Breslau but von Roon wanted to end the debacle and get out of the situation made worse by the blockade of Prussian ports cutting off trade.
Von Roon managed to have William ask Lord Derby to call for a cease-fire and the warring parties for a conference in London to end the fighting.
At the conference William 1 wanted Schlesia back and would only agree to a cease-fire, any territory gained in the North German Corporation was to be ceded to Prussia; Franz Josef felt he had put William in his rightful place and demanded ceding of Schlesia and the Zollverein dismantled.
The French was pleased paying William back of the Luxembourg war and kept their troops on the Rhineland border.
The North German Corporation demanded their lands occupied by Prussian troops given back.
The Scandinavian Union demanded reparations.
King William of Prussia would not accede to Franz Josef’s demands of ceding Schlesia and would not retreat his troops in the north and not even think of paying reparations to the Scandinavian Union.
During the peace conference the Prussian’s received news of an Austrian transfer of troops from the border with Italy. Also the unclear situation on the Rhineland border worried them even if they didn’t expect a French attack.
Dissolve the Zollverein but stick to Schlesia von Roon argued. Give the North Germans their lands back and refuse the Scandinavians any reparations!
And so it was to be: Prussia agreed to dissolve the Zollverein, Franz Josef declared he would be willing to give Prussia Schlesia back but on the condition that Prussia ceded the western part of Saxony it had gained 1815 to King Johan of Saxony.
The Prussian army would retreat from any territory in the north and no reparations were to be paid to the Scandinavian Union.
The French government found this a very good solution.
Facing this dilemma and under pressure from his own ministers William gave in.
To get rid of the German mess and stay on good terms with the French, Prince Amedeo the proposal of King Victor Immanuel 2 for the Spanish throne is decided upon by the Spanish Cortes and Amedeo is elected King of Spain.
Map of Europe 1870 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901279&postcount=801)
1871 Socialists begin to agitate among Scandinavian workers. In the south of Sweden and in Denmark and Slesvig industrial workers would begin to organize trade unions and logging workers in northern Sweden and Norway would form their own.
With the large number of Scandinavians settled in the colonies in the West Indies and in Ghana these have their status changed from colonies to overseas dependencies. Each dependency is electing its local council that function as civil administration. The other colonies don’t have their status changed at this time. The dependencies are represented in government by a Minister.
This change of government has the Holstein Movement bring the parliamentary change on the agenda.
With the increase in military expenses during the past years and change in number of ministers as well as increased revenue of the colonies a change of parliament should be debated in every Kingdom and then implemented.
The Nicobar Islands are slowly changing into a penal colony due to the unhealthy climate. Prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment are regularly shipped off to augment the ever dwindling Scandinavian population in the Nicobar Islands.
The Scandinavian Union and the Netherlands enters a colonial communications agreement – both parties are to maintain communications with the colonies of the counterpart and both parties are to come to the aid of the other parties colony if need be.
Scandinavian Navy ships are armed with French 37 mm Gatling guns as tertiary armament.
The Austrian army leaves Schlesia and Prussia cedes the agreed part of Prussian Saxony to Saxony.
Hanover encourages Braunschweig, Anhalt and Lippe to join the North German Corporation.
Russian troops occupy the Ili-valley in Chinese East Turkistan.
1872 Clashes between police and workers organized by the socialist’s in the major cities of the Scandinavian Union. In the parliaments the socialists are seen as troublemaker’s intent on disturbing the peace. The Police are given powers to deal with the socialists. To strengthen the Copenhagen Police the police forces of southern Sweden are called to serve in times of trouble in Copenhagen to augment that cities force.
A steel tower is build atop the Bornholm peak of Rytterknaegten to supplant the balloon unit.
The Bergen – Kristiania railway is taken into service shortening communications time.
In Spain the third Carlist war breaks out.
Secret ballot is used in British elections.
King Johan of Saxony looking to the North German Corporation calls upon the Kings of Bavaria and Württemberg and the Duke of Baden to form a Royal German Union; to increase cooperation between their lands and to strengthen them – against Prussia.
1873 The Scandinavian Economic Journal prints an article on workers situation. The socialist’s continue to organize workers in trade unions and clashes with police is a regular occurrence during strikes or lock-outs.
A law against minors working in factories is passed. As with the peasants earlier in the century the workers are now receiving some focus.
The repeated demonstrations by socialist are in Copenhagen makes for a reorganization of the Scandinavian Police forces. A Union Police force is formed that is to coordinate actions and allocate resources, especially in between Copenhagen and Scania Police forces. A seat of Union Commissioners of Police Forces is set up.
The Tuborg Breweries are founded.
The North German Corporation and the Royal German Union exchange Ministers in order to have close cooperation of their lands and to not let Prussia play them off against each other.
Both parties calms Austria that they are not about to break up the German Confederation or terminate cooperation with Austria and that they still acknowledge Austrian chairing the German Confederation.
King Amedeo of Spain renounces the crown. The Republic is declared with Emilio Castelar setting up the government. The Pope recognizes the Carlist pretender Don Carlos as Spanish King.
Russia forces the Khanate of Chiwa into submission.
1874 Queen Margrete attends the millennium anniversary of Iceland. The North Atlantic Council in Reykjavik is given legislative authority and is to send its own Minister, representing Iceland, the Faeroe Islands and Greenland to the government of the Scandinavian Union.
This once again brings up the proposed change of parliament that is being hotly debated in all three Kingdoms.
Feeling the winds of change the nobility union calls for its members to unite and demand equal taxes paid in all three Kingdoms, because of the number of members holding estates in several Kingdoms, dependencies and colonies.
The liberals is also changing their stance on change of parliament beginning to argue that liberal thought was the elemental factor in making the Union democratic!
Secret ballot at elections is introduced in the Scandinavian Union.
The first magazines intended for female readers are issued in the Scandinavian Union.
The Russian army is reformed and general conscription is introduced.
Britain annexes the Fiji-islands.
The Carlist war ends. Alfonso 12 declared King of Spain.
1875 At Göteborg the railway and road bridges are completed. The city is being recommended by many as a probable new capital for the Scandinavian Union being located centrally and with access to the sea and good communications.
Trams driven by steam engines are used in major Scandinavian cities.
Armour Piercing High Explosive grenades are being manufactured for use in war ships.
A young man of mixed West Indies – Swedish descent is beaten to death in Stockholm by a gang of three young SSB supporters (1866 has a short note on the SSB Stor-Skandinavisk Bevægelse – Greater Scandinavian Movement).
The trial uncovers that SSB attract the youth of bad or no education who are used to street violence and don’t refrain from directing their anger at society towards peoples looking different of them.
The youth are all sentenced to capital punishment but have their sentences reduced to life imprisonment which is to be served in the Nicobar Islands.
The Union Commissioner of Police Forces is asked to keep an eye on the SSB. This also means surveillance of its political exponents.
Going to Britain to visit his aunt Queen Victoria Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover meets the third of the Holstein sisters, Thyre and get engaged.
The German social democratic parties meeting at Gotha decide to work to unite the parties of the German nations, this including the Scandinavian Union and the Netherlands.
July: rebellion breaks out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by Serbia.
Japan annexes the Ryu Kyu Islands and recognizes the Russian occupation of Sakhalin. Russia in return recognizes the Japanese possession of the Kurile Islands.
The USA is granted the founding of a naval base in Hawaii, the Pearl Harbour.
1876 Reacting to political change Queen Margrete 2 asks the three parliaments to write a single constitution for the three Kingdoms – in effect making it one state.
First Social democratic congress held in the Scandinavian Union.
Alexander Graham Bell make the first successful telephone conversation.
Bayreuth, Bavaria: First Wagner festival, Nibelungens Ring premier. The themes of the Ring are taken from Norse-Germanic mythology and are going to attract a following in the Scandinavian Union.
At the Scandinavian premier in Copenhagen 1877, Queen Margrete calls the Ring an impressive piece of music but the mythological basis of the Ring old superstition! We need a realpolitik perception of our time.
The Balkan rebellions spread to Bulgaria. Austria and Russia meet in Vienna and demand a secession of hostilities and that the Ottomans make political and religious reform under Great Powers guise. This demand is supported by France and Italy but rejected by Britain.
Serbia and Montenegro then declares war on the Ottoman Empire. The Serbians are routed at Alexinatz.
In the Ottoman Empire the Vizier Midhat Pasha dethrones Abdul Aziz and declares Murad 5 as Sultan. Being insane Murad is replaced by Abdul Hamid 2 and a new constitution is proclaimed as well as liberal institutions are promised and the Ottoman Empire declared indivisible.
King Leopold 2 of Belgium set up the Congo enterprise and enters the colonial agreement of the Scandinavian Union and the Netherlands.
Russia subdues the Khanate of Kokand.
1877 A Union constitutional draft is handed to the Queen by the parliaments.
The central issue is citizenship of all peoples of the Kingdoms in the Union. Every man will be able to move about the Union lands, apply for jobs, own land and run firms in all countries, territories and colonies.
Freedom of press, right to vote for a large number of men and compulsory Union service are other vital issues.
Each Kingdom within the Union is a sovereign country in personal union with the other two and succession is by inheritance in all three countries.
The national parliaments are to be mothballed and a three chamber Union Parliament, the Storthing is to be elected by voters of all three Kingdoms. The vote is by numbers and no group is given automatic representation. This is going to be the legislative body of the Union.
The supreme Union court is to be established as a super-national court with powers to overrule any Union court. National law codes are to be changed to give super-national status to the new supreme Union court. The members of the supreme Union court are appointed from among the members of the supreme courts of the three Kingdoms.
The hereditary ruler of the Union Kingdoms is to hold executive power and as such retain the right to name the government and is the Supreme commander of all Union armed forces.
The posts as regent of Norway and Sweden are abolished. The present regents are to keep the title honorary and direct administration.
It is recommended that a new Union capital be set up in Göteborg situated at the ancient meeting point of the three Kingdoms.
Ludvig Nobel, brother of Alfred has the first steam tanker ship built.
King William of Prussia protest the new Scandinavian constitution but Queen Margrete decides to ignore him.
Public roller skating is the new trend in the Scandinavian Union.
The Great Powers demands are rejected by the Ottoman Empire and on April 24 Russia declare war. Austria stays neutral due to a Russian promise of getting Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Russian advance is checked by the Ottomans at Plevna in northern Bulgaria. The Shipka pass is forced with severe losses and is later to be defended against superior Ottoman forces.
Rumania declares independence May 31.
The Russians is only able to break the Ottoman defences on December 10 and march on Constantinople.
1878 The constitutional draft is accepted by the Queen. It is passed in all three parliaments and decreed law in every Kingdom.
The government begin planning the move to Göteborg by summoning Union architects and order the necessary buildings, among those a Royal Palace.
Until then the necessary buildings for the parliament is rented.
At the first election the Holstein Movement take 40 %, liberals 30 % and the various nobility candidates the remaining 30 %.
Queen Margrete asks Louis de Geer to form Government.
The first steam powered u-boat is delivered to the Scandinavian Navy. It performs poorly but the concept is thought a good idea by the Scandinavian Navy for use as a submerged Narwhal. The Whitehead torpedoes also need work to become an effective weapon of war.
Due to bad living conditions a rebellion of black peoples erupts in the West Indies. The local militia and Marines are able to suppress the rebellion. Summary executions are the order of the day.
But after the rebellion a commission is sent from Copenhagen to investigate the causes of rebellion. The commission file a report that blames the black population’s general lack of education and economic sustainability.
As word of the black rebellion reaches the Social democrats of Scandinavia a group is sent to the West Indies to organize the workers in trade unions.
At the world exhibition in Paris the latest Union Navy turret ship “Ingiald” (a mythological avenger) is shown. The ship has three turrets, fore, aft and amidships and is a true steam ship as it has no rigging. Its main armament is 6 x 6” guns.
The ship draws attention from navy officers from the entire world.
January: The Ottoman Empire asks for a cease fire on the 9. This is granted by Russia due to British pressure.
At the peace conference in San Stefano Serbia, Montenegro and Romania is given independence. An autonomous Bulgarian Princedom is erected. Kars, Ardahan and Batum are ceded to Russia.
Infuriated by the San Stefano conference because of Russian gains Britain orders partly mobilization and a secret treaty are signed with the Ottoman Empire giving Cyprus to Britain in return for British support.
The Scandinavian Union support the British, as they also have trade interests in the Ottoman Empire.
A new conference is held in Paris at the instigation of Britain. Austria is allowed to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina but the province is still part of the Ottoman Empire.
The autonomous Bulgaria is sized down by separating and granting East-Rumelia autonomy.
The conference is close to breaking down because of the tensions between the Great Powers but in the end war is awerted.
King Georg 5 of Hanover dies, his son Ernest Augustus 2 succeeds to the throne. The succession is recognized throughout the North German Corporation and is strengthened by the marriage of Ernest Augustus and one of Duke Christian Frederick of Holstein’s daughters.
Queen Margrete of the Scandinavian Union, King Willem 3 of the Netherlands, King Leopold 2 of Belgium and representatives of Britain, Russia, France, Italy, Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden takes part in the coronation ceremony in Hanover.
Grand Duke Carl of Luxembourg dies and is succeeded by his nephew Prince Valdemar of Holstein.
Umberto 1 succeeds King Victor Immanuel in Italy. The Italia Irredenta movement demand Austria to cede Venice, Trieste and South Tyrol.
Late in the year the Royals gather in Kiel to the marriage of King Ernest Augustus 2 of Hanover and Princess Thyre of Holstein.
The US enters a treaty with Samoa that allows it to set up a naval base at Pago Pago.
Map of Europe 1878 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901281&postcount=802)
1879 Cane sugar prices decline due to increased production of beet sugar.
In the West Indies the production of other crops such as cotton help to ease the bad times but government help is needed to ensure more than basic standards of living being met and to keep the inhabitants from moving out of the islands.
As the dependencies are part of the Union the various fractions agree to a programme of government subsidising. But education is also to be improved among all parts of the population.
The Social democratic group sent to organize the black workers in trade unions is reported by the Governor to be stirring up trouble and are expulsed from the West Indies.
Back in Copenhagen the Social democrats file complaints to the Colonial Ministry and the Queen to readmit them to the West Indies. Their complaints are dismissed.
Scandinavian writer Henrik Ibsen’s drama “a doll-house” has world premier in the Göteborg Theatre. The drama provokes much debate by its questioning the traditional roles of the sexes.
The Queen and Prince consort however declare that it didn’t provoke much debate between them. Who’s to be astonished!
Orders for “Ingiald” class ships pour in.
The Scandinavian Science Board in cooperation with other scientists decide to name a Polar Year to make scientific work in the Arctic to get real scientific material and get rid of peoples doing heroic action to get a record which don’t deliver any scientific results.
The Scandinavian government buys all major railways in the Scandinavian Union creating the Scandinavian Union Railways.
Britain invades and defeats Zululand after the initial setback at Isandhlawand.
Thomas Alva Edison invents the light bulb - an immediate success.
The bad outcome for Russia at the Vienna conference has the Tsar alienated towards Britain and Austria, but also the Scandinavian Union – puppet of Britain.
King William of Prussia sense an opportunity and travel on state visit in St. Petersburg.
In Bulgaria the national assembly chooses Alexander von Battenberg of Hesse-Darmstadt, nephew of Tsarina Maria as their Prince. Alexander resists Russian influence which doesn’t serve to endear him to Tsar Alexander.
1880 A financial crisis regarding agricultural produce makes Scandinavian Union peasants change produce for export from grain to livestock.
The change is felt in all of Denmark and in southern and part of central Sweden.
But recovering from this crisis in years to come the export of butter and bacon is going to yield a great income to the Scandinavian Union producers.
Von Moltke institutes a War Academy ranking as a University at Göteborg. This is going to be an Academy superior to the Army Officers Academy and Naval Officers Academy and teach officers of both services in strategy, foreign policy, general staff planning and logistics.
Field phones are made standard army equipment.
Russia and Prussia conclude a secret alliance directed against Austria.
King Williams visit to Russia prompts the North German Corporation to tighten their bonds. The King of Hanover, Ernest Augustus 2 is recognized as head of the Corporation by the dukes, counts and free cities.
Closer cooperation is undertaken in making a joint army command and by acquiring colonies.
The North German Corporation decides to create a small navy to keep communications with future colonies on the seas. Expertise for the navy is provided by the Scandinavian Union and the Netherlands.
The North German Corporation joins the North West Alliances colonial agreement.
De facto the North German Corporation is a union of German nations and free cities headed by Hanover. (Being the only Kingdom in this Hanover is according to era the natural choice!)
As you may see the Hanover of TTL is somewhat different from OTL Hanover.
It and the named North German nations and free cities have already been victim of Prussian aggression. (But we’ll give it another go before de jure unity.)
The greatest changes is that Hanover revolutionary politician Johann von Miquel as a peasant spokesman has had his eye on the Holstein Movement and incorporated some of its programme into the Hanover political scene. Von Miquel also reformed the Hanover tax system making for greater income, but also earning the resent of the nobility – which he didn’t mind.
Another change is the departure of politician Rudolf von Bennigsen who moved to Prussia following the Prussian defeat in 1849 and subsequent loss of prestige as the nation to unite Germany.
Politician Ludwig Windthorst has been part of Hanover political life for decades working against Prussia’s domination of Germany and also because of his religious beliefs, being a catholic in protestant Hanover working for abolition of nobility rights and Jewish emancipation.
Alexander Levin count Bennigsen has been in the seat of the President of Government in Hanover several times since his first appearance in 1848-50 and has been a strong factor in reining in the worst excesses of Hanover’s Kings.
Ernest Augustus 1: As in OTL.
George 5: As in OTL – only he sits on the throne until death and has count Bennigsen, Windthorst and von Miquel on his behalf turn Hanover into a modernized!, country that looks to the North for alliances.
Having been invaded by Prussia once and threatened several times by the same he sees the building and maintenance of the North German Corporation in which the German Princes keep their seats and power in their lands but cooperate to their mutual best.
Ernest Augustus 2: OTL the Duke of Cumberland. He is the heir to a country leading the North German Corporation, benefiting from trade generated by the ports of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck.
Britain founds a naval base in Samoa.
Map ot the World 1880 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1901282&postcount=803)
1881 The public telephone net is set up in the Scandinavian Union by a government controlled operator.
The army and police have a strong interest in keeping control of the telephone net. The Police want to tap organization like the SSB.
Social democrats enter the West Indies to set up trade unions among all workers but their primary target are the black workers.
Bicycles are for sale and the first bicycle clubs are established.
Tsar Alexander 2 is assassinated in St. Peterburg. He is succeeded by his son Alexander 3 who rules by absolutism. Alexander 3 is married to Princess Dagmar of Slesvig-Holstein-Soenderborg-Glücksburg and is positive towards France.
During the summer King Ernest Augustus 2 of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Queen Thyre visit their family in Britain. The visit is a tremendous succes.
Tunisian raids on Algeria prompt French annexation of Tunisia. This arouses the public opinion of Italy.
1882 Dr.Sofie Ulrikke Friis obtains a position at the Serum Institution in Copenhagen, the traditional colonial trade hub and begin working in immunity. She is going to do field work in the West Indies, Ghana, India and Papua in years to come.
The trade union of plantation workers and trade union of ports and docks workers are set up by Social democrats in the West Indies. On the news of the setting up of the trade unions the Social democrats are once again expelled from the West Indies.
Assassination attempt on Queen Victoria fails.
The French annexation of Tunisia makes Italy look for allies.
Prussia is deemed too weak due to the defeat in the German Confederation War.
Austria is ever watchful because of Italian demands of Venice and South Tyrol and Russia is too far away, Spain is locked in internal strife and Britain is not interested.
Prussia invites Italy to join in alliance against France and Austria which Italy is only too happy to do after having the secret Prussian-Russian alliance revealed.
Tsar Alexander goes to Kiel to spend the summer with his in-laws. Joining in on the summer fun at the in-laws is King Ernest Augustus of Hanover, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 2 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin whose daughter is married to the Tsar’s brother Vladimir as well as Prince Albert Edward and Princess Alexandra of Britain.
Visiting Trieste Emperor Franz Josef is to be subjected to an assassination plot by an Italian Irredenta follower William Oberdan, who is uncovered and arrested. Oberdan is tried and hanged.
In Italy he is revered as a martyr, which has Italian-Austrian relations reach freezing point.
Britain acts against Egypt, bombards Alexandria and lands troops that destroy the Egyptian army at Tell el-Kbeir. Real power in Egypt lies with the British consul general.
1883 Lecturing at the War Academy von Moltke coin the phrases “no plan survives first clashes with the enemy” and “war is a question of expedience”.
Not having been invited to join in on the action in Egypt cools relations between France and Britain.
Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 2 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin dies and is succeeded by his son Friedrich Franz 3.
The royal summer gathering in Kiel is repeated.
When Bismarck asks the Russian Minister of Foreign affairs of the Prussian-Russian alliance he is informed that it was only a piece of paper.
September: The news leaks and Italy deserts Prussia.
Infuriated by this secret pact undoubtedly directed against his Empire and somewhat paranoid by the uncovered attempt on his life the year before, Franz Josef brings the matter to the German Confederation demanding support from the German states to punish Prussia.
King William of Prussia let the German Confederation know that he is a sovereign monarch and conclude treaties with whom he chooses.
Demanding reparations in the form of Prussia abiding to the Austrian line in the German Confederation which is rejected by William, Franz Josef mobilizes his army and calls upon the Royal German Union to follow suit. The North German Corporation senses an opportunity and joins Franz Josef and the Royal German Union.
Nobody really tries to defuse the crisis and France adds to it by moving troops up the border with Prussia and also threatens the Italians if they take action against Austria.
Second German Confederation War:
William 1 was facing the dilemma of 1870 with the Austrians in the east, the Royal German Union in the south, the French in the west and North German Corporation in the north.
The North West Alliance declared neutrality but the Scandinavian navy was cruising the Baltic so close to the German coastline as to be blockading it – only to ensure the safety of its merchant shipping and other neutrals!
Grand Duke Carl of Luxembourg wisely if unknowingly so throws in his lot with the German Princes.
France declared that the stability of Europe was threatened, Austria being a friend of France should not have its borders violated by any party and Prussia was threatening not only the security of German lands but also that of France, which France would take the necessary steps to ensure.
Austria was only happy about the support of France the German Confederation war of 1870 in mind and didn’t want a prolonged war but a short sharp slap on William 1’s hands.
Prussia took a defensive position towards North German Corporation the main threats being France and Austria and to a lesser degree the Royal German Union.
October: France was out the gate first having its bad reputation of 1868 to reset.
The French army moved into the Rhineland occupying Saar and moving towards Trier.
The Austrians again invaded Schlesia going for Breslau.
The Royal German Union once again made their major effort against Westfalen this time strengthened by a Saxon division.
The North German Corporation decided to sever the Prussian communications between east and west by occupying the Bishopric of Hildesheim. Most of the North German Corporation effort would be in the Baltic.
The French offensive was aimed at Trier and after the fall of the city the French moved along the Moselle to the Rhine. Having achieved their initial objectives the French crossed the Moselle and moved north up the Rhineland. The French enjoying overwhelming superiority in numbers crushed everything that stood in their path.
The Royal German Union moving through Hesse into Westfalia met little resistance as the French offensive had the Prussians throw everything available in to stop their drive.
In the east the Prussians were able to inflict a severe on the Austrian army at Breslau, but didn’t have the strength to follow up their victory and the Austrians were able to stay in Schlesia.
In the Baltic the North German Corporation and Prussian navies met off Rügen in a small battle with the Scandinavian turret ships Ingiald and King Frederick as onlookers.
As it seemed the Prussians were gaining the upper hand the Scandinavian squadron suddenly turned southeast at full steam making for the Pommeranian coast.
Not knowing what to make of it the Prussian commander broke contact with the North German Corporation and also headed southeast. About an hour later the Scandinavian squadron headed northwest back to Rügen. At that time the North German Corporation were safe within reach of Rostock.
With the French overrunning everything the Royal German Union called off the attack on Westfalen and moved their army east into Saxony to hit at the heart of Prussia.
Knowing defeat with the French army at the crossings of the Rhine and at the gates of Aachen William asked Britain to call for a ceasefire and a conference to settle the conflict.
At the London conference Prussia had to cede the southern Rhineland Province with Saar and Trier to France, Hildesheim, Minden, Paderborn and Osnabrück Bishopric’s and Ravensburg to Hanover, the northwest Pommerania to Mecklenburg-Schwerin and parts of Prussian Saxony to Saxony.
Münster and Mark went to Baden, the south eastern part of Westfalia to Württemberg.
The Prussian enclaves in Thüringa and Hesse went to Bavaria.
The Rhineland was joined to Luxembourg.
William initially refused to comply with the conference but threats of France and Austria of resuming the war had him step down.
US Congress decides to build a modern navy of steel ships. An Ingiald class turret ship is ordered.
Krakatau volcano erupts creating 40 m high waves killing 36000 peoples in Java and Sumatra. The blast is heard in Australia and Papua.
1884 The Queen asks for a national anthem to be written in an inter-Scandinavian language. A proposal by Norwegian Bjørnstjerne Bjørnsson “Scandinavia vort Rike” (Scandinavia our realm) is decided upon as it is possible to sing in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish but is written in a form of inter-Scandinavian.
Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen burns in October. Queen Margrete decides to abandon the Palace and take up residence in Kristiania until the new Göteborg Palace has finished construction.
The Copenhagen Palace isn’t rebuilt and the Queen uses the Fredericksberg Palace for her summer visits to the city.
King Frederick William of Finland dies; he is succeeded by his son Frederick William 2.
Russia subdues the rest of Turkmenistan by the conquest of Merv. It now share borders with Persia.
Britain and the Scandinavian Union partition the eastern part of New Guinea. Britain gains the south east.
The north east is a Scandinavian colony – Papua. Neighbouring the Papua is the island part of the Scandinavian Papua colony the King Fredericks Isles.
Britain, Italy and Spain sign a treaty to uphold status quo in the Med. The treaty is directed against France that is dominating the Western part of the Med after the annexation of Tunesia; much to Italy’s discomfort and Spain less so.
North German Corporation claims a protectorate over the territory north of the Oranje River on the African west coast named German South West Africa.
Map of Europe 1884 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902888&postcount=804)
1885 The constructions at Göteborg of a new Parliamentary building, a High-court, a HQ of the Joint War council, ministries of agriculture, industry, trade, colonies and foreign relations and a royal palace have been completed. Along the administrative buildings new quays for shipping and a railway station are completed.
As Queen Margrete and the royal family moves to Göteborg Palace the regency’s of Sweden and Norway is terminated.
The inauguration of Göteborg as capital of the Scandinavian Union is attended by Prince Albert Edward and Princess Alexandra of Britain, Tsar Alexander and Tsarina Maria (Dagmar), King Willem 3 of Netherlands, King Leopold 2 of Belgium, King Georg 5 of Hanover, Duke Christian Frederick of Holstein, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 3 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, King Frederick William 2 of Finland, Grand Duke Valdemar of Luxembourg, Prince Rudolf of Austria, King Georg of Greece representatives of Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hesse, France, Italy, Spain and the Prussian minister.
The new anthem is performed for the first time during the premier of the new Göteborg Theatre.
The anthem is strongly applauded and the orchestra has to play it three times!
Then all rise and cheer the Queen.
Prince Ferdinand arrives in the West Indies as member of the crew of the new turret ship “Holstein” – named after Count Holstein. The Prince has been given one year off from his studies to serve with the Navy.
His arrival spurs off several days of festivities.
During the year the “Holstein” visits every dependency and colony of the Scandinavian Union.
The growing organization of workers has the company owners set up a union of their own to counter the workers.
East-Rumelia joins Bulgaria following revolution. Russia protests but Britain and Austria give the union their blessing.
Serbia declares war on Bulgaria in November but is defeated at Slivnitza and Pirot. Only interference by Austria saves Serbia from annihilation.
Britain and Austria join in a treaty to uphold status quo in the eastern Med and the Middle East. The treaty is directed against Russia.
North German Corporation joins the race for colonies and in understanding with Britain founds the colony East Africa between the Umba and Rovuma Rivers and the Sultan of Zanzibar recognizes a protectorate of the fertile lands between Tana and Juba River mouths.
As France de facto turn Madagascar into a protectorate, Britain convince the North German Corporation that it should occupy Somalia to contain French aspirations in East Africa, that is reduced to the small area of French Somalia (OTL Djibouti).
In the Pacific North German Corporation annexes the Marshall Islands.
The Scandinavian Union annexes the Solomon Islands.
1886 The moving of capital, government and parliament to Göteborg has a positive effect on the public opinion of being Scandinavian rather than Danish, Norwegian or Swedish.
The public sentiments has now for decades been towards the shared monarch, the army and the navy, the Union Flag and the feeling of being part of a greater Scandinavian Empire that is even glorious on the battle field.
But there has been a national feeling of old underneath; now one capital and one parliament set about some change to that last part.
To further increase the position of the natural sciences board of Göteborg it is decided to set up a Union Museum at Göteborg based upon the three period system formulated by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen of stone- bronze- and iron ages.
The Museum is to gather artefacts of all three kingdoms and display them for the public to admire and scientists to study.
A regular ferry route by steamship from Denmark to Mecklenburg-Schwerin is set up.
Princess Caroline begins her studies at the University in Lund.
Doctor Ms. Sofie Ulrikke Friis enters the University of Lund as a professor of medicine after publishing results of her field works in the colonies.
The cooperating trade unions of workers are founded in Scandinavia.
Managers and industrialists refuse to hire its leaders.
Aluminium processing is patented by Charles Martin Hall. Kryolite is used in the process; the only major mine is situated in southern Greenland where kryolite has been mined since 1856. The mine is going to be an important Scandinavian asset.
The Ottoman Empire acknowledges the incorporation of East-Rumelia in Bulgaria.
Austria brokers a peace treaty between Serbia and Bulgaria.
August: pro-Russian officers kidnap King Alexander who abdicates September 7.
North German Federation secure their hold on Somalia by dispatching a small army contingent to Mogadishu and another to Kismayo.
1887 Prince Frederick begins studies at the University in Copenhagen.
The first dry-battery is manufactured in the Scandinavian Union.
A few Maxim machine-guns are ordered for the Scandinavian army for trails.
Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg is elected King of Bulgaria. The election spurs more Russian protests and Austrian warnings.
Italy works to get support for its design on Venice, South Tyrol and Trieste. It is squeezed in between France and Austria – both seen as hostile to Italy.
In this case Russia is a natural choice for Italy and it begins to court Russia which isn’t uninterested in getting a counterweight to Austria and Russia sees no problem in promising Italy the objectives of her dreams.
Abyssinian ruler Negus John move troops into North German Federation Somalia.
Before they engage German forces Sudanese Mahdist forces invade Abyssinia forcing Negus John to abandon the invasion of Somalia.
Britain and North German Federation negotiate their zones of interest in East Africa.
1888 Prince Ferdinand is sent to Norway to take up residence in Kristiania and head the civil administration for a number of years and then he is going to take up that position in Stockholm; preparing for some day taking over the reins of monarchy.
A Scandinavian expedition makes the first crossing of Greenland.
Danish rifle makers Bjarnov and Madsen deliver a number of experimental recoil operated self loading rifles to the Scandinavian Union army. The Rifle (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902917&postcount=823) needs some finishing but is essentially operational.
General Laessoee, head of Stockholm command dies at age 77.
King William 1 of Prussia dies; the rest of Germany feels relieved. His son Frederick 3 only rule for 90 days and the throne passes to William 2.
Sarawak on Borneo becomes a British protectorate.
1889 On holiday in Finland Prince Ferdinand meets his cousin Princes Marie Polyxene, whom he finds “interesting”!
The Scandinavian army and navy place an order for 50000 Bjarnov/Madsen SLR’s at the instigation of Field Marshal von Moltke.
An Austrian customs agent Alois Hitler begets a son Adolph who becomes a little known painter, mostly known for his double shadows of forms.
The second International in Paris; May 1 is made an international workers anniversary.
Prince Rudolph son of Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austrian Empire is found killed at the Mayerling Palace. Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand is made heir to Austria.
North German Federation move troops to Somalia through the Suez Canal to counter Abyssinian attempts at invasion. As Negus John is killed in a battle against the Mahdi invaders the NGF move forces into Abyssinia meeting Menelik, Ras of Shoa who in return of promises of recognizing NGF protectorate of Somalia gain NGF aid in securing Abyssinia for himself.
Menelik's recognizing of the NGF protectorate proves void but having stretched their resources in East Africa the NGF is satisfied at the state of affairs.
August 24th, 2008, 09:11 PM
1890 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 5,5 mill. Norway: 2,38 mill. Denmark: 2,75 mill. Total: 10,63 mill.
Prince Ferdinand is engaged to Princes Marie Polyxene of Finland.
The Social democratic Party of the Scandinavian Union wins its first seat in the Storthing. And organize the first May 1 demonstrations for an eight hour working day.
Bjarnov/Madsen is reorganized into Madsen Rifle factory. The Bjarnov/Madsen SLR is being exported to the North German Corporation, Royal German Union, Finland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Greece. Samples are being exported to Britain, USA, France, Russia, Austria, Italy and the Ottoman Empire.
Willem 3 of the Netherlands dies. His daughter Wilhelmina is destined to succeed when she comes of age. William 2 of Prussia argues that a Kingdom should not be run by a woman, which promptly incurs him the wrath of Queens Victoria and Margrete.
Menelik of Abyssinia enlarge his territory by incorporating the Red Sea coast of Eritrea into his Empire.
Map of the World 1890 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902891&postcount=805)
1891 Field Marshal von Moltke and General Alexander Reuterskiöld dies. Both being heroes of war are buried with full military honours.
Social laws are passed in the Storthing making for better support of the elderly and poor. The poor can no longer be rented for work.
Princess Caroline graduates the University of Lund; her mother is able to hand her the bronze medal at the graduation. After the graduation festivities she is sent on the grand tour of Hanover, London, Paris, Vienna, Rome and St. Petersburg.
The Netherlands and Britain partition Borneo.
William 2 of Prussia instigates a pan-German movement mainly to restore the former power of Prussia. No other German princes are interested in his scheme and the public remember too well the German Confederation wars. Newspapers in Vienna encourage the Emperor to teach the Prussian upstart a lesson.
A new invasion of Abyssinia into North German Federation Somalia help to solidify the NGF as one block in the response to Menelik whose forces are destroyed at Bardera on the Juba River by concentrated NGF rifle fire. Menelik the recognize the NGF protectorate of Somalia.
1892 Prince Ferdinand marries Princess Marie Polyxene of Finland; they take up residence in Stockholm.
The Scandinavian Navy begin a building programme of the second generation “Ingiald” class ships – Country class to replace the armoured frigates that are the mainstay of the navy. The Country class ships are to be bigger than the “Ingiald” class but retain the three gun turrets. The ships are also to be up-gunned to 8” guns as main armament and have Gatling guns as anti torpedo boat armament as well as torpedo tubes. As all other ships of their date they also had secondary and tertiary armaments. This class of ships also draw international attention.
Electrical lighting of the major cities of the Scandinavian Union is begun.
A law of public health insurance is passed in the Storthing.
Birth of J.R.R. Tolkien well known linguist and etymologist, whose great interest in Finn-Ugric languages and Norse mythology often takes him to the Scandinavian Union and Finland.
1893 A Scandinavian journalist uncovers the reality of colonization in Cameroon: low payment, lousy housing and bad treatment of blacks bordering in some instances on torture and displacement. The descendants of former Ritterschaft members are the major entrepreneurs in Cameroon.
The stories are published in Göteborg newspaper “Aftontidningen” as a series and is widely read and debated. The stories also spark debate in the Storthing led by the social democratic member.
Princess Marie Polyxene gives birth to a healthy boy to be named Gustav Frederick Ferdinand Charles.
Prince Frederick graduates from Copenhagen University. He barely manages to get his degree and is sent off to the army officer’s academy.
Niels Finsen publishes his works on the effect of light on human skin; which is to influence treatment such as lupus vulgaris – skin tuberculosis that was treated by operation earlier.
New Zealand gives women right of vote.
Rudolph Diesel invents the diesel engine.
1894 The second round of the uncovering of Cameroon posted in “Aftontidningen” tells of Scandinavian members of nobility being in the lead of colonization and encouraging the methods. Several of these are affiliated with Storthing members of the conservative parties which makes the uncovering move on to the Scandinavian Union proper.
The Social democrats argue that all human beings of the Scandinavian Union are treated equally and not be subject to ill treatment due to their skin colour or other causes.
The installation of water closets is begun.
As the news of the woman’s right of vote in New Zealand reaches the Scandinavian Union Queen Margrete asks her government how this may be implemented in her Kingdom.
Princess Caroline returns from her journey and is sent to Stockholm to lead the administration.
The bloody suppression of a rebellion in Christian Armenia by the Ottomans raises a storm of protest all over Europe. Britain, France, Russia, Austria and Italy are ready to intervene and Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece mobilize.
Rivalry between Russia and Austria on the division of the expected spoils with Italy backing Russia hinders action and the British opposition to Russia getting hold of Constantinople only adds to the quarrel.
Convinced that the Great Powers will support them Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece declare war on the Ottoman Empire. Support does come forward in the form of arms and assurances.
As Russian troops moves west from Kars and Batum; Austria mobilizes troops in Bosnia intent on moving south.
Russia see her interests in the Balkans threatened and demand Austria demobilize and Italy to support its scheme.
King William 2 of Prussia wants to broker the conflict and calls for a conference in Berlin. Austria and Italy rejects the offer and Russia ignores it.
The Ottomans are able to withstand the pressure and only small territorial gains close to none have been made by Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.
But on the Greek front the Ottomans sustained huge loses due to the high rate of rifle fire delivered by Greek Madsen SLR’s.
November: Tsar Alexander dies and is succeeded by his son Nicholas 2.
The tension between Russia and Austria is mounting; Austria is sure of French and British backing against Russia and continues the build up in Bosnia.
Nicholas 2 who is eager to show himself off in this crisis calls off the offensive against the Ottoman Empire and mobilizes troops in Poland and Ukraine.
As the build up doesn’t seem to threaten the straits Britain don’t act to activate the 1885 treaty with Austria, to Austria’s dismay.
France decides to stay neutral as the original conflict was with the Ottomans.
Italy mobilizes its forces anticipating gaining its objectives.
The War of Emperors:
In early December Russian troops crosses the border of Austria and moves into Galicia.
1895 The conservative government of the Scandinavian Union is forced to resign as some of its members are associated with the “Aftontidningen” uncovering of Cameroon.
Elections are held in which the Holstein Movement and Social democratic Parties share the majority. And form government but in uneasy alliance.
A Scandinavian Union expedition makes the first landing in the Antarctica.
The first moving pictures are shown in Paris. The frontal shot of a moving train makes the audiences flee the theatre.
The War of Emperors:
In late January Russia’s armies have overrun the Austrians in Galicia and the Austrians are defending the passes in the Carpathians. Lvov and Krakow have been liberated from the Austrian yoke.
Italy has sent its army into Venice but is halted on the Piave. A secondary thrust into South Tyrol is easily barred by the Austrians.
19 year old Adolph Hitler is drafted into the Austrian army and serves the war on the Italian front. Being wounded in the throat he has speech impeded for the rest of his life and develops a hatred of anything Italian. Living in Vienna he display his paintings and wearing his military coat with decorations he is able to make a meagre living, enough to sustain his wife and three children.
Prussia has partly mobilized to check the border with Austria and Russia in Schlesia.
The Russians makes several attempts during spring to overrun the Austrian defences in the Carpathians, but this is not Shipka pass and the Austrian defenders are staunch. Russian losses are mounting far out of the acceptable.
The Italians are also feeling the toll of war with massive losses on the Piave and not able to push the Austrians back.
June: the Austrians go on the offensive in both Italy and the Carpathians.
In Italy the Austrians push the Italians back across the Po and then halt their offensive.
In the Carpathians the Russians are now sticking to the mountain passes and the Austrian offensive peters out due to high losses and no gains.
August: The Italian front is calm with the Italians being forced back to their start line.
In the Carpathians the Russians take a well prepared offensive that has some early success but then grinds to a halt.
October: France calls for a peace conference in Paris that is attended by Austria, Russia, Britain, Italy, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia.
At the conference everybody is against the Ottomans but the realities of war are – realities.
The Ottomans keep their territory but Bulgaria wins independence.
Austria cedes Galicia to Russia and Venice south of the Piave to Italy. A Hungarian protest develops into a constitutional crisis. The Austrian Empire is split into an Austrian and a Hungarian part.
This fuels on the Slavs who demand autonomy too like the Scandinavian Union (which at this time is about to merge into one United Kingdom of Scandinavia). The outcome is a tri-monarchical union like the Scandinavian of 1815, divided into an Austrian, a Hungarian and a Slavic/Croatian Empire – the Triple Monarchy.
With the Triple Monarchy having its hands full the German Princes meet in Hanover to discuss the final dismemberment of the German Confederation. Austria and Prussia are not invited to the meeting.
With the still existing patchwork of Germany being more and more annoying to its Princes because of the need of customs unions to rule lands spread over all of western Germany it is agreed to join in a nation on the North German Corporation model.
The issue is not to do it, but who is going to head it. After debate in which King Ludwig 2 of Bavaria is deemed unfit for this supreme post the choice is between the senior kings of Saxony and Württemberg. Württemberg King William 2 has only a daughter as issue and as Salic law is adhered to that leaves him out.
Albert King of Saxony is without issue which leaves the choice on King Ernest Augustus 2 of Hanover as King of the Federation of Germanic Nations - FGN.
China cedes Taiwan to Japan.
Map of Europe 1895 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902892&postcount=806)
1896 The methods of colonization in Africa are scrutinized by the Scandinavian Union government and more government officials appointed to control the settlers and plantation owners. A third regiment of Marines are decided to be raised to patrol the African colonies as are more local militia.
The government of Holstein Movement and Social democrats breaks up on the colonial issue. The Social democrats wants more far reaching reforms of the colonial administration than the Holstein Movement can agree to.
After elections a Holstein Movement – Conservative government takes office.
Prince Frederick graduates the army officer’s academy and joins the Drabant Guards.
Madsen Rifle factory begin the delivering of recoil operated self loading carbines with a twenty round magazine. The carbine (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902920&postcount=824) is primarily issued to the Marines to replace the Rasmussen rifle.
The Madsen SLR is in great demand due to its success in the Balkans.
First of the modern Olympics held in Athens, Greece.
Tsar Nicholas 2 is crowned in the Uspenskij cathedral in Moscow.
Russia recognizes King Ferdinand 1 of Bulgaria.
The Russian army begin a modernization programme countering the experiences of the Emperors War.
Feeling left out on a limp Italy approach France for an alliance; Italy wants to acquire Venice, Trieste and South Tyrol as well as parts of the Ottoman Empire. Italy accedes to French demands on Morocco and is given a free hand in Libya; should the opportunity arise.
To strengthen the position of the Federation of Germanic Nations King Ernest Augustus 2 begins talks with France on the return of French occupied German lands.
The talks arouse German national sentiment and Ernest Augustus is strongly supported in his efforts.
The German sentiments are even further aroused by the French proposal of ceding the German land to Luxembourg because of Grand Duchess Marie de Orleans. But this proposal backfires in the French public.
French newspapers scream at the plot to strengthen French royalty in German guise - on the border of the Republic!
The proposal also has repercussions in Germany by fuelling anti-French sentiment.
Riots break out in several German cities. Talks break down for the remainder of the year.
The Federation of Germanic Nations – FGN - is as the name implies a federation of German states each headed by its sovereign. The states have decided to cooperate on military matters because of the still perceived threat of Prussia and because of the order of the day with a weakened Austria now reformed into the Triple Monarchy and a strong Russia.
The alliance with the Scandinavian Union is kept to secure the few colonies by taking advantage of that nation’s shipbuilding knowledge that keeps communications with its widespread colonial empire.
The states also cooperate on internal matters such as removal of customs barriers to ease the flow of goods between the states and from the overseas through the North German ports.
The acquisition of the Prussian provinces of Rhineland and Westphalia is a boost to FGN economy and military abilities because of the industry and large population.
To move the goods and army around the railway network of the FGN is ever strengthened by the laying of tracks joining it with every neighbouring country.
The King of Hanover is recognized as head of the federated state, not as a sovereign but as primus inter pares.
The capital is placed in Hanover to move away from the German Confederation assembly in Frankfurt am Main and its Austrian and Prussian shadows to begin a new chapter in Germanic history.
The effort is seen as to unite those Germanic peoples interested therein.
The state is to recognize freedom of confession at least of the Christian churches and Jews.
The ideas of the Holstein Movement have been known in Hanover for quite some years and adhered to by government and is now also spreading to the rest of the FGN.
The FGN is still a conglomerate of states but a few internal borders have been broken down and more is to follow.
1897 To secure the colonies and modernize the army an enlarged defence budget is proposed and passed. As well as the army the navy is to receive new transport ships for the Marines to replace the old converted ships of the line now going on their sixtieth year.
The conservatives of Slesvig hackle over the defence budget arguing that the sons of Scandinavia are to die defending blacks. The Holstein Movement – Conservatives government reply that the conservatives of Slesvig don’t mind the Marines defending their overseas estates!
To finance the enlarged defence budget taxes has to be raised.
The conservative nobility argue that indirect taxes such as VAT should be used but the Holstein Movement and Social democrats argue for income taxes to increase and an estates tax that is going to hit the nobility hard. The Conservatives tries to soothe things by a combination of indirect and direct taxes.
The debate is heated and elections are decided to take place in January 1898.
Prince Frederick asks to be relieved of his commission with the Drabant Guards and take up service as an officer of the infantry. After much debate within the royal family he is transferred from the Drabant Guards to the 22. Infantry battalion garrisoned in Slesvig.
Grand Duke Friedrich Franz 3 of Mecklenburg-Schwerin dies and is succeeded by his son Friedrich Franz 4.
An uprising breaks out on Crete; confident of support Greece declares war on the Ottoman Empire and despatch forces for Crete.
Not wanting a remake of the 1894 war the Great Powers rein in their satellites and Britain press Greece to withdraw from Crete.
British, French and Russian troops occupy Crete until 1898.
The Cretan uprising is warmly welcome in France. It diverts public attention from the talks with the Federation of Germanic Nations - FGN. The talks continue through the year.
Britain accepts US mediation in a border conflict with Venezuela.
FGN and Scandinavian warships land troops in China due to the killing of two missionaries and as a reprisal occupy Chiao-chou and Tsingtao; during a shootout in Tsingtao the Scandinavian Marines use their new Madsen Magazine Carbine with devastating success. 207 dead Chinese; just one killed and three wounded Marines!
Chiao-chou is leased by the Emperor to FGN and Tsingtao to the Scandinavian Union for 99 years. This set off a race by the European powers to secure ports in China.
1898 January elections have the Holstein Movement keep its seats in the Storthing. The Social democrats win a resounding 15% while the Conservatives are suffering a major defeat. The Liberals also keep their seats.
In the new Storthing the Holstein Movement and the Liberals join to form government being asked to do so by the Queen.
The new tax bill is centred upon income tax and estate tax.
Estate tax is graded so that small farms and private housing is almost exempt but large nobility estates and logging enterprises are hard hit or so the nobility and managers claim.
The bill is passed and the Conservatives are split on the issue.
A Nobility party separates from the Conservatives to serve the interests of great landowners.
Scandinavian scientist Olaf Birkeland is leading expeditions to Iceland, Greenland and Svalbard in his work on aurora borealis and magnetic storms.
Burmeister & Wain begin the manufacture of diesel engines. Diesel engines are installed as auxiliary machinery in warships.
The Federation of Germanic Nations place an order at Madsen Rifle factory for 30000 Magazine Carbines. Extra factories are setup in Bergen and Malmö.
Princess Caroline suddenly dies of an illness. She didn’t marry and leaves no issue.
USS Maine explodes in the harbour of Havana, Cuba. In the naval battle at Manila Bay the US defeats the Spanish navy.
The Philippines declare independence.
Spain cedes Cuba to the US after the defeat at the Battle of San Juan Hill. Spain cedes Guam and Puerto Rico at the peace talks in Paris.
The US annexes Hawaii.
Britain and France divide the northern African interior after coming close to war at the Nile.
1899 Electric power stations is setup in the major Scandinavian cities to deliver power for the trams and street lighting.
Prince Frederick is the talk of the day in the Scandinavian Union; he has married a commoner! Augusta Henrietta Frandsen daughter of a miller who works at the garrison mess – outrage! Prince Frederick is told that his children are not to be part of the succession.
But being the woman she is, the Queen naturally invites Prince Frederick, Ms. Augusta and their children to spend the major holidays at court.
Russia schemes to get its hands on the straits. The Triple Monarchy is impolitely told to stuff its protests and keep their hands off Bosnia-Herzegovina.
USA annexes the Philippines.
France in a gesture of good neighbour ship returns its 1883 possession to the Federation of Germanic Nations which is to be administrated by Hanover to avoid further unrest.
To ensure that good neighbour ship FGN enter a treaty supporting French interests in Morocco.
On new years ewe the police in many cities fights huge crowds celebrating the coming of the next century.
1900 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 5,9 mill. Norway: 2,6 mill. Denmark: 3,27 mill. Total: 11,77 mill.
The colonial issue is still debated and it is decided to set up Cameroon as an overseas dependency along the West Indies, Ghana and Togo.
The Scandinavian Union Police Commissioner set up a bureau for investigating fingerprints at crime scenes.
Scandinavian C.E. Krarup enhances the telephone cables range and quality by adding a thin iron thread spun around the cables.
Ms. Augusta wife of Prince Frederick gives birth to a daughter Margrete Dagmar.
The Second International’s Paris congress, a permanent executive and information body is formed.
The first Zeppelin takes to the air over the Bodensee.
Spain puts up the Marianas for sale – bought by the Federation of Germanic Nations.
Armoured cars and road trains are used by the British during the Boer war.
The Boxer Rebellion in China is countered by the Europeans by force. Scandinavian Marines and Federation of Germanic Nations troops armed with Madsen Magazine Carbines blast their way forward spearheading the European relief force for Bejing.
An appalling number of Boxers and other Chinese are gunned down due to the rapid fire delivered. The only real problem encountered is re-supply of 8mm rounds.
King Umberto 1 of Italy is murdered by an anarchist and is succeeded by Victor Immanuel 3.
Sigmund Freud publishes his book “The Interpretation of Dreams”.
Max Planck publishes his theory on Quantum Physics.
1901 Scandinavian scientist Olaf Birkeland explain aurora borealis as solar electron radiation being deflected by Earth’s magnetic fields.
A number of British cars are acquired for the Scandinavian armed forces and mostly used as staff cars. A few trucks are purchased in FGN to be evaluated for transportation and as artillery tractors.
Death of Queen Victoria at age 82; she is succeeded by Albert Edward as King Edward 7.
Queen Margrete 2 attends the funeral in London.
The French army use armoured automobiles pushing into Morocco from Algeria.
The harsh Boxer protocol makes China take to European style reforms to increase its strength.
US president McKinley is assassinated by anarchist Czolgocz.
Marconi is the first to send a wireless radio-signal across the Atlantic.
Map of the World 1901 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902893&postcount=807)
1902 Scandinavian engineer Valdemar Poulsen invents the Poulsen arc transmitter which is going to make radio-telephony real. He does not make his discovery public until 1906.
Anglo-Dane truck manufacturer is founded in Odense, Scandinavian Union. The name may signal the orientation of the Scandinavians.
USA makes Cuba a free state but under US protection.
Russia is building up its Black Sea fleet to the uneasiness of the Triple Monarchy.
The Triple Monarchy turns to the Federation of Germanic Nations and France as well as Britain to get an alliance against Russia. No one of said powers wants to enter formal alliance but both Federation of Germanic Nations and France are positive towards the Triple Monarchy.
China orders Madsen SLR’s for the army.
1903 To counter the use up of Chile natural source of nitrogen Scandinavian scientist Olaf Birkeland and engineer Sam Eyde discover an electrical method of extracting nitrogen from the atmosphere and make it fluid as nitrogen trioxide.
Madsen Rifle Factory develops a light machine-gun operated by recoil. It is as usual of Madsen products a forerunner of light machine-guns such as the ZB vz.26, Bren and others. The lmg is adopted by Scandinavian armed forces this year.
The Russian socialist party are split in the Menshevik and Bolshevik fractions. The Menshevik wants to await the death throes of capitalism while the Bolshevik want to push capitalism over the edge by revolution.
Henry Ford produce his first car – the A model.
Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first flight in a heavier-than-air vehicle.
1904 Scandinavian Union finishes building of several large electric power stations to supply the cities with power for light, trams and public use of electric utensils.
New refrigerating technology is used in ships for transport of fruit. This makes for introduction and regular supply of such fruits as bananas, oranges, pineapple etc. grown in Scandinavian Union overseas dependencies being sold on markets in Scandinavian cities.
Italian warships burning oil instead of coal gives better performance and higher speed.
Cars are slowly appearing as toys of the wealthy.
Albert Einstein publishes his theory of relativity.
I.G. Farben works is setup in FGN by amalgamation of Chemishe Werke Bayer, Agfa and Badische Anilinfabrik. Due to the good relations between the Scandinavian Union and the FGN the products among these aniline dye for cloth dying is readily available in Scandinavia.
The Herero’s of South West Africa rebels against German settlers. Federation of Germanic Nations army units are sent to re-establish peace and put down the rebellion; another triumph of the Madsen Magazine Carbine.
Britain and France terminate their conflict of African colonies and brokers their spheres of interest in North Africa. France’s interests in Morocco are thus secured.
Russia completes the Trans-Siberian Railway. This sets off Japanese enlargement of their zones of interest in China bringing Japan into conflict with Russia and Britain as well as France, the Federated Germanic Nations and the Scandinavian Union.
The USA is also interested in gaining influence in China and participates in the squeeze on Japan.
The European/USA pressure has Japan back down.
1905 News of the British use of armoured cars and road trains during the Boer War reaches Scandinavia. As anyone else during the era a curiosity for technical achievements is alive and an Anglo-Dane truck is fitted with armour plating and a 37mm Gatling gun.
The Italian conversion of warships to oil burners is taken up by the Scandinavian navy. A corvette, small armoured warship with a diesel engine as primary power source is ordered.
Italy Prussia and Russia sign an alliance directed against the Triple Monarchy; Italy is promised Venice, South Tyrol, Trieste and Dalmatia as spoils of war.
France set up a protectorate of Morocco.
1906 First flight in Europe takes place outside Göteborg. J.C. Ellehammer is in a few years going to establish the Scandinavian Aeroplan Aktie Bolag or SAAB, to produce aeroplanes for those able to afford it and the armed forces.
Scandinavian engineer Valdemar Poulsen set up wireless telegraphy between Göteborg and Newcastle.
The Triple Monarchy is able to get French and FGN assurances of support in case of war with Italy, Prussia and Russia.
Britain warns Russia of going for the Straits.
The great San Francisco earth-quake; a thousand dies a quarter of a million is made homeless.
1907 The Holstein Movement and the Social democratic fight the conservative government on the naval issue.
To keep communications with the colonies long range Ingialds are needed; for defence of the home waters u-boats, torpedo boats and modern Narwhals.
The trials of the diesel engine corvette ordered 1905 is found to be satisfactory and the ship enters service as “Ran”. It is a scaled down Ingiald with 6x4” guns in three turrets and 10x37mm Gatling guns intended for anti torpedo boat service. This experiment makes for new orders in small warships being delivered with diesel engines.
French warships bombard Casablanca in retaliation of the killing of nine Europeans. 15000 French troops are landed in the city. Morocco is de facto turned into a French colony.
Sun Yat-Sen proclaims the reform programme of the young Chinese.
1908 Wireless telegraphy is experimentally used in Scandinavian warships operating in the Baltic.
Calabria and Sicily are hit by an earthquake killing 83000 peoples and flattening the city of Messina.
Russia embarks on foreign adventures to distract its population from demanding social reform. Russia’s demanding the Straits is countered by the Triple Monarchy that wants to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina. This fuels Serbia supported by Russia.
William 2 of Prussia then warns the Triple Monarchy this might trigger war and this fire off Italian claims to Venice, South Tyrol, Trieste and Dalmatia.
But Britain sees its interests threatened and backed by France and the Federation of Germanic Nations - FGN it takes off to bully Russian in place. A British squadron enters the Black Sea steaming towards Odessa.
Another British squadron enters the Baltic and the Scandinavian Union guarantee Britain re-supply of its warships in the Baltic.
A combined British – French squadron buttons up the Adriatic keeping the Italians from entering it.
The situation is about to go out of control with Italian sailors flying Scandinavian Union flags to insult the French who answer by letting off shots. The British makes the French cease fire and only a few Italian sailors are killed.
Calling for a conference in Hanover the British, French and FGN have Russia and the Triple Monarchy shelve the issue. Bosnia-Herzegovina remains de jure Ottoman.
Britain enters a treaty with Russia dividing Persia into zones of interest as well as Afghanistan.
At Tunguska in Siberia a meteor, probably a lump of ice enters the atmosphere and explodes in a blast toppling some 80000 trees.
1909 The Holstein Movement give in on the naval issue because of the European situation.
Ten new Ingialds are ordered in addition to u-boats, torpedo boats and Narwhals.
The army test two air-craft and the navy is given one airship.
Knud Rasmussen launches his private venture to establish a trading colony in Thule – North West Greenland.
The Scandinavian Postal service orders 2 aeroplanes for the service of distant towns.
The first man crosses the Channel in an aeroplane.
King Leopold 2 of Belgium dies; he is succeeded by his son Albert.
Feeling robbed of an opportunity in 1908 Russia turns to the east.
Robert Peary reaches the North Pole.
1910 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 6,2 mill. Norway: 2,8 mill. Denmark: 3,5 mill. Total: 12,5 mill.
Queen Margrete 2 of the Scandinavian Union dies at age 79; she is succeeded by her son King Ferdinand 2. (45)
Small airfields are being made at towns in the north of Scandinavia and on small islands to be used by the Postal service.
Conservation of fish by freezing makes the range of the Norwegian fishing fleet larger.
Second International declare March 8 International Women’s Day.
British arms engineer Percy Scott construct a telescopic sight for naval artillery making ranging and firing with all pieces at the same time possible; much increasing the firepower of warships.
1911 The Postal service is extended to the Aaland Islands and northern Finland.
Prince Gustav Frederick Ferdinand Charles of the Scandinavian Union turns 18.
Statues of late Queen Margrete 2 is erected all over the Scandinavian Union paid for by government, companies or public donation. One is even set up in Slesvig!
Captain John Rasmussen, company commander 1. Battalion, 2. Regiment Scandinavian Marines of black slave descent of the Scandinavian West Indies files an application for joining the Army officers Academy of Stockholm.
The application makes a fuss as Cpt. Rasmussen is an officer of the Marines and technically a Navy officer; on the other hand his service is in the role of an army officer.
The initial answer is a rejection and Cpt. Rasmussen is told to apply for the Navy officers Academy. As the Navy officers Academy isn’t the field of service for Cpt. Rasmussen he once again applies for the Army officers Academy arguing that he, as other black officers of the Marines never had formal officers training but were promoted due to service record, bravery and initiative.
He never experienced a reprimand by his Commanding Officer but is eager to go through the Academy to become an even better officer.
Cpt. Rasmussen also writes the King Ferdinand 2 and encloses his service record:
Enlisted with the Marines 2. Regiment 1893, posted to the Nicobar Islands where he took part in the quenching of a prisoner’s riot – made corporal 1894, posted to Cameroon for 2 years, Ghana 1896, aboard the Holstein 1897 – took part in the Tsingtao operation and his squad was noted in the subsequent shootout with Chinese for 34 kills, one of his men wounded but later returned to service, made sergeant 1897 following the Tsingtao operation, posted to Papua 1899, 1900 sent to China to be part of the advance Guard to liberate Beijing – promoted to Lieutenant for bravery and being the only officer or NCO alive in his unit upon reaching Beijing and having kept cohesion of his unit all the way; promoted Captain 1903 when his CO was killed during an ambush in the countryside of Tsingtao; part of the honour guard of the funeral of Queen Margrete 2 1910.
Seated close to Knud Rasmussen at a banquet the King brings about the issue of this black officer that has asked his favour and Knud Rasmussen speaks his case in an indirect way by mentioning his ever loyal Inuit sleigh drivers during his expeditions in the Arctic, their devotion to the task, ability to make do on virtually noting, always in a good humour, always saying the praise of the lord and the praise of their monarch and love of the flag of the Scandinavian Union and even if not knowing said captain being sure of his possessing these good qualities.
The next morning King Ferdinand writes a letter to the benefit of Cpt. Rasmussen addressed to the Army officers Academy.
Rutherford describes his orbital theory of the atom.
A bad harvest in China triggers unrest. Sun Yat-Sen set up a revolutionary government in Nanjing.
1912 A tragic incident of ground troops during exercises firing live ammunition from lmg’s and magazine carbines at one of the army’s airplanes downing it and killing the pilot has the Scandinavian army formulate regulations for using automatic small arms for anti-aircraft and anti-balloon service. Later a 37mm Gatling gun is to be utilized for the role.
The incident doesn’t serve to decrease military interest in aircraft as the surviving pilot gives accurate positions of the opposing side during the manoeuvres making his commander able to “win” the exercise by reacting to “enemy” activity.
War on the Balkans - an alliance of Serbia, Bulgarian, Montenegro and Greece combats the Ottoman Empire.
US troops are shipped off to Nicaragua to remain there until 1925 to secure order.
The Chinese Emperor Pu Yi abdicates; the Sun Yat-Sen movement forms the Goumindang Party with Chiang Kai-shek as its military advisor.
1913 The 1912 incident makes for Scandinavian military pilots surging for flying higher and faster to evade ground delivered anti-aircraft fire. It also makes for Scandinavian Gun manufacturer Aaker’s to construct a new high velocity small calibre gun for anti-aircraft fire.
Niels Bohr publicizes his “On the constitution of Atoms and Molecules”.
To measure radioactivity the Geiger counter is invented.
Radiotelephony across the Atlantic is initiated.
Triple Monarchy army officer Günther Burstyn forward the idea of an armoured vehicle a Motorgeschütz intended for crossing terrain and trenches as used in the 1895 Emperors War. The Triple Monarchy examine Burstyn’s vehicle and order three for trails.
Two of these are later sold off to FGN.
War on the Balkans: after two wars the Ottoman Empire loses almost all its territory in Europe except for the area around Istanbul.(OTL European Turkey)
Bulgaria seeing itself as the big looser goes to war against its former allies during the second war because of too small gains in the first.
The Ottoman Empire is able to keep de jure control of Bosnia even if the Triple Monarchy is de facto ruler of the province. Britain keeps Triple Monarchy on a short leash on this.
October: assembly line production of Ford T-model is begun.
Sun Yat-sen is asked to become first president of the Chinese Republic; he declines and name Yuan Shi-kai who has the backing of the army commanders.
With the army Yuan Shi-kai crushes the Second Revolution of southern China that was fuelled by the Japanese.
1914 Captain John Rasmussen graduates the Scandinavian Army officers Academy; in praise of his records he is upon graduation awarded a gold hilted sword by King Ferdinand 2 and is then promoted Major and sent off to the 1. Regiment Scandinavian Marines in Tsingtao, to take command as CO 2. Battalion.
The first long range flying boat is tested by the Scandinavian navy. It is intended for use mainly in the Pacific to keep communications throughout the Papua and Solomon Islands.
FGN uses Zeppelins for the same purpose.
Triple Monarchy heir Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo by a young Serb as the Serbs perceive the continued Triple Monarchy/Ottoman Empire possession of Bosnia an abomination and want to end that by putting Bosnia under Serb control.
Triple Monarchy issue an ultimatum to Serbia to punish the assassins. The Triple Monarchy has the backing of Britain, France, Ottoman Empire and FGN.
Serbia on Russia’s council almost totally accedes to the ultimatum.
Britain, France, Ottoman Empire, Russia, FGN and Italy finds the Serbian acceding in accordance with what must be to the satisfaction of the Triple Monarchy wishes and war is averted.
June: opening of the Panama Canal reduce the distance for travel between the US coasts with approximately 7000 nautical miles.
The crushing of the Second Revolution of China have Japan look towards the Pacific to enlarge her Empire.
In the Pacific Japan begin to pick off the remaining non-colonized islands.
Moving south into Micronesia picking off the Carolinas it soon reaches FGN and Scandinavian Union colonies.
After some show of force met by equal and coordinated action by the Scandinavian Union and FGN the Japanese concludes a treaty with both nations with Britain and the USA as brokers. Extend of Japanese colonies is settled and war is averted.
Map of the World 1914 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902894&postcount=808)
1915 Pollen analysis is pioneered by Scandinavian geologist Lennart von Post to date archaeological findings. The Scandinavian Science Board support von Post’s work.
FGN export the Zeppelin to Britain, France, USA and Japan; it provides stable long range haul of post and passengers for the colonies and across oceans.
To counter the problem of hydrogen for lift an agreement is made with the USA of trading know-how and chemicals like dye for helium.
The murder of Franz Ferdinand and subsequent settlement with Serbia fuels some national sentiment in Italy. Italia irredenti calls for rallying all forces to make Venice, South Tyrol and Trieste return to Italy. Socialist Benito Mussolini in the newspaper “Avanti!” advocates Italy’s legacy to free the provinces under Austrian oppression.
The rift between Italian and Triple Monarchy socialists spread to the Second International. The International tries to re-conciliate the two parties but only the decision of the Italian party to throw out Benito Mussolini ends the conflict.
Alexander Graham Bell makes the first telephone conversation across the USA from New York to San Francisco.
Mohandas Gandhi leaves South Africa for his native India.
Yuan Shi-kai tries to reinstate the Empire in China but Britain and Japan strongly objects it.
Japan tries to get Yuan Shi-kai to accept ceding some provinces but this action is foiled by British and US intervention as well as Yuan Shi-kai being sure of Chinese strength to resist the Japanese.
1916 Britain launches its first Super Ingiald. (TTL “Dreadnought”)
The ship carries 10x12” guns in five turrets. The launch is observed by major naval powers and keels are laid for Super Ingialds in USA, France, Japan, Italy, Russia and FGN.
Yuan Shi-kai resigns because of rebellion and China breaks down into warring provinces.
To protect their interests the concession powers, the European, Japan and the USA ships off troops and naval units to China. The concession powers also fund warlords in their spheres of interest.
The Philippines are given autonomy.
1917 The situation in China is used by the concession powers to test new weapons of war.
The Scandinavian Union test aircraft and machine-guns as well as new longer range naval artillery for coastal bombardment. Some Anglo-Dane trucks armoured and armed with a 37mm Gatling gun as well as artillery tractors are tried in field conditions.
The FGN tries out the Motorgeschütz in China under field conditions. The steering gear needs improvement.
One vital discovery is the difficulty of accompanying infantry to communicate with the crew with hatches closed during combat conditions.
The infantry commander carries a big hammer to signal the Motorgeschütz commander but something better had to be thought up. A small two way hatch was then devised through which to put messages, but as the operations officer would also like to control the movement of the Motorgeschütze another device had to be developed for use under European combat conditions.
Apart from this the Motorgeschütz fared well even if they often broke down due to frail mechanics.
One of the Motorgeschütz is later lost to AP fire from a 37 mm naval Gatling gun used by the army of an opposing Warlord.
Other concession powers also test their hardware on live targets and China sink into chaos.
In the county side communists begin rallying support by supporting the down-trotted peasants.
The Chinese warlords fund their activities by concession powers support and growing of opium which is sold illegally, mostly in Asia but in time it finds its way to North America and Europe.
Albert Leon Charles Calmette at the Pasteur institution at Lille discovers the tuberculosis vaccination.
Triple Monarcy Emperor Franz Josef dies; the throne passes to Franz Josef’s brother’s grandson Charles only after much debate in parliament of all three countries.
Mussolini in his newspaper “Italia Forza!” rants against the new Emperor demanding return of the lost provinces. Mussolini is trying to build a political platform and receives much support from conservative circles.
1918 The China issue is raised in the Storthing after reports issued by mostly US newspapers are known in Scandinavia. Socialists and Social democrats are opposed to the rising costs of maintaining the presence in Tsingtao as well as Scandinavian Union adding to the chaos.
Margrete Dagmar, daughter of Prince Frederick of the Scandinavian Union turns 18.
Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner discover the radioactive protactinium.
A report is passed to the FGN General Staff regarding the use of Motorgeschütze in combat conditions.
An improved vehicle fitted with a one-way radio for receiving direction from the operations officer is ordered for tests.
In China the Japanese, Russians, British, US and French are very actively supporting their proxy warlords while the FGN and Scandinavian Union due to logistic problems are less active.
Mohandas Gandhi is sentenced to six years imprisonment for initiating a campaign of disobedience to the British rule in India.
The events in China makes for larger aircraft deemed necessary for maintaining communications overseas. Britain, France, FGN, USA and Scandinavian Union all built twin engine flying boats to serve their overseas destinations.
The flying boat is adopted due to lack of airfields enroute to China or the colonies.
The FGN is actually holding the edge at long range communications due to the Zeppelins ability to carry larger payloads than aircraft even if they move much slower.
1919 More large flying boats enter service. A few are used by the Scandinavian postal service for servicing the Faeroe Island, Iceland and Greenland.
The long haul from Europe to China makes a number of pilots from various nations ponders how to refuel the long range flying boats to increase their range.
The Japanese and USA also devote thought to the idea to cover their vast colonial Empires of the Pacific.
The only ones not really showing an interest is the FGN due to their supply of Zeppelin airships.
Rutherford transmutes nitrogen converting it to oxygen.
An anti-China involvement movement develops in Scandinavia. The Tsingtao is demanded given back to the Chinese and Scandinavian armed forces recalled.
The majority of the Storthing though is still bent on keeping the foothold in China.
Opium enters the illegal market in Europe. Unnoticed at first but as problems increases Scandinavian doctors warns of the implications of drug abuse.
In Ireland a rebellion against British rule breaks out. As it is unsupported the rebellion is quickly foiled by the British army and some of the leaders are tried and shot.
The Arabs having been under Ottoman yoke for centuries can no longer stand the situation and rebels. But in fact they are being enticed by Russia that believes it has found a shortcut to the Straits!
Coming to the aid of the Ottomans are the Triple Monarchy and Britain, mostly in their own interests being threatened by Russia.
The Ottomans scoop up army units from around the Empire to meet the Arab revolt, but also to guard the border with Russia and Iran.
1920 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 6,57 mill. Norway: 2,96 mill. Denmark: 3,8 mill. Total: 13,33 mill.
The 200 th anniversary of H.C. Ørsted’s discovery of electro-magnetism is celebrated by the Scandinavian Science Board by reissuing Ørsted’s four page treatise in several languages.
The anti-China movement tries to raise the issue in the Storthing once again, but it is dismissed by the majority.
The Shantung warlord is asked however to cut back on opium production and let his peasants change for other agricultural produce.
Margrethe Dagmar enters the University of Copenhagen as a law student.
Rutherford discovers the proton.
Watching on the sideline France sends forces into Libya and presents the Ottoman Empire with a fait accompli announcing its intention to secure the borders of Libya on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Finding no sympathy in countering the French move and being tied up in the Arab revolt the Ottomans gives in to France.
The Italians are once again enraged pointing to the French – Italian understanding of 1896 which France rejects; Italy could have been the one taking advantage of the situation. Mussolini calls for war on France but a beaten Italy offers the Ottoman Empire her help which isn’t really needed.
1921 At the 200 th anniversary of Scandinavian colonization of Greenland an expedition is sent off to map the last parts of the island’s North East – Peary Land.
Niels Bohr work together with Rutherford at Cavendish institute, Cambridge. Rutherford formulates his theory on neutrons; Bohr set up the periodic system.
Japan tries to bully the Scandinavian Union into ceding Tsingtao but is repulsed by FGN and Scandinavian having their forces in China reinforced from Papua.
The Scandinavian Union naval presence in Chinese waters is increased by two Country class Ingialds sent off from home waters.
Japan is once again made to bow to the superior European nations and the USA.
1922 The Union Commissioner of Police Forces begin investigations to uncover the drug trafficking.
Scandinavian Film Industry and FGN Universum Film AG or UFA enters in corporation on movie making.
Notes of a traveller visiting the Scandinavian Union:
…this Scandinavian Union is a most interesting country to visit. The population is generally Scandinavian but you see the occasional black or Inuit head popping up due to the colonial policy of training natives for colonial administration in Scandinavia.
…The Guards at Göteborg Palace is a sight to behold; no one stand less than 6’ tall, clad in read and gold they are an quite a sight especially as they carry the new model Madsen Magazine Carbine…
…Peoples of Scandinavia are almost all literate and newspapers are plenty. With a little luck you will be able to find major English, German or French language newspapers in Göteborg and occasionally in Copenhagen, Stockholm or Kristiania…
…Scandinavia places great interest in health; public baths are plenty, tap water is drinkable and fresh water available everywhere. If you go to the beach – yes there are acceptable beaches in this country mostly in the south of it, in Denmark – you’d see both genders and their children relaxing in the sun. Dressed up in newest bathing suit fashion or at secluded places in the nude! Both sexes...
The three Kingdoms are remarkably similar to the foreign eye but spend some time and you’ll notice some differences:
Denmark is almost all farming land, beautiful rolling fields, a stench of pig in the air and then Tivoli which is a must to any visitor. But do avoid it on July 1. when its crowded with young men just returned from national service and their fiancées! It is a very crowded night and tempers may grow hot due to the most insignificant of reasons.
Sweden the home of the capital shows fields in the south, mountains in the west and in the centre of the country you’d find the arms factories of Aakers – most famous for their produce.
Norway is a land of forest covered mountains a rocky coast inhabited by wind beaten fishermen but you also find the large Nitrate works producing all the fertilizer needed for the Unions agricultural and ammunition factories needs.
Göteborg is a bustling city with a scant air on the international upon it due to the many educational institutions receiving its students from all of the colonial Empire. It is a modern city founded only some forty years ago with electrically powered trams and street lights. The city has a lot of industry in the suburbs like the SAAB and Madsen Rifle Factory, just one of this the most enterprising Scandinavian industry, cars are not unusual and the city airport is busy mostly by Postal Scandinavia aircraft delivering mail for the farthest corners of the country as well as the neighbouring ones and Zeppelins, mostly from the FGN is a regular sight.
…The armed forces Army and Navy are something of which any Scandinavian is very proud. Their record is impressive of course and their arms, ships and aircraft almost to the smallest nail locally produced. All males coming of age must serve their country for two years and are very proud to be able to serve King and country…
1923 Arnold Poulsen and Axel Petersen give the first public performance of talking movies. The technology is immediately handed over to UFA to enhance corporation output.
King Ernest Augustus 2 of the Federation of Germanic Nations dies; he is succeeded by his son Georg 6.
The British gives Home Rule to Ireland.
An Earthquake in Gansu Province in China kills 200000 peoples.
1924 Volvo Motor Company is founded.
Ireland is given independence and the British army leaves it. Britain retains control of Ulster.
Vladimir Lenin dies – the Russian communist party leadership initiates a struggle for the chairmanship.
Civil war breaks out in China between Goumindang, Monarchist’s and communists.
Following an operation for appendicitis Mohandas Gandhi is released from prison and takes up his work against the British colonial rule. His initial work is to reunite the Indian National Congress that had splintered during his time in prison.
1925 Margrete Dagmar finishes her study of law. She obtains a position with the Prosecutors Office of Slesvig.
In FGN and USA experiments are done to build workable rockets. Space is seen as the next area of expansion by civilized man.
The Chinese civil war continues. The British troops in Shanghai fire at Chinese demonstrators killing several of them. This incident fires off a national upsurge in China against foreign concession states.
1926 Scottish inventor John Baird show the first public TV broadcast in London.
Having reformed the Indian National Congress Mohandas Gandhi resume the disobedience campaign against British Colonial rule.
1927 Scandinavian engineers Schroeder and van Deurs invent foam to be used for fire fighting.
Britain ships off more troops for China. Other European nations follow suit as does the US.
Pfleumer of FGN invents magnetic tapes for recording – the tapes are made of plastic covered by Ferro oxide.
The Union of Spaceflight (Verein für Raumschiffsfarth) is founded in Breslau, Prussia.
1928 Goumindang declare it has secured control of China. In the concession cities fighting is a frequent occurrence between Chinese and Europeans. General strikes are another weapon used by the Chinese against the concession powers.
The unrest in China has the British enter negotiations with Gandhi to secure the line of communications.
Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
Vladimir Kosma Zworykin invents the iconoscope a revolutionary new tube for televisions that makes higher resolution possible.
At a radio exhibition in Hanover is shown radio transmitted television.
1929 A FGN doctor, Professor Heine in Kiel makes the first contact lenses that are an immediate success on all markets.
Kurt Stille invents the practical tape recorder. His tapes are made of steel; heavy and expensive.
October: The Wall Street crash. Russia is hit tremendously and society breaks down into poverty where every man fends for himself. Government is unable to uphold law and order and no civil servant is paid. The Russian government is unable to pay interest on foreign loans.
Communist agitators rally peoples in the major cities to demand payment, bread and butter.
1930 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 7,3 mill. Norway: 3,25 mill. Denmark: 4,28 mill. Total: 14,83 mill.
As the number of unemployed workers grow so does social unrest, not only in the Scandinavian Union but all over Europe and the world.
The planet Pluto is discovered by astronomer Clyde Tombaugh.
In St. Petersburg and Moscow as well as Kiev, Odessa and Warsaw Communist incited revolution breaks out to counter the non-management of government. Soviets are set up in the major Russian cities declaring the dictatorship of the Proletariat.
Poland declares independence and begins recruiting troops for a national army.
The Baltic States are mostly unharmed by the chaos and local administration is able to maintain order.
Civil war is fact in central Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
Prussian King William 2 declares Poland is a nest of banditry and orders the Prussian army mobilized to enter Poland to restore order.
The Prussian actions have the Baltic States ask the Scandinavian Union for protection. A naval squadron is sent off to Riga and a small detachment of officers despatched to acquaint with the situation in the Baltic States.
Several European nations watch the Prussian move with interest as they also have a stake in Russia’s economy. As further funding of Russia is closed Russia declares its inability to pay interest rates.
Triple Monarchy tries to have the Scandinavian Union supplying Poland with small arms and ammunition. The Union decline the incentive.
As Poland is invaded by the Prussian army in September its army is able to halt the invasion on the gates of Warsaw.
In the USA experiments is undertaken to use radio waves to determine range and direction of ships and large aircraft.
The 1929 crash forces Britain to negotiate a settlement with Gandhi to keep control of India and its colonial Empire.
Indian National Congress enters government in India much to the anger of Muslims. This triggers religious unrest over much of India.
1931 The Scandinavian Union decide to give up the Indian trade stations and negotiate a treaty with Britain turning Tranquebar and the other stations on the Indian mainland over to British administration.
The Nicobar Islands are still kept under Scandinavian Union control.
The Russian civil war is taking on steam and the Tsar and his family escapes to Finland as the family is to be interned by the communist Soviet regime.
Leon Trotsky leader of the Communist Soviet regime declares general mobilization to combat the enemies of the state and the revolutionary troops are being reorganized and slowly turned into an army.
Comrade Stalin is dispatched off to the front in Ukraine.
The Prussian offensive is diverted from Warsaw, which seems un-conquerable to Lodz which the Prussians enters in June.
The Baltic States are receiving military aid from the Scandinavian Union – rifles, guns and military instructors.
In Spain unrest – partially communist inspired makes King Alphonso 13 abdicate and a republican constitution is decided on. Women is given right of vote – Catalonia declare independence.
In the Caucasus the Ottomans move an army into Armenia and Georgia heading north it brushes aside Russian resistance.
As the fighting seems to be going on all over European Russia, British, French and US troops enters the country, officially to secure assets.
The British and French troops enter Ukraine via the Black Sea and the US lands on Sakhalin and in Amur Province in Siberia.
The Russian Pacific fleet in Vladivostok initially declare itself non-belligerent but US activity in the city and the Amur Province soon have the Russian sailors defy their officers.
A communist inspired rebellion breaks in the fleet and the officers are put ashore or killed. The ships hoist anchor to sail for a Chinese harbour but are intercepted by a US squadron mainly consisting of cruisers but also 2 Ingialds.
The Russian fleet of 6 Ingialds, 8 cruisers and a number of smaller vessels are able to fend off the US squadron with the loss of 1 cruiser and 3 smaller vessels. The US withdraws to Sakhalin having lost 1 cruiser.
Moving into the Japanese sea the Russian ships are intercepted by the Japanese navy’s main force of 10 Ingialds and 10 large cruisers.
Badly led if led at all and outnumbered the Russian fleet make no moves to follow Japanese signals to stop engines and is destroyed by the Japanese. The victory is celebrated all over Japan.
The US move into Sakhalin fires off Japanese protests which are overlooked by pres. Herbert Hoover.
The Japanese then moves into Machuria setting off war with China. In this situation Britain, France, Federation of Germanic Nations and the US begin talks with Goumindang to stabilize the situation in the concession cities.
As everybody wants get their fair share the Triple Monarchy troops enter Galizia. This is seen by the Poles as a stab in the back and Polish resistance to Prussian advance crumbles.
In India the unrest now embrace the whole country which have Europeans flee for safety. Gandhi tries to settle the unrest peacefully but events are running too fast.
The British decides to prop up the Indian National Congress by force and to segregate Hindus and Muslims by establishing an autonomous Muslim area.
Large scale killing erupts as Muslims and Hindus travel in exchange of populations.
1932 In understanding with the Tsar Scandinavian Union forces occupies the Aaland Isles.
The Madsen Rifle Factory, Aakers and other weapon producers work around the clock to produce arms for the warring fractions.
Unemployment in the Scandinavian Union drops close to zero at this time.
The Ottoman, Greek, FGN, Italian and Chinese armies are among the satisfied costumers.
The Scandinavian merchant marine is busy moving iron, copper and other goods from the colonies to the arms factories.
The Tsarist Russian forces are losing ground. The Tsar’s presence in Finland is an incentive to fight on, but the Soviet revolutionary forces are growing stronger and pushing the Tsarist forces back.
Also the death of Tsarevich Alexis this year is a blow to the Tsarist course.
In Ukraine a republic is declared and fighting between the Ukrainians and the Tsarist forces breaks out. The Soviet communists let the two parties fight it out and turn their attention to the Ottoman invasion.
Forces are sent off from central Russia and Ukraine under Stalin to the Kalmyk Steppe to await the Ottoman onslaught.
In the east Japan is able to throw the Russian army in Manchuria out of that region, but tension with the US is mounting over Sakhalin and Amur Province.
The Chinese army keeps up the pressure on the Japanese. The Madsen SLR equipped Chinese inflict heavy losses on their Japanese adversary.
Having now conquered most of Poland and entered a sort of alliance with the Triple Monarchy acknowledging its possession of Galizia the Prussians turn their attention to the Baltic States.
Feeling it being now the time to stop Prussian aggression the FGN in cooperation with the Scandinavian Union ships troops off to Lithuania.
As the Prussian forces enter Lithuania they face not only the Scandinavian Union as expected but also FGN troops.
King William 2 has Prussia declare war upon the FGN. The main force of the Prussian army is redeployed from Eastern Europe to the west but the superior rail network of the FGN makes it able to deploy its main force in Hanover with supporting forces in Mecklenburg and Saxony.
In a short campaign the FGN defeat the Prussian army. Prussian ports are pounded by the Scandinavian Union Ingialds and Marines then landed.
The Triple Monarchy rally to the support of Prussia but before it can move substantial forces northwest the FGN has by use of the rail network sent its troops into Bohemia and Bavaria, threatening to enter Austria itself.
Seeing the opportunity of a century Italy allies itself to FGN and mobilizes the army and navy. In a brief campaign because of Triple Monarchy breakdown the Italians are able to liberate Venice.
The situation in India is slowly recovering. Muslim autonomous areas declare independence of India as Pakistan and the Indian National Congress declare Indian independence. The British are able to keep a number of ports and airbases in India to secure its communications with China.
Chadwick proves Rutherford’s theory of neutrons (of 1921).
Werner Heisenberg’s theory on the atomic core and it’s consisting of neutrons and protons.
1933 Prussia is defeated by the FGN (mainly) and her ally the Scandinavian Union.
Poland taking advantage of the situation is able to reclaim her lands lost to Prussian aggression.
The Kingdom of Prussia is dissolved. King William is deposed, sent off to the island of Syld and the Parliament “asked” to elect a government. Prussia is incorporated into the FGN and prince William is formally summoned to the court in Hanover where he takes up residence for the time being.
The Triple Monarchy’s defeat at the hands of the FGN and Italy signals a communist inspired national uprising in Hungary. The Hungarian army remains loyal to the Triple Monarchy and goes on the offensive to counter the uprising.
The Triple Monarchy makes peace with FGN and Italy. The Triple Monarchy enters an alliance with the FGN of mutual defence, a customs union and agrees to pay reparations according to damages to FGN property and territory done by Triple Monarchy troops and cedes Venice to Italy.
In Russia the war between Ukrainian nationalists and Tsarist forces continue.
With Scandinavian Union and FGN backing the Baltic States are able to face off any incursions is it from Soviet communist or Tsarist forces. The Soviet communist’s control most of European Russia as well as Belarus and it have finished the build up of forces in the Kalmyk Steppe.
Here it is able to stop the Ottoman advance in May and drive the Ottomans back into the Caucasus. Entering the Caucasus comrade Stalin is hit in the head by a chance Ottoman bullet and dead before he hits the ground.
Having driven the Ottomans back into the Caucasus the Soviet communist forces turns west into Ukraine and allying itself to the nationalists are able to crush Tsarist forces which make Britain and France evacuate their forces. The Soviet communists then turns on the nationalists breaking them during the winter.
In the north Soviet communist forces mass on the Finn border and the Finnish army is beefed up by Scandinavian Union, FGN and British contingents.
In the Far East the Japanese army advance out of Manchuria and enters Amur Province, bringing it into conflict with the US forces there.
Having secured control of Manchuria Japan tries to stem the Chinese tide.
Britain withdraws large troop contingents from China to form a reserve in Europe.
1934 During spring the Ottoman army are forced out of the Caucasus and back across the border.
This sets the stage for a coup in Istanbul by the young Turks bringing them to power.
In the west the Soviet communist army crosses the border and moves into Romania to expand the revolution to all of Europe.
Further north Soviet communist forces enter Galizia brushing aside the Triple Monarchy resistance weakened by the civil war in Hungary. As the Soviet communist army advances towards the Carpathians the uprising, now turned revolution in Hungary takes on steam and Hungarian troops begin to desert in large numbers from the Triple Monarchy army.
Routing the Romanian army and entering Bukarest the Soviet communist forces crosses the Danube into Bulgaria. This development has Britain ship off forces for Greece as well as the Ottoman Empire to bolster the defences of Istanbul.
Britain and France hold talks of opening a new front in the Ukraine – the talks leak and communist demonstrators in France demand no French intervention in Soviet Russia.
Italian troops land in Albania to help bolster the defences of the free west.
In the Far East open war breaks out between Japanese and US troops in Amur Province. The US is building up their forces in Sakhalin.
A US convoy sailing from Sakhalin to Vladivostok is intercepted by the Japanese navy and in the ensuing engagement two US Ingialds are sunk by the superior Japanese force.
This setback has the US conclude an agreement with Britain and transfer the main part of their navy from the Atlantic via the Panama Canal to the Pacific.
This naval battle has the US intensify the experiments with radio waves to detect ships and aircraft.
The war between Japan and China continue to tie up substantial Japanese forces.
1935 King Ferdinand 2 of the Scandinavian Union address all his subjects on radio calling for peoples to remain calm and continue to build the Union into a strong vibrant country that is able to secure its defences and aid its friends as well as defeat its foes.
As Eastern European agricultural produce is dwindling due to warfare the Scandinavian Union experiences a surge in the export of foodstuffs. Anything can be sold in the east and Scandinavian peasant’s economy is booming.
Opposite the now wealthier than ever peasants are the working population of the Union that feels exploited by the managers and industrialists.
Returning from his seventh expedition in late summer Knud Rasmussen falls ill due to a stomach infection and is shipped to Göteborg. As the attack is severe he spends the rest of the year and the first half of the next recovering.
Communist inspired riots are regular occurrences in the Scandinavian cities and at the logging industries.
The Union Commissioners of Police forces gain extra powers to detain peoples in an effort to bring the riots to a stop.
A demonstration running amok in Göteborg in July with demonstrators attacking the Royal palace and the Storthing finally stops the riots after 23 peoples have been shot by police guarding the palace and Storthing. The workers argue internally while the Storthing discuss the events and the deaths are mourned.
King Ferdinand and Queen Marie Polyxene attend the funeral which is very quiet. At the end of the funeral the crowd sings “Scandinavia vort Rike” and hails the King and Queen. Then everybody quietly leaves the cemetery.
The Storthing asks the trade unions and the managers/industrialists union to settle the issue, after which everybody detained due to emergency laws will be released unless charged with breaking the penal code. The result of the negotiations is the first united agreement on payments of workers.
At the assembly of the FGN in Hanover Prince William of Prussia is seated among the Hanover deputies separated from the Prussian ones.
The Triple Monarchy army in Galizia is destroyed by the Soviet communists and the army in Hungary is forced back across the Hungarian plain towards the Austrian border by Hungarian forces beefed up by Soviet communist army units.
Calling for aid the FGN reacts by sending troops into Austria propping up the Triple Monarchy.
In the Balkans the Soviet communist army advance into Bulgaria. The Bulgarians fights fiercely and the Soviet communist drive is just held within sighting distance of Sofia.
The Young Turks enters negotiations with the Soviet communists but soon leaves the talks as the Soviet communists demands are going too far – control of the Straits!
The Serbian army is mobilized in anticipation of a Soviet communist onslaught.
As Soviet communist forces enter Hungary Italy resumes the anti-Triple Monarchy rhetoric but this time it is told by the French to shelve it.
A French army is shipped off to Greece to bolster defences. More Italian forces are shipped off to Albania.
The action in Eastern Europe sends shock waves through major European and North American cities with communist inspired riots and strikes.
The FGN calls a conference of free nations in Frankfurt to discuss the situation in light of war raging in Eastern Europe and Asia.
Britain, France, Italy, Triple Monarchy, Scandinavian Union, Spain, USA, Finland, Greece, Ottoman Empire and Portugal attend.
All of the attending countries are experiencing internal unrest of sorts due
to communist agitators trying to undermine the enemies of the revolution. France and Spain are severely hit by strikes.
Triple Monarchy, Ottoman Empire and to a lesser degree USA, Finland, Greece and Scandinavian Union are hit by unrest and war.
Britain, Italy and the FGN are those least affected by the situation even if the FGN have just fought a war.
It is decided to combine efforts to stop the Soviet communists. No clear structure of command is decided upon and no clear areas of operations.
It is decided however to keep up communications after the conference, to share intelligence and not enter talks with the communists.
During the conference Poland is asked to join in and happily accepts.
Poland is recognized as an independent republic by FGN, Britain, France, Triple Monarchy, US, Italy and Scandinavian Union. It is slowly expanding its territory eastwards and is generally viewed as a bulwark against the communist storm.
The Ottoman Empire is hit by uprisings by Arabs, Kurds and Armenians following the defeat by the Soviet communists. In the Caucasus region the Soviets try to rally support among the Kurds and Armenians but are disappointed of having their offerings rejected.
In the US race riots add to the situation having politicians call for law and order to be reinstated. Troops are being sent off for internal security service lowering the numbers available for overseas service.
The Soviet communist army breaks the Bulgarian defences and takes Sofia.
Then it steamrollers west into Serbia.
The Greek and Turk armies dig in on their northern border supported by British and French troops awaiting the onslaught.
The Serbs calls upon the Italians to aid them in Macedonia and the Italian army advances from Albania.
In the north of Europe communist forces begin aggressive patrolling on the Finn-Soviet border. They are soon brought to an end by vigilant defence by the Finns and their Scandinavian Union, FGN and British allies.
The Tsar decides to leave Finland and takes up temporary residence in Britain. He is soon feeling like being in an unfriendly country and decides to move on to Spain, where the family is asked to settle in Mallorca!
US navy elements arrive in the western Pacific to augment the force opposing Japan. With an additional ten Ingiald’s the US Navy is able to fend off the Japanese and secure the convoys for Vladivostok.
But the internal security situation in the US has severely limited the troops available for deployment making the army in Amur Province just able to hold its own against the Japanese.
This situation has the US recognize Goumindang and allocate funds for its government to make it able to keep up pressure on the Japanese in Machuria. Soon the FGN and Britain follows suit in supporting Goumindang.
1936 Scandinavian Trade Unions goes on strike to end large scale sales of Scandinavian Union arms to the warring parties. The united agreement on payment of workers is recanted by industrialists; which sparks off more strikes. At the beginning of autumn the strike cache of the workers are empty and work is slowly resumed.
Recovering from his illness Knud Rasmussen return to Greenland and is elected as the representative in the North Atlantic assembly in Reykjavik.
At the death of King George 5 of Britain the funeral is broadcast by the BBC in television. This is the breakthrough of television in Europe and soon FGN, France and the Scandinavian Union begin broadcasting.
After years of political struggle back and forth the democratic Popular Front in Spain secures the political power on the issue of the continued presence of the Tsar and his family.
Monarchists and communists try to destabilize the country but the government gets French support on the promise not to let communists enter government.
As monarchist military units all over the country tries a coup a French army is sent in support of the Spanish government and the coup is crushed.
The Tsar is asked to leave Spanish territory and takes up residence in Portugal.
The Hungarian army is halted by joint Triple Monarchy/FGN forces on the Austrian/Hungarian border.
The Baltic nations are able to conclude a treaty with the Soviets communists settling their disputes and recognizing their independence.
The Italian army is overrun by the Soviet communists in Macedonia. The Soviets then wheel their main force north into Serbia.
A diversionary thrust is made into Albania to secure ports on the Adriatic which it succeeds in. The Italian army evacuate Albania arriving in Brindisi and Bari in a more than sorry state.
Another Soviet communist army crosses the Danube from Hungary and descends on Belgrade.
The Serbs retreats into the mountains of Bosnia to continue the fight.
A lull sets in on the fighting in the Balkans.
In central Russia the Soviet communists turn towards the Poles, but weakened by six years of warfare they are only able to stop Polish advances after the Polish conquest of most of Belarus.
Italy enters a state of unrest due to the military defeat in Serbia and communist strikes are the order of the day.
The Ottoman hold on the Arabian Peninsula is effectively nil. But a counter strike is planned in light of the Soviet weakness.
In the US substantial troops are still on internal service duty and the law and order movement gains momentum.
The Police forces of the US are enlarged and drugs and organized crime is fought as this is seen as related to the communist and race riots.
Rioters are given the choice of imprisonment or service with the army in Siberia – swelling the ranks of the US army.
More newly raised troops are shipped off to Sakhalin and Siberia. Arriving in Siberia and war with Japan many ex-rioters regret their choice made.
Several green US units take a terrible beating by the Japanese.
Acquiring greater funds the Goumindang government is able to reorganize its armies, navy and administration.
This spurs off the Communist party of China to reopen the civil war.
1937 A new united agreement on payment of workers are concluded but with a much less satisfying result for the trade unions.
SSB – Stor Scandinavisk Bevægelse (Greater Scandinavian Movement) – declare all workers enemies of the state and calls for incorporation of the Baltic States in the Union.
Knud Rasmussen succeeds in having the Scandiavian Union assume responsibility of administration of Thule. All of Greenland is now part of the Scandinavian Union.
The first news broadcast is transmitted in Göteborg.
Finland concludes a treaty with the Soviet communists recognizing the borders of the 1721 Treaty of Nystad.
Italy is still ridden with unrest and strikes and Spain is only recovering from the attempted coup the year before. The French army are still in Spain in force.
Hungary is de facto an independent communist state, separated from the Triple Monarchy. In reality it is a satellite of the Soviet communists of Russia.
A new constitution is drawn up for the Austrian-Croatian Nation making it a dual Monarchy.
In the Balkans a French offensive is opened to push the Soviet communists out of Macedonia but it makes virtually no progress.
Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania as well as Albania and Montenegro are all declared independent Soviet states but in reality they are just Soviet communist conquered lands.
Leon Trotsky secretary of the Soviet communist party of Russia declare the third international to work for the world wide revolution of the masses to implement the dictatorship of the proletariat and to combat the colonial system that is keeping the majority of the peoples of the earth in chains.
The Soviet communists supply the Chinese communists as well as any revolutionary movement to break the hold of colonial powers over foreign lands.
Anti colonial movements spring up all over the world.
The Ottoman counter offensive unfolds and slowly the Arabs are subjugated to Ottoman rule once again.
The war between Japan and the US continue; it has settled as a trench war in Amur Province that is slowly grinding down Japanese resources and US manpower.
On the Pacific the US Navy is making its presence felt by aggressive patrols in Japanese waters trying to sewer the communications between Japan and Korea.
The US asks the Netherlands not to sell oil to Japan to impede the mobility of its navy. The Netherlands being reluctant the US enters negotiations with the Scandinavian Union, FGN and Belgium to prop up the Netherlands with the support of her old allies. Neither the Scandinavian Union nor the FGN is interested in war with Japan due to their long lines of communications.
The US tries to ensure that they are only to give support and the US will run the war, but the Scandinavian Union and FGN clearly see a naval war with Japan over the course of the Netherlands East Indies being disastrous!
At the end of the year the Japanese asks for a cease fire.
The Goumindang and the communists step up their conflict. At the same time Goumindang battle the Japanese and the communists fight the European powers.
A stable society? (“The Socialist” Göteborg October 10. 1937)
It is time that the bourgoise awaken to the facts that Belle Epoque, even if lasting until 1929 is now dead and gone!
All over Europe the working masses are demanding emancipation, politically as well as socially. Even in the dreary foul-smelling suburbs of Bukarest the workers are sensing the dawn of a new order of the day – the order of workers to be imposed upon each and everyone within society. These workers, oppressed through decades by greedy capitalists, aristocracy and bourgoise alike have risen to the new order imposed by the Soviet forces that has restored order to the benefit of workers.
All over Eastern Europe the workers are feeling a fresh breath of air gushing through the narrow streets as the revolutionary army is making its way wiping away centuries of oppression by royalty.
I tell you that the poor, the workers and everybody else on the bottom of society is benefiting from this altered state of affairs.
Prior to 1929 nobody in the Monarchies of Europe thought of peoples on the bottom of society as peoples! Merely were they thought of as cattle bribe able for votes or raw working power to be exploited to the utmost. Especially in Eastern Europe and especially in the Tsarist Russia where industrialists and aristocracy were bleeding the common man white in order to get rich. Where were the responsible politicians, the visionary’s, the thinkers that could if they wished so have changed this Europe in due time…
Notes of a traveller in Europe 1928 – 31, issued Buenos Aires 1937 by Jose Altamira.
My dear reader; It is a sad story indeed. The face of Europe changed forever. I arrived in a lazy, well endowed Europe in 1928, contend, rich and self-assured Europe. I left a Europe altered not to be recognized!
Within three years everything changed. Suddenly the freezing gushes of the Russian steppes descended upon this Belle Époque that was harvesting the fruits of centuries of colonization and industrialization. Suddenly the masses, until then contend with their meagre livings, awoke shattering the bright calm day in their unending demands of rising of wages, improved living conditions, education and emancipation. If WE were to issue such rights to the common man…
But Europe not only descended into political squabble it also entered a seemingly unending state of war…
Modern day society, Abraham Holstein “Schleswig Taglicher Nachrichten” (Slesvig Daily News).
…But who would just a decade ago have dreamed of this change of society that we have witnessed? Women entering the working sphere of society in large numbers, workers demanding higher wages, better housing, education and VOTING to get it!
Indeed society has changed – in many ways for the better. Who’d be dreaming a decade ago that we’ve watching live pictures of football matches, news reels and programmes for the kids on a square box with a window in it? That telephone would come to every home and the news of the world is the ability of everyone interested to come by? Aeroplanes are taking to the sky everyday and people gets tired of watching them, and now the FGN is going to launch rockets into space and it is to be transmitted on television for everybody to watch.
Wasn’t it for the developments in Eastern Europe much would have looked different. The great achievements of this Scandinavian Union would not have been. We have been able to benefit on war and starvation indeed, but being attentive to the needs of the peoples of Europe much restraint have been shown. The money acquired has been invested in solid enterprises and much has been redirected to the Baltic States to help in their structuring into sovereign states…
1938 Death of Scandinavian King Ferdinand 2; he is succeeded by his son Prince Gustav Frederick Ferdinand Charles as King Charles 1. (45)
A second broadcasting station is set up in Slesvig funded by the wealthy families. Most news broadcast is on German matters but the language used is Danish-Scandinavian.
Anti colonial movements are active in Cameroon, Togo and Papua and soon puts a drain on Scandinavian Union military capacity.
In Italy the weakened state are brushed aside by a communist coup. A military counter stroke has only limited success and King Victor Immanuel 3 flee Rome for Genova.
Italy descends in civil war.
Refugees begin to filter into France and Austria-Croatia. Among those is Enrico Fermi, who has experimentally bombarded atomic nuclei with neutrons.
Neptunium is discovered by fission of uraniumU238 that by capturing a neutron becomes U239 which decays into neptunium 239 and further decays into plutonium 239.
The discovery that Uranium nuclei are fissionable by bombardment of neutrons is made by Hahn and Strassmann in the FGN and upon hearing the news Otto Frisch and Lise Meitner develop a theory of a chain reaction.
This theory is circulated in scientific circles.
In reaction to Trotsky’s call for world wide revolutionary war the FGN calls for a second conference on the political situation.
Britain, France, Austria-Croatia, Scandinavian Union, Spain, USA, Finland, Greece, Ottoman Empire, Poland, Netherlands and Portugal attend.
It is decided to hold a general staff conference on the experiences of the communist war to be headed by the FGN.
The USA calls for a like conference on the War in Siberia.
The political situation in Europe is discussed in light of civil war raging in Italy, the Spanish situation and the measures to be taken against colonial uprisings and possible aggressive action by the Soviet communists in Eastern Europe.
Poland is assured of assistance from FGN, Scandinavian Union and France. Austria-Croatia rest assured on their alliance with the FGN and Greece and the Ottoman Empire is assured of British aid.
In the Balkans the Soviet rule is creaking. Especially in Bulgaria and Serbia the euphoria of being rid of aristocracy and other great landowners have subsided and the new communist rule isn’t the emancipation of the workers as expected. Slowly resistance towards the Soviets are gaining momentum.
In FGN East Africa an insurrection breaks out. The FGN troops are reinforced.
The US experiments with airplanes taking off and landing on ships to increase her power projection capability in the vast Pacific.
Japan and USA makes peace on status quo. This leaves Japan with Manchuria and the USA with Sakhalin and Amur Province.
The war between Japan and Goumindang continue; however the Goumindang feels being stabbed in the back by the USA. Also the Goumindang – communist civil war continue.
Map of the World 1938 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902897&postcount=809)
1939 The insurrections in Cameroon, Togo and Papua go into their third year and another become active in Ghana.
In the West Indies, Greenland and North Scandinavia the blacks, Inuit and Sámi peoples begin their political struggle for independence or home rule. They soon find support in the Socialist Party of Scandinavia.
But the Social democrat Party and other political parties find these ethnic minorities being deserving of no support as they are disrespectful of the Scandinavian Union that has brought them civilization, prosperity, hospitals and education.
Knud Rasmussen is an ardent speaker on behalf of the Inuit right to self-government. He himself though is somewhat unable to make up his mind when asked to be proclaimed the first Greenland President and the issue is shelved for the time being.
Soviet communist and Polish border guards enter a shoot-out during winter. Due to harsh weather conditions neither side is interested in a full scale campaign and the fighting settle down in a few weeks.
This situation has the FGN call for a third conference.
The Italian civil war is on the agenda as well. It is decided to cordon off Italy to quench the communist regime and to support King Victor Immanuel 3 in his struggle to regain the throne. With their hands full in the colonies and sure of Soviet communist aggression being only a matter of time it is generally decide not to interfere militarily in Italy but only to provide King Victor Immanuel with a few multinational brigades and economic funds for raising mercenary’s.
Poland is still to receive support from its neighbours.
As anti colonial insurrections breaks out in British and French colonies dock workers goes on communist inspired strikes in the mother countries to prevent reinforcement of overseas armed forces.
In China the Goumindang steps up the civil war on the communists and this saves the Japanese hold on Manchuria.
Feeling humiliated Japan begin to search for ways to reassess herself against the European powers and the USA.
The news of splitting the atomic nuclei and the possibility of a chain reaction has Japan send off scientists to Britain, FGN and Scandinavian Union that has the leading physics.
Otto Frisch postulates a devastating effect of a fission chain reaction. The postulate is relayed by a Japanese scientist in Frankfurt to the Japanese embassy in Hanover.
1940 The census gives the following numbers of the Union population:
Sweden: 7,9 mill. Norway: 3,6 mill. Denmark: 4,58 mill. Total: 16,08 mill.
Socialists and some Social democrats argue against continued fighting in the colonies which is a major drain on resources. They point to India as an example and is duly told of the ethnic and sectarian struggle that was part of it. That is not an example to follow.
Also the Social democrats and Holstein Movement argue that a lot of good have been done to the colonies and overseas dependencies and this shouldn’t be thrown away lightly. The majority of the peoples of the areas in question should be relied upon to be thankful to the Scandinavian Union for bringing civilization, democracy, literacy and freedom of slavery.
And if not they surely ought to be! The fighting in the colonies must go on.
Another strong incentive to carry on the fight is the number of Scandinavians settled in the colonies as civil servants, soldiers, landowners, industrialists etc. The majority of these are independent farmers who do not want to leave what they have been building for the past 100 years. They are a solid source of Scandinavian manpower available in the colonies for military recruiting.
As they are the majority of voters in the colonial assembly's they repeatedly vote for retaining the colonial or dependencies status.
Knud Rasmussen and other North Atlantic, West Indies, Ghana and Togo representatives of the Storthing speak for greater self determination of the peoples.
King Charles argue that such action might indeed endanger the cohesion of the Union colonial Empire ruining what was built during the past one hundred years.
Rasmussen argues that he doesn’t aim to split the Union apart just to have his peoples get the right to determine their future and corners himself on the issue.
The tension between Poland and the Soviet communists are still high with the occasional shoot-out on the border.
FGN enters a defence treaty with Poland to be activated only in case of Soviet communist attack and begin to build up its army and air force.
The military aircraft developed during the communist war from flimsy single engine biplanes used for postal services and multi engine large flying boats into more efficient single engine fighters/reconnaissance aircraft and multi engine bombers.
The development was slow however and only during the last years of the war were really reliable engines present to fit out larger numbers of aircraft.
The armies took smaller steps in limited continuing the Motorgeschütz development, especially in the FGN army but numbers were few – never totalling more than 150 serviceable vehicles, that were mostly used in the former Triple Monarchy.
More important was the development of motor transportation to move troops and supply's up front and plug holes in the front line whenever punctured.
The FGN also step up its experiments on rocket launching; during fall a A-1 rocket launched from Peenemünde on the Baltic flies 100 km before dropping into the Baltic.
In Italy King Victor Immanuel 3 is fighting to regain his throne.
Having received reinforcements of a British-French and a FGN-Scandinavian-Baltic brigades he feels ready to take on the offensive.
Based on Liguria and Piemonte his small army reinforced by a French division pulled out of Spain reaches Milan in a week but then the communist government has rallied its forces and are able to stop Victor Immanuel's forces for a few weeks on the Adda.
Reinforced by a number of aircraft the foreign troops are able to resume the offensive marching along the Po and reaching Ferrara within a week.
Being in possession of the industrialized north Victor Immanuel use the next 2 months to consolidate his gains and mopping up resistance.
The foreign troops then push south to reach the Appenines where they halt the advance. The rest of the year is spent reorganizing and regrouping troops by Victor Immanuel and the communist government in Rome mobilizing troops.
The communist government also receive aid, volunteers and instructors from the Soviet Union being shipped or flown across the Adriatic.
Following the Scandinavian Union debate on the sideline the FGN decides to enter into dialogue with the insurrection leaders in East Africa to end the fighting and the FGN colonial venture in both Africa and the Pacific.
The peace treaty with Japan influence the political climate of the USA with riots slowly petering out.
A large part of the troops shipped off for Siberia is kept on station in Asia and only lesser numbers demobilized to not encourage the demobilized troops to instigate new riots.
The US Navy have developed an operational radar device for their capital ships to detect enemy ships and direct main armament gunnery.
Japan enters a treaty of cooperation and scientific development with the Soviet communists. The aim is to produce a fission bomb. A five year plan is concluded to research and possibly build the bomb.
Trotsky feeling the impact of bad government post war, inflation and starvation is looking for ways to improve his position.
A spin-off of this treaty is Japanese-Chinese communist cooperation against the Goumindang that for a while halt Goumindang ability to push back either party.
Where do people live within the Scandinavian Union?
Following the movement of capital to Göteborg in 1885 Copenhagen and Stockholm went into fast decline! Stockholm's decline had begun with the establishment of the Union and Copenhagen went de route following the movement of capital and its institutions. The city only grew slowly past 1885. It took to 1930 before the city went beyond the 300.000 mark in numbers. The grand design of expanding the city into the East, West and South quarters was never realized and Fredericksberg stayed a small village to the west of the city.
Stockholm was the size of Copenhagen and remained as such.
As Copenhagen and Stockholm never made it to a million citizens other cities developed.
Slesvig in southern Jutland, capital of Slesvig grew steadily reaching the 100.000 mark in 1900. Thriving on trade with the North German cities Slesvig merchants made fortunes on the export of Danish agricultural goods to Britain via Hamburg. Only when Danish Holstein movement members agitated that the peasants of Denmark should reap the benefits of the trade with Britain was Esebjerg (OTL Esbjerg) founded as an export port on the west coast of Jutland north of the Slesvig border. This endeavour helped bring back a substantial part of the agricultural export on Danish hands.
In Sweden Göteborg thrived on being the capital of the Union, attracting civil servants of all sorts, the military establishment and ministries as well as industrialists. The large factories of Madsen Rifle Works, SAAB, Volvo and many other companies are proof to the developing of the city since 1885.
During the Communist war Kalmar thrived on agricultural export for the staving millions of Eastern Europe due to its being situated on the Baltic in between the agricultural areas of southern and central Sweden, being linked to those areas by rail roads.
Northern Sweden and Norway also experienced an increasing population because of early 20. century establishing of hydro-electric works on the Swedish and Norwegian rivers.
Cities built during the 19. century establishing of sawmills and lumber industry increased due to the building of dams for power generating and roads for transport of lumber to the rivers past the dams. This turning to hydro-electric power made for change in the cities where illumination, cable cars and every household became electrified!
Many local coal fuelled power works were shut down in this period due to the availability of cheap electricity during most of the year. Only the government interest in securing power supply saved a number of doomed coal fuelled works.
The many independent peasants of Sweden made possible due to the establishing of the Holstein movement in Sweden set the pattern of the industrialization of Sweden. When it came many Swedish firms were small one-man or family enterprises like the development in Denmark.
Only Slesvig saw industry controlled by a few wealthy families.
Seen in the great perspective the southern parts of the Scandinavian Union was an agricultural zone comprising Denmark, Slesvig and southern and central Sweden.
As these areas also is the most densely populated the main part of industry is located here except for raw materials developing that is mostly in northern Sweden and in Norway.
Norway is the home to the major part of the Unions merchant fleet as well as its fishermen.
In the colonies and overseas dependencies Charlotte Amalie in the West Indies, Accra in Ghana, Bimbia in Cameroon and Scania Havn in Papua are major centres of Scandinavian population outside the Union.
1941 The Scandinavian Union is told of the FGN-Polish defence treaty. It renews the treaties with the Baltic countries and ships off large quantities of small arms, ammunition, guns and lesser numbers of trucks.
But the situation in Europe is viewed to be the possible deathbed of the Scandinavian Union as it is already struggling in the colonies against insurrections and the peoples of the West Indies, Greenland and Sámi are all fighting politically for autonomy or independence.
Debate rages back and forth in the Storthing; the prospects of defending the Baltic States and possibly also Finland and at the same time fighting insurrections in the colonies and debate autonomy or independence is seen as much too much at one time.
Knud Rasmussen and the Sámi leaders propose in the tense situation that a revival of the 1848 and 1856 emancipation could be used to ease things through and argue that those bent to serve their King and country in times of need should be duly rewarded.
But time have changed and the proposal is never put before the Storthing. Knud Rasmussen is viewed as a mere nuisance in the Storthing.
The Scandinavian Union buys two US Navy radar sets and installs one on Möja island east of Stockholm the other is installed on Porkkala in Finland to detect Soviet naval forces moving out of the Gulf of Finland.
During the communist war small air bases had been set up on the islands of Aaland, Gotland and Bornholm in the Baltic. These are enlarged as possible to strengthen the reconnaissance ability of the Scandinavian armed forces in the Baltic.
Television is becoming a common issue in most of Scandinavia with the relative wealth created by the money made on the wars of Eastern Europe.
FGN enter negotiations with Britain, France, Austria-Croatia and Scandinavian Union to be ready in case of a Soviet attack.
The USA declare itself willing to support the Europeans' defence but are then distracted by a series of serious communist uprisings in central and south America.
To beef up faltering regimes the USA initially dispatch materiel and funds but soon realizes the need for the presence of US troops to stabilize the situation.
The real drawback is that the deployment of US troops only triggers more uprisings which calls for more US engagement in the region and new communist inspired riots in the US consume other resources.
In Italy the civil war goes on with the royalists slowly pushing south along the Mediterranean coast against growing communist resistance as they mobilize and train workers for war.
During summer King Victor Immanuel tries a Garibaldi on Sicily but the resistance is too strong and the royalists are forced to re-embark and leave the island. A thrust at Sardinia is successful with strong French naval backing.
In the Adriatic Austria-Croatian and British warships patrol the waters to stop Soviet supplies entering Italy by sea. Also the air traffic is targeted by the Austria-Croatian and British aircraft but with much less success mostly due to the reluctance of Austria-Croatia to risk open war with the Soviets.
Sensing that the USA is out of the picture in Eurasian politics Trotsky make overtures to the US regarding return of occupied Siberia. In return Trotsky promise to rein in Japan in China.
Viewing Trotsky's proposal as being too one sided the US rejects the proposal but relations between the powers is established.
A number of FGN, British and Scandinavian Union politicians argue that the knowledge of fission that their scientists along with other Europeans like Enrico Fermi share should be used to avoid what measures the possible communist conquest of Europe would entail.
The idea is at this moment just fermenting but the envisioned cost of producing such weaponry is prohibitive in itself.
In other parts of the World no such obstacle is seen as prohibitive to reach the desired objective.
FGN reaches an agreement with the independence movement leaders of their colonies to end colonization by the end of the year. FGN installations are being decreased in size to end activities by the New Year.
August 24th, 2008, 09:12 PM
1942 The FGN troops leave South West Africa, East Africa and Somalia. The control of the Pacific Islands is retained mostly due to local fears of Japanese intentions.
Seeing that his regime has serious shortcomings and facing increasing resistance in the occupied Balkan territories Leon Trotsky decide to move pre-emptively against his perceived enemies.
As Poland is backed up by FGN the first and diversionary thrust is decide to take place in the north against the weakest of the Monarchies – the Scandinavian Union!
Troops are drawn together in St. Petersburg Military District in secret but the main force are marched against the Polish border and border clashes are numerous during winter.
In the Balkans a third force are drawn together in Serbia and Hungary for a thrust at Austria-Croatia.
With the attention of Europe focused on Poland the build up of communist forces in St. Petersburg Military District and on the Kola Peninsular is not detected.
During the May 1 parade Trotsky declare that the Finn Tsarist' have attacked the Soviet Union but that steps are being taken to contain their aggression and to bring war upon those responsible for unleashing it.
During his speech Soviet journalists report that the Soviet Air Force is bombing Finn military installations and by chance hitting Finn villages (and Helsinki).
The secretly drawn together Soviet forces move across the Finn border heading for Helsinki that is subjected to another air raid. As all attention is focused on Helsinki the major Soviet force crosses the border into central Finland moving for Kemi and the Scandinavian Union border.
During the advance on Helsinki the Baltic Navy leaves Kronstadt and Soviet Ingiald's shell the Scandinavian radar installation on Porkkala putting it out of action. The follow up force moves quickly into the Baltic dispersing Ingiald's for attacking Möja radar installation as the main forces head for the Aaland Isles, Gotland and Bornholm!
As the Soviet Navy launches its assaults on the Baltic islands another Soviet army cross the Jakobs Elv heading for Kirkenes in northern Norway.
The Joint Military Council of the Scandinavian Union view the attack on the Baltic islands as a severe detriment to its ability to support its allies in Finland and the Baltic and the decision is made to make the recapture of the islands the first priority.
As troops are mobilized the majority are kept for the Baltic and only less are shipped off for the northern part of the Union.
The Scandinavian Union response in the Baltic is swift. Units of the Stockholm Military District leave harbour attacking the Soviet navy with all available means. The landings on the Aaland Isles and Gotland are not avoided but the Soviet navy takes a beating in both areas losing an Ingiald, a cruiser and two corvettes as well as 5 transports to the loss of 5 Scandinavia torpedo boats, two small Ingiald's and two old Narwhals defending Möja.
After a successful landing on Bornholm the Soviet squadron is intercepted by the Copenhagen forces and a long range artillery duel takes place. Outnumbered and outgunned the Scandinavians are able to hold their own due to superior gunnery and seamanship. At dusk the guns of two Soviet Ingiald's have been silenced to the loss of one Scandinavian cruiser and heavy damage on an Ingiald.
Keeping up their accurate gunfire the Scandinavians pursue the Soviets leaving Bornholm waters.
General mobilization is declared in the Scandinavian Union.
In the central Soviet Union reserves are gathered for the army and conscripts kept on service beyond their term of service.
Following the initial setbacks in the Baltic the Scandinavians are able to contain the Soviet Navy in Kronstadt with FGN assistance in the form of two super Ingiald's effectively blockading it.
The Soviet possession of Aaland Isles, Gotland and Bornholm is another matter. As the Scandinavians lack amphibious resources for retaking the Islands the FGN Luftwaffe divert a number of squadrons for service with the Scandinavian navy.
The Soviets are able to resupply the islands by airlift only the communications with Bornholm is effectively cut off within a month as Scandinavian Union get to establish airbases in Estonia and Latvia to patrol the Baltic.
Helsinki is overrun but the Finns are able to stop the Soviet advance west of Helsinki by the arrival of British and French troops at Turku.
June: The Soviet army steamrollers into Poland moving down Polish resistance and only halted by the arrival at the end of the month by FGN divisions. A hasty FGN attack fielding a Motorgeschütz brigade throws the Soviets back.
Kirkenes in Norway falls to Soviet attack as does Haparanda on the Finn-Scandinavian border and Soviet troops enter Sweden.
In the European monarchies and France the communist agitators are very active mobilizing support for the communist course and organizing rallies, demonstrations, strikes and encouraging young men of the working class not to enlist.
In Scandinavia and FGN these efforts are vain as both countries are actively fighting the Soviets. The effect upon Britain, France and Austria-Croatia is another story.
In Italy the news of Soviet offensive is a boost to communist morale and the royalist forces are stopped in their tracks and in a few places pushed back.
The British and French ship off a corps for the Baltic to strengthen the defences of Finland and the Baltic countries as well as aid in the Scandinavian Unions retaking of the Baltic Islands.
July: A new Soviet offensive is launched on Austria-Croatia! Jumping off from positions in Hungary and Serbia the Soviet armies descend on Vienna, Zagreb and Sarajevo. Only the timely arrival of FGN troops bar the road to Vienna.
The attack on Sarajevo is a failure as Croat and Bosnian troops put up a staunch defence of the Drina River fuelled by the stories of communist atrocities in the Balkans.
The main thrust directed against Zagreb is successful in taking the city and making the Austria-Croatian defence of Bosnia difficult.
The Soviets move west from Kirkenes further into Norway and southwest from Haparanda into Sweden.
August: Supported by British and French Super-Ingiald's the Scandinavian Union land troops on Bornholm, Gotland and Aaland Isles retaking them all but suffering heavy losses in assault troops.
With the Scandinavian Union focused on retaking the Baltic Islands the Soviet forces continue their advance south in Sweden towards Luleaa. In Norway the Soviets enter Finnmark.
Shipment of Scandinavian troops from the colonies begin and new troops are raised in the West Indies, Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua to replace those shipped off. The departure of veteran troops from Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua have the local Independence movements step up their activities and attack the newly raised units.
In Poland the Soviets resume the offensive pushing the Poles and FGN back to Minsk.
As the Soviets advance new Soviet aircraft appear in the skies – Seversky monoplane fighters and light bombers as well as heavy bombers. Used to drive Polish and FGN planes off the battle field, harass their ground troops and bomb Warsaw, Minsk and Königsberg!
In Austria-Croatia the army evacuate Bosnia after an unsuccessful attempt at retaking Zagreb, fortifying a line in Illyria.
Defence of Ljubljana is taken over by FGN troops fresh from the fighting in Poland.
The situation in Poland and Austria-Croatia have the FGN government declare general mobilization.
September: The Soviet troops crosses Skellefteaa and moves further south into Sweden reaching Umeaa in the middle of the month. The Scandinavian Union put up a defensive line at Aangermannelv moving all available forces north.
Other forces are shipped north into the Finnmark of northern Norway to stop the Soviet advance.
Not to let the Scandinavians pull their troops out of the Baltic states the Soviets begin regular skirmishes on their borders drawing Scandinavian, FGN, British and French troops to beef up the Balts.
In Poland the Soviet offensive have resumed the steamroller pushing the Poles out of Minsk and across the Neman River towards Baranovichi.
The Soviet offensive is debated in Hanover and it is decided not to deploy too much of the army too far East. Even if Britain and France is actively supporting the fighting the FGN is pulling the major load in both the East and the South with the British and French having shipped only token forces to the Baltic and effectively none into Eastern Europe and not looking like going to do so.
To prevent the FGN army from vanishing on the Russian steppes the FGN decide to pull it out of Russia but to remain within the former Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
This is seen as a possible policy to preserve the army as long as the other major powers hasn't contributed with large scale forces and a clear signal to Trotsky, that FGN is supporting Poland but not its claims on Russian territory.
This makes the FGN much to Polish resentment pull out of Belarus and build a defensive line on the old Grand Duchy of Warsaw border. Being subjected to Polish insults the FGN army leaves Poland and its defence to itself.
October: FGN calls for a coordinating conference in Hanover.
The conference is attended by Scandinavian Union, the Baltic countries, Finland, Austria-Croatia, Britain, France, Greece, Ottoman Empire, Spain and Portugal. The US ambassador to the FGN attend the conference.
The FGN, Scandinavian Union, Baltic countries and Austria-Croatia decide to coordinating their war efforts with FGN heading a military coordinating committee, in effect a joint staff.
Britain and France do not enter the coordinating committee but retain national control of their forces. Finland is persuaded by them not to enter the committee.
Greece, Ottoman Empire, Spain and Portugal support the efforts mostly because of their depending upon military support. The US remains friendly but neutral due to relations in both the Americas that consume US resources at the time.
As the conference draws to a close the news of Japanese landings in Shantung province of China alarms the European powers.
November: Trotsky having held up the steamroller for the duration of the conference to give the FGN room to manoeuvre (officially) and the army to replace losses (unofficially) unleashes the communist army and air force on Poland.
At the end of the month the last Polish troops have been forced out of Belarus and the communist army crosses the Grand Duchy of Warsaw border which have the Polish government call for military aid.
In Austria-Croatia a renewed Soviet assault on Vienna draws Austrian and FGN reinforcements to the defence of the city and only too late is this perceived to be a diversionary attack.
The main blow falls on Ljubljana. The city falls as the Italian communists opens an offensive against Victor Immanuel's royalist forces at Ravenna.
FGN and Scandinavian Union governments holds a joint session on the situation in China. The news are bad – the Japanese have taken advantage of the war in Europe to enter the FGN and Scandinavian Union treaty areas in Shantung province with superior forces to squeeze them out.
Unable to reinforce the troops in China FGN and Scandinavian Union governments decide to order their forces south to link up with the British in Nanking and have their naval squadrons evacuate as many civilians as possible to the Pacific islands and Papua.
A joint Far Eastern HQ is ordered to be established at Scania Havn in Papua to coordinate the FGN and Scandinavian Union actions.
The FGN enters negotiations with Britain to be able to make use of British facilities along the Red Sea and in Socotra to secure communications with the Far East.
The Soviet offensive in the Scandinavian Union is also resumed. In Sweden the Scandinavians are able to hold the Aangermannelv line with much needed support of the Luftwaffe and in Finnmark the Norwegian ski brigade is able to harass the Soviets to the extend of their halting the offensive.
December: Communist troops reaches the Adriatic just south of Trieste. Badly shaken by news and exaggerated rumours of communist advances the Austria-Croatian troops evacuate Trieste and the Soviet forces are able to take the city without a single gunshot fired. Just an hour later a FGN brigade arrives to block the road to Monfalcone.
As the communist forces advance on Pula the Austria-Croatian navy commander, Admiral von Trap decide to run the gauntlet and leaves the base in late afternoon to evade Soviet air power.
12 hours later off Lissa the Austria-Croatian navy is spotted by a Soviet plane that keep circling the ships. An hour later the Seversky aircraft makes their first appearance in the Adriatic strafing and bombing the Austria-Croatian navy. Much to their surprise the Soviets are able to sink an Austria-Croatian Ingiald and damage another two among those the flagship Franz Josef, killing Admiral von Trap.
Later in the evening just before dusk an Italian torpedo-boat attack is fended off by second and tertiary armament gunfire.
30 hours after their departure the Austria-Croatian navy was able to exit the Otranto Strait and anchor at Korfu protected by British and Greek air and naval forces.
In Poland the communist army supported by the Soviet air force crossed the border and moved into Poland proper brushing resistance aside. In an unreported attack at Cholm a Soviet Motorgeschütz brigade was instrumental in routing a Polish corps. On new years eve Soviet guns were shelling Warsaw.
At Aangermannelv the Scandinavians try to push the Soviets back – important lessons learnt but paid by lots of blood.
In Finnmark things go a lot better due to mobilization of Samí reindeer drivers making the ski brigade able to take along machineguns and mortars on longer range raids on the Soviets.
Hotly pursued by the Japanese the last Scandinavian Marines leaves Tsingtao aboard the Ferdinand I heading for Scania Havn in Papua.
The Scandinavians and FGN commands establish a joint Pacific command at Scania Havn, Papua.
The forces at its disposal are meagre: two Scandinavian Marine Regiments of two battalions each, one regiment being in Nanking. Of the regiment at station one battalion is undertaking operations against the Papua Independence Movement.
A FGN brigade of five battalions, with supporting units to outfit a division – artillery etc.
Naval transports to carry the whole outfit but only four cruisers, ten corvettes and five u-boats to patrol the Marianas, Marshall and King Frederick islands and secure communications by way of the Nicobar Islands.
Two old Ingialds are on station at Scania Havn acting as floating batteries.
To increase the strength as well as flexibility of the command the Scandinavian Union dispatches 4 Ingialds and 4 corvettes for the Far East.
The FGN ships off infantry to beef up the brigade to division strength and another infantry division.
Most importantly the FGN sends off a mixed regiment of fighters, bombers and long range flying boats to increase reconnaissance effectiveness of the command.
Map of the World 1942 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902898&postcount=810)
January: On the first day of the year Trotsky declare the fall of Warsaw – truth is that the assault is unfolding and the Poles still hold the capital.
Even with Austria-Croatia being effectively severed in two the troops in Illyria is able to hold their own against the Soviets much to their own surprise.
Soviet strategy however is aimed at disrupting the Monarchies even more by entering Italy to strengthen the communist government and oust the royalist forces. Having taken Trieste the next Soviet move in the south is to move west towards the Piave and Italian territory.
In Northern Scandinavia the dwindling resources of the Union makes itself felt with a need for more troops and especially transports suited for winter conditions. The lack of troops has become sorely felt following the withdrawal of colonial troops from Ghana and Cameroon where the Independence movements have stepped up their activities attacking the green troops at will.
This unhappy state of affairs have made it necessary to recommit colonial troops to the colonies the relieve the hard pressed newly raised units. Combined with the war in Europe and the Japanese assault in the Far East makes for a need of front line troops and especially reserves.
As a result every corner of the Empire is combed closely.
Samí's have already been called up for service as reindeer drivers in Finnmark to support the ski brigade.
Inuit's are likewise called up for service with their dogsleighs also in Finnmark – to support the ski brigade and with their hunting background act as snipers on long range patrolling.
The young men of the West Indies are called up for regular service but they suffer badly during service in cold northern Scandinavia and are sent to the Far East when possible.
In China the Japanese in cooperation with the Chinese communists and in close understanding with Trotsky moves up the Yangze River hunting down Europeans and European troops.
The Japanese also moves into Kwangtung Province from Fukien Province forces the French back towards Kwangsi Province and Indochina. An amphibious landing is made on Hainan Island making the French evacuate it.
Having been given the ciphers of the Scandinavian Union and FGN by the Soviet Union the Japanese raids Scania Havn with a naval force including six Super Ingialds that pounds the place into rubble. The two old Ingiald's used as floating batteries in front of Scania Havn is sunk by Japanese gunfire but only after scoring a number of hits on the Japanese ships.
A landing team is repulsed however by the Marines Regiment present at the barracks.
An unpleasant side effect of the Japanese raid is the increasing operational activities of the Papua Independence Movement tying up resources otherwise needed to battle the Japanese.
Based on the experiences gathered in Poland and a few captured Seversky samples the FGN aircraft industry begin designing new aircraft for the Luftwaffe.
One captured Seversky plane is shipped off to the Scandinavian Union.
The USA is still submerged in the South American morass and unable to mobilize support for the European powers.
February: Having taken Warsaw the Soviet army wheels north along the Vistula cutting East Prussia off from the rest of the FGN. The Polish army now in shambles offers only token resistance and the communist army moves up to the FGN border aiming at Stettin on the Baltic.
In Scandinavia the Scandinavian army note the successful halting of the Soviet army in Finnmark. Unpleasant for the Samí that has to endure a communist Provisional Government in the liberated part.
All available aircraft are sent off to Finnmark to increase effectiveness of the ski brigade's operations.
In Sweden the army once again tries to force the Aangermannelv but in vain.
The Japanese jumps off the Carolinas attacking the Dutch East Indies and establishing air bases on New Guinea from which Scania Havn is attacked. Scania Havn is also bombarded by a Japanese navy squadron.
Dutch forces are shipped off from Europe to counter the Japanese attack. The old Scandinavian – Dutch – Belgian – FGN colonial agreement are invoked to facilitate their movement and replenishment.
The Royal Navy sends off a squadron of Super Ingialds to counter the Japanese navy in the Pacific. The US allow the British squadron use of the Panama canal.
Sailing along the Super Ingialds are three flying boat tenders to provide long range reconnaissance for the squadron when entering the Pacific.
The Soviet Baltic Fleet is watched by a RN squadron augmented by the FGN Super Ingialds.
A squadron of the RN matching the Soviet Black Sea Fleet is kept on station in Constantinople.
Other RN units are kept in Greece to watch the Adriatic. This force is augmented by the Austria-Croatian navy.
A Russian communist living in Portugal is able to force the bodyguards of the Tsar and kill him only to be killed by Portuguese police officers.
When informed of the news Trotsky is enraged much to the astonishment of the Highest Soviet that was celebrating the death of the Tsar. Getting his composure Trotsky inform the Highest Soviet that nothing can keep Scandinavia from annexation of the Aaland Isles and the US from acquiring another territory!
A purge of the Cheka division responsible for the murder is quickly effected.
March: The Storthing of the Scandinavian Union debate the state of the Empire.
The drag on resources are severely felt in the war with the army being short of manpower and the Aangermannelv front consuming troops at an alarming rate.
Something acute must be done and after lengthy discussions the majority agree to take up communications with the Independence Movements of Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua to negotiate a truce for the war being. The negotiators in Papua is given mandate to agree to independence post war if that is required to silence the Independence Movement.
In all areas the idea of emancipation of the 1848 and 1856 wars are to be presented to the Independence Movements as bait for ceasing hostilities.
Preparing the Italian offensive a Soviet-Hungarian corps moves north from Ljubljana and succeed in taking Klagenfurt an important east-west communications hub in Austria. The result is devastating for the Austria-Croatians politically. Not wanting to leave the western part of the country to FGN command, which would be the logic move they cling on to keeping their “Empire” together – ordering a new naval base to be set up in Monfalcone and moving Bohemian troops to Veneto via Salzburg.
Not wanting to force the issue the FGN watch the development of the situation from the sideline even if keeping a few divisions in the line in Veneto and Carinthia, aiding the Austria-Croatian futile efforts to retake Klagenfurt.
The Soviet army has reached the Oder in FGN putting Stettin and Breslau under bombardment.
Trying to replenish the FGN forces in the Marianas a joint Scandinavian Union – FGN convoy is attacked by Japanese cruisers west of the Marshall Islands. A Scandinavian corvette and 6 transports are sunk to no Japanese losses.
Arriving in Brisbane, Australia the RN squadron is augmented by a number of Australian and New Zealand cruisers and plans are discussed for engaging the Japanese navy.
The Japanese moves into the Moluccans in the Dutch East Indies and a force is shipped off from Formosa to invade the British part of Borneo. Reacting to the Japanese move in the Moluccans the RN squadron moves into the Dutch East Indies shelling Halmahera but finding no major Japanese warships.
With the RN ships off to the Dutch East Indies the Japanese shell Scania Havn once again.
April: The news from FGN with the severing of East Prussia from the rest of the FGN and landwards isolation of the Baltic states makes for another emergency session of the Storthing.
The FGN is to be consulted on having Britain and France to take over responsibility of defending the Baltic states and blocking the Soviet Baltic Navy in Kronstadt.
The freeing of Scandinavian troops from the Baltic should make for a reserve needed to battle the Soviets on Aangermannelv.
News from the colonies indicate that the Ghana and Togo Independence Movements are willing to discuss a war lasting cease fire but only if promised independence post-war.
The Cameroon Independence Movement is not going to agree to anything short of independence now.
The Papua Independence Movement agree to ending hostilities on promise of post-war independence.
The Storthing agree – to the outrage of the SSB (Stor Scandinavisk Bevægelse) – to promise Ghana and Togo independence post-war to gain freedom of manoeuvre and free up much needed resources. The promise is only to be given if the Independence Movements agree to the raising of native troops to fight in Scandinavia or the Far East.
Cameroon is decided to be suppressed once and for all. The colonial troops of Ghana and Togo as well as locally raised troops among the Scandinavian population is to pacify Cameroon. In accordance with the seriousness of the situation the nobility of Slesvig is asked to support the action of the troops in Cameroon by donation in accordance to their financial interest in the colony.
The time of war is hoped to keep reporters away from Cameroon and those present is to apply for special permission to stay and will only be allowed to travel the countryside is escorted by colonial administration minders.
The army is told to halt operations on Aangermannelv and send off possible reinforcements to Finnmark to support the ski brigade's operations.
The Austria-Croatian situation worsen. The Austria-Croatian navy is ordered to move to Monfalcone, a city under siege only held thanks to FGN troops present.
At Klagenfurt another Austria-Croatian offensive supported by FGN troops to retake the city fails. As the offensive is called off the Soviets jump off north of Monfalcone and breaks Austria-Croatian defences making the FGN position in Monfalcone impossible.
The FGN brigade in Monfalcone march along the coast beating the Soviets to the Piave. Arriving on the Italian side the FGN commander finds the defences non-existent and commands every available train and truck to move his troops back to the FGN.
Hot on the tail of the FGN brigade Soviet troops enter Royalist Italy brushing aside resistance.
France declare that Soviet control of Italy is a threat to France and declare general mobilization. A French army is ordered to march into Royalist Italy.
On the Scandinavian initiative FGN agree to consult Britain and France on the war-effort.
The Japanese invade the Marianas forcing the FGN governor to evacuate FGN troops to Guam where they are put in friendly internment by the USA.
The Japanese invasion of the Marianas see another futile sortie by the RN squadron.
But being in the area the RN is able to catch up with the monthly Japanese raid on Scania Havn sinking 5 Japanese cruisers in the King Frederick Archipelago.
May: Having brokered an agreement with the Independence Movements of Ghana and Togo the first battalions of the Ghana and Togo (black) regiments are raised and trained.
Meeting in Paris FGN and Scandinavian negotiators work to get France and especially Britain to join an integrated command to fight the war.
With French troops fighting the Soviets in Northern Italy and the Japanese expansion in China into French and British controlled areas France is going to join a joint command.
Britain still waver but a proposal of dividing areas of command to not put British troops under foreign command finally pulls it in.
Finland and the Baltic States are to be a British command.
FGN retains supreme command of FGN and Scandinavian Union forces – along being de facto running the war in Austria-Croatia.
France is given control of operations in Italy.
Other European areas are not affected by the agreement except the FGN put pressure on the Austria-Croatian government to leave its navy in British command for the duration of the war.
This change of commands allows for Scandinavian and FGN troops to be replaced in the Baltic states by British and adds French resources to the war effort.
Regarding the Far East some agreements are made for mutual support and rights of using port facilities.
The Soviet Union opens the offensive on the Oder front crossing the river and encircling Berlin that has been declared an open city by the FGN.
In the assembly in Hanover the Prussian delegation accuse the FGN of handing over Prussia to the Soviets.
Prince William asks to be allowed to go to Prussia to take part in the fate of his peoples. This he is allowed to do.
Arriving in Berlin prince William asks the Soviet authorities to let him take up seat in the Royal Palace which he is refused as he is refused to head a Prussian Government. All power of the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic is in the hands of the proletariat. No nobility is needed.
The southern Soviet thrust is skirting the Sudeten Mountains heading for Dresden.
In the south FGN troops man the Alpine passes containing the Soviet forces to Italy where they clash with French troops outside Milan and their advance is checked.
The RN search the Pacific for the Japanese navy.
June: The Soviets reaches the Elbe River. Hamburg is still in FGN hands but the Jutland Peninsular is occupied by Soviet forces.
Scandinavian Union and FGN troops are withdrawn from the Baltic states and replaced by British troops.
The Scandinavian troops are used to form a much needed reserve on Aagermannelv and plans are drawn up for a new offensive.
The first Ghana and Togo battalions arrive in Sweden. They are put in reserve on Aangermannelv.
The Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic announce its independence from the FGN and enters a military alliance with the Soviet Union, raising an army to aid the Soviet big brother.
To secure popularity former prince William is allowed to enter the Peoples Prussian Democratic Party and take up seat in the national assembly.
The French army pushes the Soviet forces out of Northern Italy. Victor Immanuels royalist troops use the breathing space to put renewed pressure on the communist government troops.
The Marshall Islands are occupied by Japan. Evacuated FGN troops are shipped to King Fredericks archipelago.
The RN squadron arrive too late on the scene with the Japanese once again having slipped away and only transports and minor warships present. A number of these are duly sunk.
Cooperation with Dutch forces in the East Indies is stepped up by the two FGN divisions and the air regiment becoming operational, attacking the Japanese forces in Dutch New Guinea.
The air regiment succeeds in taking out most of the Japanese long-range bombers making for a pause in the attacks on Scania Havn.
To counter the Japanese operations the British built up Singapore as their main base of Far East operations. The RN squadron is moved to Singapore.
French reinforcements arrive in Saigon.
July: Facing the grim realities of the day the Scandinavian army digs in deeper on Aangermannelv. Small arms, artillery and ammunition is still plentiful and new recruits arriving from the colonies, but the FGN support is dwindling due to the situation in central Europe even if the French army is pushing the Soviets back.
In Finnmark the Scandinavians are able to hold their own in a terrain suited to their limited manpower resources.
The Ritterschaft in Slesvig is facing humiliation on their home ground as their estates are given to the peoples and the steady stream of income from Cameroon and Papua dries out.
In Cameroon the arrival of more Scandinavian colonial troops and especially the news from Slesvig makes the Independence Movement very interested in brokering an agreement. The news have made the Ritterschaft present in Cameroon confused as to their future.
In FGN the army is able to hold the Elbe River line and Hamburg.
On the other side of the hill the newly raised Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic's army is forming to beefing up Soviet capabilities.
The first units have already been sent off on occasional duty in Jutland, Holstein and Mecklenburg.
Japan is allowed to import Seversky aircraft from the Soviet Union. A number of these are given to the Japanese navy to boost its capacity of long range torpedo attacks.
August: As an act of necessity the government nationalizes all colonial ventures bringing the former Ritterschaft controlled raw material resources and plantations in Cameroon and Papua under government control.
The Ritterschaft protests are not heard outside Slesvig as the local tv-stations have been handed over to control by the Slesvig Peoples Soviet.
Relying on Prussian military tradition only temporarily suspended since 1933 the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army is able to quickly build up a sizeable force that is fuelled mainly on revenge on the FGN. This attitude allows the Soviets to move forces off the Elbe River line and into Hungary and Galizia preparing for a blow at Austria-Croatia.
FGN troops encounter the first Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic troops in Hamburg.
The RN being in Micronesia searching for the Japanese navy encounters a Japanese convoy off Truk.
As the RN is in the process of sinking Japanese transports by gunfire British seaplanes report the Japanese navy steaming towards this happy hour.
Breaking off contact with the convoy the RN turns towards the Japanese navy engaging it at long range. After a few hours exchange of shells the Japanese navy breaks off contact making for the Marianas.
September: Come fall, a new Soviet offensive in Europe.
Soviet Union and Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army crosses the Elbe overrunning Northern FGN, occupying Hanover and entering the Netherlands.
Another thrust is delivered from Hungary into Bohemia crushing the last defences of Austria-Croatia.
As the Soviet and Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army units force their way into Belgium and the Rhine river valley making for the Ruhr French army units marches into Belgium and FGN. A British expeditionary corps is sent to Belgium.
In Cameroon the Independence Movement declare it is ready to enter negotiations with the Scandinavian Governor.
In the Far East the Japanese unleashes their new aircraft on the Europeans wiping out the FGN air regiment in Papua and pushing the French out of China.
Another objective is the RN squadron at Singapore that the Japanese navy tries to lure into a sortie taking it into the South China Sea within range of shore based Navy aircraft. The British sinks a Japanese Ingiald and then turns south to shell Sarawak before returning to Singapore.
October: In Cameroon an agreement is negotiated that promise a referendum post war to decide the future of the colony. The government of the Scandinavian Union promise that the Ritterschaf will not be reinstated to its Cameroon property prior to the referendum.
The Independence Movement then agree to cease hostilities and allow recruiting of Cameroon peoples for the Scandinavian army and navy.
Truck and half-track production are stepped up to increase motorization of the Scandinavian Army artillery.
The FGN relocate the assembly to Frankfurt where the Dutch Government joins it.
The Luftwaffe units are retreated from Scandinavia to aid in the defence of FGN.
This makes SAAB of Göteborg speed up the work on a all-metal monoplane fighter prototype.
The Soviet Union and its allies, Hungary, the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic finally runs out of offensive power and the front stabilizes.
Following up on the Soviet offensives in Europe Japan makes another effort at the Dutch East Indies taking Celebes and preparing to jump off at Java and Sumatra as well as the Dutch part of Borneo.
During this the Japanese main fleet is very active in the Sunda Sea trying to lure the RN out. But the British don't go for the bait.
Britain begin to mobilize the resources of the Empire even if not all may be mobilized because of ongoing insurrections.
The FGN asks Britain, France and the Scandinavian Union to mobilize its scientific resources and built a weapon based on the theory of fission. Before the war Japanese physicist's were very active in Europe gathering knowledge on the theory of fission which might indicate a Japanese attempt at building such a weapon.
The Japanese army raid into Tongking testing French will to defend her colony.
Map of the World October, 1943 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902899&postcount=811)
November: Snow falls in Northern Europe and a stalemate seems to enter the scene of battle.
This pause is used to move colonial troops from Cameroon to Scandinavia and Papua.
In Italy the French army pushes the Soviets out of Italian territory and the Royalist army turns south again, but the successes earlier this year have swelled the communist governments army and resistance is stiff. Little progress is made.
The Bayrische Motor Werke turns out its prototype all-metal monoplane fighter aircraft. French, British and Scandinavian aircraft manufacturers have also turned to monoplane designs for new prototypes.
The kryolite mine in Greenland work day and night to produce kryolite for the aluminium industry.
In the training camps of Scandinavia's army and along front line units all rifles are replaced to the Madsen Magazine Carbine to increase unit firepower. Besides arming the Scandinavian army the Madsen Rifle Works still export large quantities of small arms.
The Government decision to sustain a number of coal fired electrical works past the introduction of hydroelectric power now pays off making available electrical power for the Scandinavian industry.
The increasing numbers of men drafted for military service makes, like in the rest of Europe for more women entering the ranks of workers and being able to sustain themselves in the absence of a male provider. Only in occupied Jutland and Slesvig is this not the norm.
Political life of the war years see a change that is quietly accepted by most parties as a necessity except the far left socialists, communist party being abolished by law and SSB.
The monopolies given to SAAB, Madsen Rifle Works and concentration of shipbuilding industry in Norway makes for changes of society as workers from all over the Union moves to Göteborg headquarters of SAAB and Madsen and especially shipbuilding workers of Denmark settle in Norway.
The capital of the Union steadily increase in size and Norwegian cities get a boost in population.
In the Far East the Japanese seem to have satisfied their thirst on the Chinese mainland well aided by Chinese government forces resisting it and Chinese communists realizing that this new lord will one day have to be evicted.
The Japanese army in China is sized down to allow for transfer of troops to the East Indies but a sizeable force is built up in Kwangsi Province north of French Indochina.
In the Dutch East Indies the Japanese continue to gobble up islands and the air raids on Scania Havn is resumed with the Luftwaffe being cleared from the skies.
Dutch resistance is broken down with no communications to the homeland. The Scandinavian/FGN command at Scania Havn works frantically to piece a kind of defence together.
As the Japanese lands on Java and Sumatra the RN is in place at Batavia taking the Japanese invasion fleet by surprise due to long range reconnaissance.
Two Japanese Super Ingialds and a number of lesser warships and transports are sunk to the loss of one RN Super Ingiald and an Australian cruiser.
The Japanese invasion fleet is repulsed but the troops are landed further east strengthening the attack on Surabaya. The British return to Singapore to repair damages.
The mobilization of British colonial resources have Australia becoming the main western ally in the area with the British forces building up in Malaya and Singapore as its main base. Australia thus becoming the secure backyard of the Europeans fighting in the Pacific.
December: As ice is packing in the Baltic and especially in the Botnic and Finn Bay's both sides seem to resort to raiding each others communications by patrols moving on the ice. Soviets raiding Estonia and Scandinavians raiding north of the Aangermannelv.
In Finnmark the Scandinavians resume the offensive with the Ski Brigade having been reinforced to division size and the reconnaissance element strengthened for making raids into Finland and the Soviet Union itself possible in force.
Only the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army seem to be on the offensive in the Rhineland pushing south along the river having French and British army alerting reserves for the threat.
With the FGN reduced to fighting basically a war of survival the Scandinavian Union secure a formal alliance with Britain to secure the communications with the colonies in the Pacific and cooperation with Australia on military as well as commercial matters and coordinate military operations in Northern Europe with the objective of pushing the Soviets out of both Scandinavia and Finland.
A new Scandinavian governor, minister Henrik Kauffmann is shipped off to Scania Havn to preside as the political head of the colony and direct the war effort as well as running all day to day business of the area.
Along the governor a brigade of colonial troops arrive to increase the Scandinavian war effort in the Far East.
Arriving just before Christmas Eve minister Kauffmann is soon able to outmanoeuvre the FGN military commander assuming strategic direction of the Joint Far Eastern Command as he is responsible for negotiations with the British and Australian Governments and thus the flow of resources to the Commands forces.
In a few weeks being virtually out of communications with the homeland Kauffmann is able to assume all power in the area and run an effective administration both civil and military.
One of his first steps is to secure an agreement with the RN command Far East to the regular visit of British or Australian/New Zealand warships in Scania Havn.
The other is to have the FGN corps in New Guinea resume the offensive to put pressure on the Japanese to have them move their airbases out of range of Scania Havn.
A setback is it however that the US governor on Guam decides to give in to Japanese pressure and turns the FGN troops, administration and governor of the Marianas over to the Japanese. The governor is promptly executed for not surrendering the Marianas and the FGN troops and administration put to hard work and imprisonment in the Marianas.
Japanese troops land on Sumatra. The RN is only able to interfere in few numbers due to ships still being repaired in Singapore.
Due to the Prussian offensive in the Rhineland a planned British and French movement of troops for the Far East is cancelled.
Special New Years Ewe edition December 31. 1943
...the past year have seen endless fighting on the soil of our Motherland. In this epic struggle the population of our dependencies have decided to come to the aid of the Motherland. We hail the sons of settlers in the West Indies, Ghana, Togo and Papua as well as their coloured brothers who have decided to hear the call and fight to be sure of there being a tomorrow for all of us. Even closer to home the peoples of Greenland and Sámi have chosen to make our fight theirs.
...Your writer have met the conscripts of the dependencies in their training camp close to Sundsvall. Young fit men of every skin colour, faith and background are being welded together to become a well oiled war-machine on the outskirts of this thriving industrial city.
The commander of the training camp colonel Larsson, born in Hamar, have granted your writer access to the camp and to interview its proud inhabitants. Yes proud their appearance is when you see them marching or running around camp performing all duties of military life.
Aided by company commander Fredericks of Charlotte Amalie, the West Indies, who tell you a story of growing up in a family of the dependencies administration, a father trained in Stockholm to become assistant director of the bureau of economics, a uncle trained at the army officers academy at Stockholm and a grand-father from Ghana who graduated as a teacher in Copenhagen and then settled in Charlotte Amalie.
Captain Fredericks the took your writer around camp to see it all. The size of camp is impressive in itself not being able to tell exact numbers but looking the size of Aarhus or Bergen I'll ask you dear reader to make up your own picture – unbelievable, right?
All the young men had their story to tell but I'll forward this one to your knowledge – young private Abraham Isaac Jacobsen of Anecho, Togo who following the negotiations decided to enlist. The ability to be able to sustain his mother and six younger brother and sisters was a major factor in his decision but he also, importantly told that he felt an urge now that the independence movement had announced that peace would rule and a plebiscite would follow in the wake of war to determine the future of Togo that he ought to do his duty and secure this future would indeed be. If he would be part of sacrifice to secure this then it would be his destiny...
January: Scandinavian reconnaissance units of Sami and Inuit drivers augmented by regulars move far into Finland and the Soviet Union to wreck havoc on Soviet communications.
In these raids both Sami and Inuit earn the respect of their comrades in arms, handling their sleighs and tracking down man and beast to kill and survive in the Arctic as well as making their comrades survive.
The patrols range as far as Murmansk and the shores of the White Sea. Some even reach the British and Finn forces in southern Finland.
One patrol claim to have reached Archangelsk but nobody take this claim seriously.
During the month it becomes obvious to the Monarchies alliance, as it is known nowadays that the Soviets were reallocating forces probably for a spring offensive in Central Europe to knock the FGN out of the war.
To counter this the British and Scandinavians drew up plans for a winter offensive in the North aimed at driving the Soviets out of Scandinavia and Finland and possibly launch an invasion of the Soviet Union to take off steam of the perceived spring offensive.
Having their own designs and not wanting to be left out France entered the alliance bringing along Spain.
The plan was for holding the front line in Belgium and hit the Soviets in Carinthia and bring an end to the communist government in Italy.
What the French and Spanish Presidents didn't inform their allies of was their intention not to reinstall Victor Immanuel as King of Italy but following victory hold a referendum to change the country to a Republic.
In the Far East minister Kauffmann is able to cement a local close alliance of Scandinavia, FGN, Britain and Dutch to take the war to the Japanese. Leaving military operational decisions to generals and admirals he demand to be part of the allied council when matters turn to strategy.
Minister Kauffmann also ask the Scandinavian government to supply his forces with U-boats to get another means with which to hit back at the Japanese.
On the strategic level the Dutch are counted out as their troops and command are demoralized following the loss of the homeland.
The French are nervously watching the Japanese army in Kwangsi Province and the British army effort is severely limited without the planned reserves shipped off from Europe.
Even with these shortcomings minister Kauffmann is able to piece together a FGN/Australian offensive aimed at throwing the Japanese off New Guinea.
An aircraft factory is founded in Australia to supply it and its allies in the Far East with modern aircraft.
February: With no use for its U-boats against the Soviets the six larger ones are sent off to the Far Eastern command at Scania Havn.
The Scandinavian Union army and the British as well as Finn forces take the offensive throwing the Soviets back.
On Aagermannelv the reorganized Scandinavian Army supported by its new mobile artillery and SAAB monoplane aircraft, fighters and close air support planes crosses the river following a large scale raid on Soviet communications.
This raid has two prongs: one is a force sent off from Finnmark down the Torneaa to Haparanda that catches the Soviet occupation troops by surprise.
The other is a force moving on the ice from south of Aangermanelv to hit the Soviets at Umeaa and cut communications. Both actions succeed and the frontal assault squeeze the Soviets out of their fortifications on Aangermannelv.
In Finnmark the long range patrols are able to sever the communications of the Soviet forces and these are forced to pull out of Norway.
In Finland the British lead the attack as the Finn army is moving stealthily through snow covered forests to hit the Soviet communications.
In the Rhine Valley the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army keeps up the pressure on the FGN, British and French armies to allow the Soviet army to reorganize.
The FGN army is calling up every able bodied male to fill the rank and file and be able to take the offensive on their own.
In Italy the French army is pushing the Soviet forces out of Italy and pursuing it into Carinthia.
A French corps is sent south to push the Italian communist government troops back. Moving south the corps strips Victor Immanuel of his foreign troops, incorporating them in the corps.
FGN and Austria-Croatia pull a few troops out of the reserve to follow in the footsteps of the French army and reclaim Austria-Croatian territory.
The actions in Italy is a chock to every crowned head.
French and British aircraft factories have begun turning out monoplane fighters and bombers in large numbers.
The Japanese carry on with their conquest of the Dutch East Indies. Only the Scandinavia/FGN counter offensive in New Guinea and the presence of a strong RN squadron that won't be led into a trap upset their scheme.
March: The Scandinavian Army reaches the Finn border at Haparanda. POW camps all over Scandinavia has been filled with Soviet troops and plans have been drawn up to ship them out to the colonies. The ongoing war with Japan is the major obstacle to the implementation of this plan.
Finnmark has been cleared of Soviet troops and the Scandinavian army is approaching Kirkenes.
The British and Finns have liberated Helsinki and is moving east.
The Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army runs out of steam and digs in for defending their gains.
The French army enters Illyria linking up with the Austria-Croatian forces holding the province.
The French army in Greece moves out of the country and into Macedonia where it is greeted as liberators.
French troops enters Florens and Ancona in Italy.
In Moscow Trotsky faces a hostile High Soviet.
The Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic is accused of being bourgeoisie in disguise only bent on regaining hegemony on the German states and not handing the reins of power to the peoples.
Japan is accused of being a monarchy allying itself to the Soviet Union to further its own interests and backstabbing the Chinese communists whenever possible.
Instead of allying itself to bourgeoisie states the Soviet Union ought to spread revolution to all parts of the world and let the monarchies of Europe bleed from internal injury instead of wasting precious resources on a war when they are being at their prime.
Trotsky argue that this is the time to keep the bourgeoisie states on the brink of collapse by mobilization of all Soviet means including the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic and relying on allies as Japan, that may be gobbled up when the war has been won.
Trotsky is able to ride off the storm for now.
The monarchies alliance offensives in the north and south have upset the Soviet spring offensive plan which is postponed.
Trotsky promise the High Soviet that this offensive is going to be the last blow to the monarchies.
Seeing that things are not going the way it should in Europe, Japan hurries up its work on the fission bomb.
The last Japanese troops are retreated from New Guinea. Except for the northern part of Sumatra, which is held by British troops the rest of the Dutch East Indies and British Borneo have been conquered by the Japanese.
Minister Kauffmann calls for a conference at Scania Havn to decide on the next offensive in the Far East.
The conference is attended by British, French, Australian, New Zealand and Dutch representatives.
It is concluded that the presence of the Japanese navy is a severe handicap for the alliance to jump to other islands. The Japanese navy should be neutralized in some way.
The RN doesn't want to be lured into the South China Sea so it decide to step up operations in the Sunda Sea to lure out the Japanese.
The seaplane tenders and shore based aircraft are to be used to the utmost to locate the Japanese navy and its whereabouts. All nations agree to earmark aircraft for reconnaissance.
The newly arrived Scandinavian U-boats are hurried into service. Their main purpose is to harass Japanese lines of communications sinking every merchantmen they come across after having inspected the ship and cargo and every warship. The secondary purpose is to keep watch on the Japanese navy to aid in locating it.
April: The Scandinavian Army moves into northern Finland to free it of Soviet occupation troops and stragglers. Contact is established with the British and Finn armies moving up from the south along the coast.
This month is later to be known as the Phoenix of the FGN. Having mobilized every able body the FGN army supported by the Luftwaffe launches an attack upon the Soviet army holding the Harz breaking through the Soviet lines and reaching the Elbe in 48 hours.
Keeping up the momentum the FGN army march north along the Elbe to Hamburg cutting off the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army in the west from its communications.
As the British and French armies advance in the FGN and Belgium the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army commander offers his surrender to these. The offer is duly turned down and the commander told to surrender to the FGN. As FGN troops close in from the east and subjected to British and French attack the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army commander finally agree to a surrender of his troops.
In the Balkans the Austria-Croatian government tries to persuade France to give it back its Croatian lands. As no answer is received the Austria-Croatian government turns to FGN to get some backing for its plea.
The French and Spanish republics decide to let their FGN embassies handle matters regarding Austria-Croatia.
In Italy the French main force is substituted by a Spanish corps that continue the mopping up operation of the Italian communist republic.
Japan moves its finished but not tested fission bomb to Taiwan by ship. A modified large flying boat is on station there to move it on towards its objective.
The activities of the RN in the Sunda Sea triggers the Japanese navy to leave Taiwan en route for the Dutch East Indies. The 25 Japanese Ingiald's go into the South China Sea and east of Borneo to avoid allied air reconnaissance, but are spotted by a British float plane that relay its speed and course giving the RN a few hours to prepare for battle.
During the battle Japanese shore based aircraft several times attack the RN ships and sinks one Ingiald. Gunfire loses the RN another two but it is able to sink eight Japanese before the Japanese breaks contact. After the battle the RN returns to Singapore to repair damage.
The Scandinavian U-boats sink their first merchantman, a tanker.
May: As all of Scandinavia and Finland have been liberated and the Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army knocked out of the war a conference is gathered in London to discuss the course of war.
France reject the British invitation of King Victor Immanuel of Italy stating that the Italian Republic is the legal body of Italy.
At the conference Britain, FGN, Austria-Croatia, Scandinavia and the Ottoman Empire form one block while France, Spain and Greece form another.
France propose that French and British troops enter FGN territory to launch a joint attack on the Soviet Union under French command and that the French army continue the task of liberating the Balkan states.
Britain and FGN argue that the May 1943 agreement of command should be adhered to.
Britain, Finland and Scandinavia should attack the Soviet Union in the north going for St. Petersburg while the FGN clears its territory of Soviet troops and the French army operate in the Balkans.
Regarding the matter of the future of the Austria-Croatia Empire France suggests that Austria joins the FGN and Croatia is made independent. The real motive by the French is to keep pressure on Italy once war is won, not to have Austria-Croatia fall prey to it or make it diminish French influence in the Balkans. This issue is shelved for the time being.
It is decided to go for a strategy in which Britain and Scandinavia have St. Petersburg as their objective, FGN control the central front and France operate in the Balkans carrying out an offensive in Hungary to knock that country out of the war to further weaken the Soviet war effort and make it cover an increasing length of front.
To counter Japan in the Far East every available warship is sent off and the troops that can be spared.
The Scandinavian Union is able to ship off its colonials, troops raised in the West Indies, Ghana, Togo and Cameroon, apparently the men best suited for the Pacific climate but also with a thought on the future of the colonies. No need to have too many trained ex-soldiers present when their future is to be decided.
Added on arrival at Scania Havn to the Papua force they amount to a division.
The British and French are also able to send off a few troops for the Far East.
The Scandinavian reinforcements for the Far East goes by the Panama Canal to avoid the possibility of Japanese naval interception.
The British and French are sent by the Suez Canal to Singapore where they wait for secure transport.
The FGN shift forces into Bavaria and Austria to prepare for an offensive against Bohemia and launches a small cross river operation south of Hamburg to cut off the Prussian troops in the Jutland peninsular. The Scandinavian Union land troops in Femern and in Holstein meeting the FGN troops in Oldesloe, Holstein.
Being beaten by the RN the Japanese navy urges the Emperor to make use of the fission bomb to take out the RN and its base facilities in Singapore.
The fission bomb and the flying boat are loaded on a flyingboat tender and sets course for Borneo.
May 31: Reaching Borneo the fission bomb is loaded into the flying boat that takes off for Singapore. As the flying boat approaches Singapore the city and base is subjected to an air raid to weaken its defences.
As the air raid ends the British fighter planes land to refuel and rearm and the flying boat is able to close in unopposed.
Aboard the flying boat the converted hull is stuck so it cannot release the bomb and the crew members work frantically to open the bomb bay. They succeed just as the plane enters the final run and two of the crew are lost as the bomb bay finally open.
The pilot is able to turn away before the explosion but the plane suffer engine and other failure and lands on sea close to the British held part of Sumatra where the surviving crew members are taken prisoner.
The crew soon dies due to their exposure to radiation.
The bomb explodes a hundred feet above the harbour forcing the water out of it and ships that isn't damaged by the blast are sunk by the returning tidal wave.
The port base facilities are levelled as are a large part of the city and the rest is swept by fires for several days.
The RN loses 15 Super Ingiald's and 3 seaplane tenders as well as several cruisers – one New Zealand, corvettes and several smaller vessels.
5 RN Super Ingiald's off on gunnery range survived the bomb.
The number of lost merchantmen was counted at 27.
Loss of life was estimated at a low of 150000 and high of 270000 but nobody was ever sure because of the number of workers drawn to the base during the war years that was never officially registered.
June: Due to the loss of the flying boat Japan was probably the last nation to know of the effectiveness of its fission bomb.
At one stroke the balance of power was changed in the Far East in favour of the Japanese.
The governments of FGN, Britain, France and Scandinavia decided to speed up building their own fission bomb that is to be delivered by a FGN built rocket able to reach Moscow, but having an accuracy of 1000m.
The Latvian Government is asked to close down an area in which a launching site is constructed.
The Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army occupying the Jutland peninsular surrender.
British reinforcements arrive in Finland and Estonia preparing for the assault on St. Petersburg.
In a fury because of the Japanese bombing of Singapore minister Kauffmann orders the Scandinavian U-boats to sink any ship flying the Japanese flag without warning.
Not to be counted among the easy prey minister Kauffmann works to get an allied naval force pieced together to pre-emt any Japanese picking off each surviving force separately.
He succeeds in getting the Dutch cruiser, two Australian, two Scandinavian and three FGN to join in a squadron to support the surviving 5 RN Super Ingialds in a raid on the Palau Islands just to show the Japanese that the allies are alive and kicking.
The French Far Eastern squadron based in Haiphong is picked off by the Japanese navy as the allied fleet bombard the Palau Islands much to the astonishment of the Japanese. This action sends off a substantial part of the Japanese navy to hunt down the allied force.
The Japanese launch an invasion of French Indochina and the loss of the Far Eastern squadron and their confidence soon see the Japanese outside the walls of Hue.
The FGN Phoenix have left a hole in the Soviet front line which the Luftwaffe discovers and all available reserves are thrown in in pushing the front line east. During this race a Scandinavian brigade suddenly finds itself at Neu Strelits in Mecklenburg being part of the FGN seventh army – with the consent of the Scandinavian government that is.
At the end of the month the front line have been moved to the Oder “liberating” large parts of Brandenburg and Schlesia.
The Spanish army reaches Naples and Taranto effectively crushing the last organized Italian communist republican resistance. Spanish and French troops are landed on Sicily and occupies the island.
At the news of the Singapore attack and the sinking of the French Far Eastern squadron Britain and France ships off a joint battle fleet of 25 Super Ingialds under British command to hunt down the Japanese battle fleet.
Putting pressure on the USA because of its handing over of FGN troops and governor to the Japanese the US lease their 2 carriers to the British/French and supply four naval radar-sets for installation on the Super Ingialds.
Other air assets of the combined fleet are two French, one FGN, four British and one Scandinavian seaplane tenders.
The carriers are mostly equipped with fighter planes to back up any detection of large Japanese flying boats that could be carrying another nuclear bomb.
July: The Scandinavian army have been given responsibility for the northern part of the front line from the Arctic Sea to the Ladoga. The Ski Division moves into the Kola Peninsular occupying Murmansk hardly firing a shot. The Scandinavians only halt on reaching the Alexei Canal and Svir river.
The British troops in Finland is transported to Estonia to form a reserve for the assault on St. Petersburg. The Northern pincer is then made up of Scandinavian and Finn armies the Southern pincer of the British Baltic Army.
Preparing for their Hungarian offensive the French army masses in Slavonia.
The allied battle fleet leaves European waters heading for Panama.
As the Scandinavians step up their U-boat activities so does the Japanese increase their defensive measures. But the success of the U-boats makes Minister Kauffmann ask for more U-boats to augment his forces.
The Japanese battle fleet cruise the Pacific in search of the allied light fleet, bombing Scania Havn in the process but quickly retreating to the threat of Scandinavian and British submarines.
August: Having finished its deployment the Soviet army jumps off in Bohemia aiming at Bavaria and Austria. But the mountains ringing Bohemia is an obstacle to the attacker and a bonus to the FGN and Austria-Croatian army defending them.
Simultaneously the western monarchies offensive deployment is finished. Almost a million Scandinavian troops stand to in Finland, an equal British number in Estonia that will be heading for St. Petersburg and further south a FGN army is ready to move into Schlesia to cut off the Soviet armies in Bohemia.
The French deployment in Slavonia is also close to complete making for another million troops aimed at Hungary.
Two days after the Soviet assault the western attack unfolds.
The Scandinavians move east south of the Lake Saima and into the Karelian Istmus – infantry up front with mobile artillery a close second.
The British move north of Lake Peipus towards the Narva and the city while a diversionary attack aims at Pskov south of the Lake.
In Schlesia the FGN army have assembled its total number of Motorgeschütze to drive down the left bank of the Oder, bypass Breslau and go for their objective Troppau to cut off the Soviet army in Bohemia.
The French army in Slavonia jumps off to the north quickly breaking the Hungarian army's fighting spirit and routing it at Pecs before driving on towards Budapest.
The allied battle fleet arrive at San Diego where the two US carriers join up and four Super Ingialds are fitted with US naval radar. The combined force heads into the Pacific to hunt down the Japanese battle fleet.
September: Feeling the brunt of the western attack Trotsky asks the Japanese to hit the westerners again or hand over the next bomb for the Soviets to use.
Told that there are no second bomb, that it was the test sample that was used on Singapore leaves Trotsky in a rage. The Soviet armies in the west is crumbling, Prussia is out, Hungary is going out and the bourgeoisie westerners have finally managed to agree on how to wage war together and he is feeling every punch.
To save himself Trotsky approaches the assembly of the Soviets, bypassing the High Soviet and promises peace and prosperity. Amazingly he convince the assembly of the Soviets that he is able to end war and continue world revolution to the ultimate Soviet victory!
Having attained his mandate Trotsky ask the USA to call for a peace conference in Washington.
St. Petersburg is almost surrounded by the monarchies alliance – Finns and Scandinavians in the north and British in the west and south. Only to the east is a lifeline of the city across the Lake Ladoga. But everything has to be shipped in and aircraft of the monarchies alliance roam the skies.
The FGN tries to bag the Soviet army in Bohemia but it manages to get out and retreat into Galizia.
The French army enters Budapest but have to fight its way through the city.
Having been given no word of Trotsky's approaches to the USA Japan decide to strike at the western fleet before it closes in on Japan.
The Japanese battle fleet move into the Marshall's to prepare for battle. The Japanese aircraft based in the Marshall's are busy trying to master techniques of hitting moving ships with bombs and torpedoes.
A Scandinavian U-boat hunting in the Marshall's sight the Japanese battle fleet and report its position and heading.
Steaming for Scania Havn the western fleet changes course to meet the Japanese. As the accompanying flying boats report Japanese planes taking off from the Marshall's the fighters are launched to repel them.
A total of forty-two Ingiald's and Super Ingiald's meet south of Jaluit Island exchanging fire at a distance of eleven km. The British and French got the first shots off at twelve km's aided by radar and aerial observation.
As both sides are determined to not let the other part survive the day the artillery duel continue for hours. At nightfall the Japanese, having taken a severe beating tries to evade in the waning light but the aid of radar proves its value. Even if not directly tied to the fire-direction control of the British and French ships the precise ranging and tracking of the Japanese ships prove invaluable.
During the night the allied ships continue to harass the Japanese by main battery fire and at dawn fighters and seaplanes are launched to direct fire. The destruction of the Japanese battle fleet is total!
News of the battle have the Far Eastern command at Scania Havn meet to decide on strategy. All available transports will be mustered and the colonial division put to use in the Carolinas.
The two FGN divisions along Australian troops will initiate the battle to regain the Dutch East Indies.
The British and French commanders enters a row on how to put their forces to best use as the French wants to have a go at Indochina but the Brits want to part take in the liberating of the Dutch East Indies and get British Borneo back. As the Brits are commanding the battle fleet they ultimately win the argument much to the resentment of the French.
October: Trying to redeem itself the USA offers to mediate between the monarchies alliance and the Soviets. Following the initial successes of the monarchies offensives the Soviet defence seems to harden along the Danube, across Slovakia,Galizia and Poland.
Only in the north are things not going the Soviet way with the stranglehold on St. Petersburg being tightened.
Trotsky offers the FGN East Prussia as its prize and an independent Poland with the borders of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
As the peace conference convenes in Washington word suddenly spread among the monarchies alliance that St. Petersburg have surrendered!
The commander, a former tsarist general decided against his political commissioners not to prolong the suffering of the citizens.
These news makes the monarchies alliance propose a counter offer that peace must be on the status quo ante, Siberia east of the Stanovoi Mountains and Sakhalin ceded to the USA, Aaland Isles ceded to the Scandinavian Union and St. Petersburg allowed to decide its destiny by referendum.
Poland is to be evacuated by the Soviet army and Galizia ceded to Poland.
As expected Trotsky refuse these terms and the Soviet delegation leaves the conference.
At a war council held in London Britain argue that the British-Scandinavian forces should continue the drive into the Soviet Union ultimately going for Moscow and the High Soviet.
The Scandinavians are reluctant remembering the history of Carl XII and suggest that a line from Lake Ladoga to Lake Ilmen and on to Pskov should be the furthest advance. Anyway the autumn rains are clogging down any advance at the time so it would be for the better to stick to gains and concentrate on Japan until spring and the weather change.
The French support the Scandinavians on the Japanese issue seeing this as a change to win back their possessions in Indochina.
The weather issue is also the back draw of the FGN effort to retake Prussia with its army literally slogging around in mud east of the Oder. At the end of the month the FGN army is able to retake Danzig and reach the Vistula.
With their battle fleet gone the Japanese gains of islands in the Pacific and East Indies are virtually worthless. There are no way of resupplying the isolated garrisons except by air or the lucky freighter but monarchies alliance U-boat are making these few to number.
The aircraft factory in Australia is also beginning to make its presence felt with an increasing turnout of new aircraft to supply the allies.
The allied battle fleet are ordered to Japanese waters to test the Japanese home defences. A number of ports are shelled and a large number of merchantmen sunk but the determined attitude of the Japanese army and navy airforces make the allied battle fleet leave Japanese waters.
November: Having “liberated” Prussia the FGN assembly of princes decide to carve up Prussia and distribute the pieces among the victorious Kingdoms and only keep an independent Brandenburg.
Announcing the plan of partition the outcry from the socialists, socialdemocrats, liberals are heard all over the FGN except in Prussia that is kept under military rule.
A coalition of jurists and politicians demand the partition plan to be taken to a High Court of the FGN.
As no such institution exists one is demanded to be set up.
The FGN princes tries to rally the nobility to their support but the pressure is too great and the princes give in.
A High Court of the FGN is set up in Weimar. The High Court is asked to rule on the legality of the partition plan.
After several months of waiting in which the newspapers have been through all aspects of the plan and every possible ruling by the High Court the High Court announce its ruling on the partition plan. The partition plan is against the statute of the FGN!
The princes cry and the coalition of jurists and politicians applaud the ruling.
The High Court state that only Germanic states can enter the FGN. Prussia was such a state when it was annexed to the FGN (this annexation is not part of the ruling) and is to be allowed to enter the FGN as a state or not! Prussia is not a foreign land that has been conquered by the FGN and as such cannot be partitioned. Prussia was severed from the FGN by the realities of war – its legal government abolished but now it is to be reinstated and take its place of the assembly of the FGN.
The defeat of the princes is complete. In all the member states of the FGN the politicians take the reins from the princes in the years to come.
As war is closing in on the Soviet Union and the fall of St. Petersburg a number of Soviet generals make overtures to the monarchies alliance. They offer to overthrow the Soviet government and put Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov on the throne in return of the monarchies aid in arms and funds.
As Mikhail hasn't been heard off in years following the Soviet Revolution the generals offer are found suspicious but negotiations continue.
Trotsky somehow got wind of the generals advance towards the monarchies alliance and went public in the assembly of the Soviets condemning the generals and ordering a purge of officers. As orders went out to Cheka units the Soviet Union once again descended into civil war chaos with the monarchies alliance as onlookers.
In the Far East minister Kauffman see the invasion fleet off sailing for Truk in the Carolinas. With naval superiority the minister is confident that invasion is going to succeed easily.
The Japanese will to fight has not been diminished and the invasion force soon finds itself in a battle that recall memories of Aangermannelv.
The allied battle fleet support the British and French operations to retake the Dutch East Indies.
December: As the Soviet Union disintegrates the former military commander of St. Petersburg is elected mayor of the city and its surroundings that have been secured by the monarchies alliance troops. The Mayor as his first act signs a peace treaty with the monarchies alliance and a border treaty with Finland recognizing the Treaty of Nystad border once again. St. Petersburg is a de facto Russian state at this time.
The monarchies alliance decide to cordone the Soviet Union off except for St. Petersburg.
The Scandinavian and British armies advance to the proposed Scandinavian line of Lake Ladoga to Lake Ilmen and on to Pskov. The civil administration of the area is turned over to the Mayor of St. Petersburg.
The Soviet armies in eastern Europe is withdrawn to take part in the carnage in Russia and FGN and French forces advance to the former borders of Poland and Russia.
The Poles once again rise in revolution throwing the last Soviet troops out. The Poles are warned by the monarchies alliance of going for Russian territory once again but told that a Polish seizure of Galizia will be recognized by the monarchies alliance. The experience of the past fourteen years have left its mark.
In the French liberated countries the republican politicians are strongly incited to go for power and referendums are held in Croatia, Serbia, Albania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania.
The Albanians doesn't know what they want and are generally left to themselves following a brief French occupation.
The Serbs and Bulgarians return to monarchy but the rest opt for a republic on the French model.
As nobody cared to ask the peoples in Bosnia of their opinion everything is ready for an eventful future.
In the FGN Prussia is readmitted in the Federation as the Kingdom of Prussia and prince Sigismund is advocated as its king and is duly paid homage by the prussians who have finished being communists. His powers as king are mostly non-existent.
This is viewed by the other FGN princes as a happy state of affairs but little are they aware that their ruling days have been numbered.
The former Peoples Prussian Democratic Republic army is demobilized and new brigades raised to augment the FGN army. To ease the reincorporation of the prussians in the FGN army the former national contingents are abolished to brigade level.
This is actually a cementing of the existing situation as the FGN army units had been battered or reorganized during the war so that almost no national contingents above brigade level did remain intact.
Indeed this new state of affairs make several heads of the smaller German princedoms happy as they now raise units the same size as the larger princedoms if fewer in number.
Ex: Duchy of Holstein is able to raise one brigade, the Kingdom of Saxony eight brigades.
The US is asked by the monarchical alliance to mediate a peace with Japan but also to lease it part of Sakhalin. Just enough to set up a naval base and a stretch of land in which a rocket launch pad may be built.
The Japanese government rejects the monarchical alliance peace proposal as a sign of weakness.
The monarchical alliance recognize the Chinese government as the legitimate rule of China and begin arms delivery to it to show its intentions.
1945 In the final weeks of war elections is held in the Scandinavian Union toppling the war time government and bringing a gust of conservatism into the Storthing.
The conservatives are able to pull the string of nationalism and win a landslide victory. The Scandinavian Union is to take its seat among the major and victorious states of the world.
The Poles occupies Galizia at no protest.
To counter the former Russian/Soviet influence in Persia Britain ships off troops and arms for the Persian government to make it able to repossess the area that had been a Russian/Soviet zone of interest.
British troops in the Ottoman Empire is withdrawn. Only the RN squadron remain in Ottoman Black Sea ports to watch whoever comes to control the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet.
The Soviet Union/Russia is still in chaos as the Soviet government fights the army and newly surfaced opposition parties as well as industrialists that all want a share of the spoils.
During a change of offices in the Soviet government Trotsky is killed. The rumour has it that a struggle for power is going on in the communist party following defeat.
Backing down on the promises made by the former government independence for Ghana, Togo and Papua are cancelled firing off bursts of resentment and anger and calls for revolution.
The colonial division is regarded as unreliable by its officers but minister Kauffmann is able to rally it for another go at Truk by his personal promise of taking up the independence question with the Scandinavian government. And Truk is a victory for the colonials.
As the new government doesn't want to discuss its policy with Minister Kauffmann he then ask for the demobilization of the division which is granted.
Most of the army in Russia is kept on station but several divisions are shipped off for colonial duty and for fighting the Japanese.
The colonial situation is even worse with thousands of veterans being demobilized and returning home to promises not fulfilled.
The British also keep a large army in Russia and ships off reinforcements for the Far East.
As the rocket launch pad is built on Sakhalin the allies continue the bloody campaign of the Pacific islands.
In China the government and the communists enter a truce to join in clearing the country of Japanese troops which put even more strain on the Japanese.
In July the launch pad is completed and the first rocket fired on Japan. Warned that the next warhead may be a fissionable one the Japanese government gives in and negotiations is initiated. The fission warhead was a bluff but it worked.
Present at negotiations are Britain, France, FGN, Scandinavian Union, Dutch and China.
Japan is to withdraw all troops from the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, China, Marshall and Marianas Islands and is forced to cede the Carolinas to the Scandinavian Union.
The FGN decline receiving any more colonies.
Hainan and Taiwan are to be ceded to China.
Japan accept ceding Hainan but refuse ceding Taiwan.
Japan is notified that its refusal to accord to the peace proposal is unacceptable to the monarchical alliance and China. Japan must cede Taiwan or face the consequences. Japan still refuse ceding Taiwan. The peace negotiations is ended.
The Chinese government and the Chinese communists refuse to let the Japanese army in China leave the country and begin attacking those parts of the Japanese army that have not laid down arms. A Chinese government army is drawn together in Fukien province to open an offensive that will take it to the Taiwan Strait.
Robbed of oil the Japanese air forces only sortie on a limited basis.
Monarchical alliance troops are being transported through the Ryu-Kyu's with only limited Japanese interference and landed in Chekiang Province, China.
October: With the Fukien Province coast secured by Chinese government army units airfields are set up on the coast for British and Scandinavian air forces. Combat air patrols over Taiwan is initiated to test the Japanese defences.
Transports are being assembled in Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen ports.
The allied Far Eastern fleet is directed to Taiwan strait. Plans to invade Taiwan is drawn up.
The monarchical alliance U-boat squadron in the Pacific is patrolling Taiwan waters.
Part of the French squadron head off for Haiphong where it is met by a delegation that ask it to leave independent Vietnam.
A joint Chinese government/communist army deploy on the Korean border.
November: British and Scandinavian troops arrive in Fukian Province. A total of five Scandinavian and three British divisions. The Chinese government army is practising coastal assaults.
A training programme is set up for a modern Chinese government air force.
The monarchical alliance step up the air war over Taiwan severely draining Japanese air capacity. The assault is set for December.
The Chinese offensive against Korea jumps off with the Chinese advancing on Chongjin and Pyongyang.
December: The allied Far Eastern Fleet begin the bombardment of Taipei as a prelude to invasion. The British, Scandinavian and Chinese air forces wipe the sky over Taiwan clear of Japanese planes.
The Carriers and Sea plane Tenders are positioned east of Taiwan and carry out their own attacks to put the final squeeze on the Japanese air capability.
The first wave of attacking troops are able to land almost unopposed in Taipei harbour. Establishing a bridgehead the second wave is also able to make an uncontested landing.
Moving into the city the attackers encounters the Japanese defenders that have fortified several parts of the city.
The attack turn into a meat-grinding city fight where the mobile Scandinavian artillery are used for direct fire over open sights. The destruction of the city is total.
Twenty four hours later the second allied invasion force land at Gaoxiong in the south of the island and begin pushing inland and north.
Along with the invasion force are a few teams of television reporters. These provide the first moving pictures in Europe of the war in Asia.
As a strip of land have been occupied in the south of Taiwan allied aircraft are flown in to provide air support of the advancing invasion force.
The Taipei assault still being bogged down after a week in street fighting the allied fleets Super Ingialds use their main armament in a supporting role blasting whole quarters of the city away.
Finally at the end of the month the Chinese government troops claim all of Taipei for China.
In Korea the Chinese advance in the west have run into a steadfast Japanese defence at Pyongyang. On the east coast the Chinese are moving south from Chongjin towards Kimchaek. More Chinese government and communist troops are mobilized for the Korean front.
January: Moving up from the south Scandinavian troops enter Tainan and continue moving north encountering only token Japanese resistance.
The Japanese tries to reinforce the Taiwan defenders by ship from Okinawa. Air cover is provided by naval air force fighters.
As the Japanese convoy is detected by a Scandinavian U-boat on patrol east of Taiwan in the Ryu Kyu's the fighter planes from the allied carriers are vectored in to drive off the air cover and allied U-boats called up to take part in the attack. In the following attack carried out by three Scandinavian and one British U-boat seven Japanese transports are sunk and the last turns away.
The U-boats are then ordered north to the Tsushima Strait to go hunting for Japanese shipping.
Moving out of Taipei the allied armies link up at Taizhong and the USA is asked to contact Japan with a new proposal for negotiations.
This time Japan is to cede Korea to China, in addition to former demands. The Japanese government reject the proposal.
A fission bomb is developed by the Scandinavian Union, FGN, Britain and France. But the rivalries soon have the French built their own warheads.
One war head is shipped off for Sakhalin. Another is shipped off to a Carolinas Island to be tested. A television team follow the warhead going for the Carolinas.
February: The fission bomb warhead arrive at Sakhalin rocket base and is fitted on the FGN rocket. A rocket with a dud warhead the size and weight of the live one is fired at Sapporo on Hokkaido, which it hits the outskirts off.
The Japanese government is informed via the USA that the next warhead delivered will be a fission bomb unless Japan gives in to monarchical alliance and Chinese demands. The Japanese are sure the monarchical alliance is bluffing once again and refuse to abide by the demands.
The Taiwan operation goes into its final phase. The British and Scandinavian troops are pulled out and Chinese government troops undertake the final rounding up of Japanese troops on the island.
The British and Scandinavian troops are taken to Shanghai for a rest.
In Korea the Japanese are still holding the Pyongyang defences but the line is very thin. The Chinese government air force is gaining air superiority over Korea. On the east coast of Korea the Chinese takes Kimchaek.
Allied U-boats have almost severed the supplies from Japan to Korea.
A Korean Independence Movement surface and demand all foreign troops leave Korea.
The warhead in the Carolinas are detonated. The small island are almost obliterated. The television team capture it all on film which is flow back to Europe. One copy is handed over to the USA for delivering in Tokyo.
March: Japan is issued a last ultimatum. Abide by the 1945 demands plus the ceding of Korea or get obliterated.
The Chinese government declare that all Japanese forces on Taiwan have been defeated. Taiwan have rejoined China as a Province.
The Japanese troops in Kwangtung and Kwangsi as well as Yunnan provinces and along the Yangze River lay down arms.
The Japanese troops in Shandong Province was disarmed in July 1945.
The Japanese army decide to bomb the rocket base on Sakhalin to remove the threat from the Empire even if this should bring the USA into the war on the side of the monarchical alliance and China.
Not informing the government or Emperor the army assemble all available bombers and fighters in Hokkaido to carry out the raid.
As no one in Japan expect such a drastic measure nobody interfere in the deployment even when word gets out of it.
As the Japanese Army air-force raid takes off the rocket base radar pick up the advancing force. With decision-makers too far away the base commander decide to act on his own and launches the rocket.
45 minutes later the rocket hits the sea surface outside Niigata on Honshu 25 meters from the shore. The burst flatten Niigata and create a wave that hits Sado Island doing much damage to the coast line.
This convince the Japanese of the course to take especially as European television show more warheads being finished in the British facility.
At the peace conference in Washington Japan cede Hainan and Taiwan to China.
The Carolinas to the Scandinavian Union.
The Kurile Islands to the USA.
The status of Korea is to be decided upon later – for the time being British and Scandinavian troops will enter Korea to secure peace and stability as well as disarm the remaining Japanese troops.
The Chinese government is promised loans from and cooperation with the monarchies and the USA.
No treaty is signed with the Russians/Soviets but Aaland Isles are annexed by the Scandinavian Union and US held Siberia and Sakhalin declared a US territory.
As part of the Scandinavian troops are demobilized they return home to a changed society. The womenfolk no longer feel they belong in the kitchen and demand rights equal to men.
The government tries to demobilize as many troops as possible to make them return to industry.
The need for troops in the colonies as well as in China partly upset the demobilization.
The Samí and Inuit reopen the issue of autonomy as does the West Indies. Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua want independence.
The situation of Europe is still unstable as the FGN is rebuilding itself and Austria.
France is the major power in southern and eastern Europe and Russia is still in civil war chaos even if independent entities is emerging in the Ukraine and central Asia.
The conservative government of Scandinavia is trying to solve the problems but slowly a rejection of nobility and monarchical rule is evolving especially among the working class, entering Scandinavia from FGN.
The Social democrats tries to make anti-nobility and anti-monarchy an issue in the Storthing along call for a welfare state to ease out social problems but the major opposition the Holstein Movement is against the Social democratic idea as their constituency are basically self supporting peasants and landed gentry with a sense of noblesse oblige.
These don't need welfare – they create it.
The rebuilding of Jutland is also a political problem as the Slesvig Ritterschaft feel their rights obliterated by the wartime government and demand reparations of the conservative government.
The commoners of Jutland and Slesvig are quite satisfied to see the Ritterschaft being robbed of their possessions.
Call-up of men to military service raise protest in Jutland and Slesvig.
The general perception is that a new war in the colonies is something very much unwanted but still the government is in office with a majority.
Minister Kauffmann remain in the Far East as governor and work to ease out tension between the Papuans the Scandinavians and the government as well as directing the Scandinavian part of the war effort.
The rebuilding of FGN demand a much practical attitude to ensure that all areas get their fair share of resources.
Soon the political landscape divide the country in three – south that wasn't occupied during the war, north and Rhine river valley that was fought on and occupied and Prussia.
As the traditional political interstate hackle ensure the FGN assembly decide that something have to be done. As have been the case of the army legislation is introduced to cut through state red tape.
During this Austria ask to be admitted to the FGN. This is now viewed by France as undesirable as it fear the FGN would be able to influence the eastern European states too much. The FGN lean on Britain that support the admittance of Austria to the FGN.
French troops are shipped off to Indochina to reclaim French sovereignty. A struggle for independence begin in Indochina.
The Netherlands is also rebuilding and is debating giving independence to the Dutch East Indies. As the debate goes on, the Dutch East Indies declare independence.
Scandinavian Union, FGN and Britain enter a closer defence cooperation scheme. FGN continue the development of rockets. To insure flexibility in response it is decided to built a heavy bomber to carry the fission bomb.
France also come to grips with the Ottoman Empire as France reject its claim on Libya and on behalf of the new states in eastern Europe on Bosnia.
In Caucasus an Armenian, Georgia and Azerbaijan Republic is declared among half a dozen other small republics.
A Ukrainian republic is declared in Kiev. The republic take control of the former Soviet Black Sea fleet and enters negotiations with Britain, FGN and France to have its independence recognized, which it receives.
Map of the World 1946 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902900&postcount=812)
August 28th, 2008, 05:39 PM
1947 The conservative government of the Scandinavian Union reinstate the Ritterschaft of Slesvig in its old rights and returns its property in Cameroon and Papua. This action fires off even more activity in the colonies from much angered locals.
The political opposition hotly debate and question the actions of government.
Samí and Inuit pleas of autonomy is thwarted. Knud Rasmussen speak on behalf of both peoples arguing that following earlier wars of the Union its soldiers was given emancipation and such should also be the case today. But the government won't listen.
In Charlotte Amalie, West Indies a bomb detonate in the offices of the colonial ministry.
Minister Kauffmann has a busy time carrying out his tasks and is also given the task of administration of the Nicobar Islands due to his good conduct in Papua. This second task is something of a cakewalk compared to Papua as the Nicobar's are mostly a penal colony with few settlers.
SAAB draw up a prototype six engine heavy bomber.
The rebuilding of the FGN is only proceeding at a slow pace. Voices of protest is being heard in the North, the Rhine River Valley and in Prussia. A five week long strike in North FGN ports on ships carrying goods destined for South FGN is the last straw.
In Munich and Stuttgart people protest the port strikes and in the north people protest being left badly off. After several weeks of protesters clashing with reluctant police in the North and South a political solution is sought.
A new Federal Act is drawn up and presented to the FGN High Court that rule in favour of it.
The last prerogatives of nobility and princes are revoked and political power passed to the various parliaments and the FGN Assembly.
The FGN Assembly is given legislative powers superseding local parliaments except on social welfare, internal security, hospitals and a few other areas. Foreign, defence and customs policy is a matter of FGN government.
The head of state is reduced to a ceremonial position.
Austria is admitted to the FGN.
An Ottoman military mission to Bosnia is barred entry by the French army.
Both Persia and the Ottoman Empire seek influence in the Caucasus.
As communism seems to have failed in the Soviet Union so other communist inspired uprisings slowly subside. This is especially the case in Latin America and the USA is able to reduce its engagement in the area.
Following the signing of the peace treaty with Japan China enters an uneasy peace between the government and the communists.
Map of the World 1947 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902901&postcount=813)
1948 Demobilized veterans of the Soviet war is called up for duty in the colonies. This spread resentment throughout the Union.
A war of many casualties have been won and now even more sacrifices are asked in the colonies that was ridden by war even before the Soviet war.
As the men are called up women return to work.
A leaflet is published in Norway claiming that Danish nobility is draining the home land of riches. Nothing happens in Norway unless the conservative government consisting of Danish and Swedish nobility wants it to.
King Victor Immanuel tries a coup in Italy to get his throne back. With the aid of Spanish troops the coup is foiled and Victor Immanuel flee to FGN where his presence is a matter of irritation in Italy and France.
A Kurdish uprising in the Ottoman Empire is quenched. In the process Ottoman forces enters Persia rounding up Kurds and Persia ask for British support. As British protests follow the Ottomans step down and retreat its troops.
Seeing itself as communisms no. 1 enemy the USA decide to teach the Soviets in Siberia a lesson.
The army coming home from Latin America and freed from internal security duties are transferred to US Siberia to open a new front on communism.
This attitude secure the Chinese government a new ally in the fight against the Chinese communists that have now been resumed following defeat of Japan.
At this time the Soviets have been generally pushed out of European Russia east of the Urals.
In the European Russia various political and military group fight each other for control of the countryside.
The St. Petersburg Republic and Ukraine prosper relatively due to their internal security securing peace.
1949 The second Cameroon uncovering unfolds. Journalists report from Cameroon that the Ritterschaft have resumed its old habits of repressive activities against their workers and the population they control. Several Ritterschaft members are killed in Cameroon and Papua this year and government promises retaliation.
Minister Kauffmann is ordered to implement harsher methods in the struggle against the Independence Movement of Papua which he refuses to do and is swiftly sacked and recalled to Göteborg.
As colonial troops are being ordered to seek out the Independence Movement armed forces old comrades of war clash with each other.
A number of instances is reported in which the Scandinavian troops refuse to fire on their former comrades who also fought for the Union far away from their home country.
The SAAB heavy bomber makes its first prototype flight.
The Kurdish insurrection goes on in the borderlands of the Ottoman Empire and British supported Persia at times triggering armed clashes between the parties.
The Ottoman Empire renew its claims to Bosnia and Libya once again triggering French hostility but also FGN that want to be a serious player in eastern Europe.
Running out of resources the Indochina independence movement ask for a cease fire. Negotiations on independence is however rejected by France and an uneasy peace settles on the land.
In China the government is slowly gaining the upper hand in the fight against the communists.
The US Army probe into Siberia but difficult communications and mounting Soviet resistance serve to halt the US at Nerchinsk.
1950 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:8,6 mill. Norway:3,86 mill. Denmark:4,9 mill. Total:17,36 mill.
Minister Kauffmann return to Göteborg and is soon a much sought after talker on the colonial as well as the war issue. All political parties except the conservative ask him to run for PM.
Most unexpectedly a military tribunal trial serves the opposition curse. Colonel Schalburg of the army is shipped home from Cameroon to face trial for killing a private.
During a search and destroy mission one of his soldiers refused to take part in the burning down of a village allegedly supporting the Independence Movement. Colonel Schalburg shot the private himself on grounds of disobedience.
To seat a tribunal of officers of Generals rank the tribunal was moved to Göteborg.
Nothing happened for the first couple of days of hearings but on the third day “Aftontidningan” ran an article citing two former army servicemen claiming that this wasn't the first time colonel Schalburg had killed a serviceman during an operation.
Suddenly the tribunal was the talk of the town, well the Union and the opposition parties sent observes to the military academy where the tribunal was seated.
The next article of “Aftontidningan” told its readers of how search and destroy missions was carried out in “enemy” territories often against civilians and how colonel Schalburg tried to make his troops treat the captured members of the Independence Movement to the colonels “standart” which the troops at times refused to do as these Independence Movement members were often former comrades in arms.
The fourth article in the series depicted which fate befell the poor civilians caught in crossfire or being in the wrong place at the wrong time during one of colonel Schalburgs search and destroy missions. As one informant told the journalist – quick death would have been a gift to those.
During the hearings colonel Schalburg claimed to have informed his superiors of his actions which had been sanctioned all the way.
Following the fourth article of “Aftontidningan” the opposition parties asked the head of tribunal General Kryssing to include the articles in the indictment which the General of course refused as being unsubstantiated hear-say.
As the Holstein Movement asked the “Aftontidningan” to reveal its sources to get witnesses the newspapers editor of course refused to do so.
This made the Social democratic newspaper “Socialdemokraten” print an article resuming the hearings, the colonels statement of having his actions sanctioned and calling for the Minister of War to denounce the alleged actions.
This in turn led the conservative Minister of War hand the hot iron to his colleague the Minister of Colonial Administration who denounced any knowledge of any actions reported.
Minister Kauffmann then went public about his being relieved of his post in the Far East because of not wanting to implement harsher methods against the Independence Movement, which made the Minister of Colonial Administration sack Kauffmann for breaking his oath of loyalty and confidence.
At this time the Scandinavian Television decided to do an interview with Kauffmann and a follow-up programme on the tribunal hearings.
As the issue was bumped back and forth in the Storthing and in newspapers headlines one young man from Jönköbing having watched television news decided with his wife's backing to approach General Kryssing to give his account of six months service in Cameroon, commanded by colonel Schalburg.
Appearing at the military tribunal hearing the next day the young man told his story of war in Cameroon. And it wasn't pleasant.
Having heard this witness statement Field-Marshall Sinclair had his office besieged by journalists.
Yes, there had been incidents of villages being burned in Cameroon during search and destroy missions. Yes, there had been incidents of reported disobedience and insubordination during mission which had been dealt with in the field by commanders.
The Field-Marshall had reported all to the Minister of War he said on national television.
The Minister of War was not available for a television interview.
Following this development of events the conservative government step down and declare elections for the Storthing to be held. In the heath of elections everybody seemed to have forgotten colonel Schalburg, who was duly sentenced and executed.
Field-Marshall Sinclair was pensioned off.
The Holstein Movement win the election but is only able to get the majority by cooperation with the Social democrats. The Social democrats want the wartime promises of independence carried out and a new constitution on the FGN model limiting the powers of the monarch and nobility.
Both parties agree that colonial rule should end and the army withdrawn and demobilized.
The colonies should be aided in establishing democratic rule.
Henrik Kauffmann decline to run for the Holstein Movement or any other party but accept the position of Minister for Foreign Affairs with the added responsibility of ending colonial rule.
The Samí and Inuit as well as the West Indies should have their war effort recognized and given emancipation in the form of Home Rule.
An important last minute change is raised by the Social democrats. Women emancipation due to their filling the ranks of workers during the Soviet war. Kauffmann is at first sceptic but realizes this could be a boost to him as the women wants their sons and husbands home from war thus make them vote for the constitution and make a constituency supporting the government in the future.
Anybody having reached the age of 21 and in a job is given the right of vote. Peoples without a job still have to be 25 to vote.
These reforms of the Scandinavian Union and its colonial empire necessitate the Holstein Movement/Social democratic government to draw up a new constitution that will be presented to the Storthing in 1951 for approval. Negotiations with the independence movements of Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua are to be initiated.
The only obstacle to the new constitution is succession. King Charles is married but have no issue and is in no way intent on divorce and a new marriage as the SSB – Stor Scandinavisk Bevægelse suggest.
Rather he want to name ms. Augusta Fredericks, granddaughter of his fathers brother prince Frederick as heir to the throne.
Prince Fredericks children was cut from the line of succession in 1899 and so ms. Augusta Fredericks is not eligible for the throne. The King is insistent on the matter and the issue is shelved for the time being.
A session is to be held in the Storthing regarding autonomy for Samí and Inuit peoples as well as the West Indies.
Some grumbling is heard in Norway about giving the Samí autonomy and the 1948 leaflet is once again circulated.
Sensing that it has entered a dead end the Ottoman Empire back down giving up its claim to Libya but only on the pretence that elections is to be held and the peoples of Libya decide their future.
A similar arrangement is made regarding Bosnia.
The Kurdish insurrection goes on keeping tension on the Ottoman – Persian border high.
The Indochina independence movement feels the time is ripe for a renewed fight for independence and take up arms against the French.
The Scandinavian Union is asked to supply a control commission for both elections as they seem to be the ones most well versed in these areas as the FGN is unwanted by the Ottoman Empire because of its role in eastern Europe.
The US retreat from Nerchinsk but begin occupation of the Pacific coast of Siberia and all of Kamchatca Peninsular.
The US setback in Siberia is followed by a few voices in the Philippines arguing in favour of independence.
The Korean Independence Movement demand to be recognized by the British and Scandinavians as the legal government of Korea.
1951 The Union referendum is held. The majority in favour of the new constitution is 75 %.
In Norway the support for the new constitution is the lowest of the Union and more leaflets and books about Danish nobility and Union conservatives suppressing Norway and Norwegians are being issued and circulated.
A new trend in theatre plays enter the Scandinavian Union. Plays that tries to understand what happened in the last phase of colonial rule and why sons of the Union turned into inhuman brutes. Colonel Schalburg is the ever present personification of the devil.
The first SAAB heavy bombers enter service with the Scandinavian air force, the Luftwaffe and the RAF.
The Scandinavian unit is based at Truk. A clear signal to Japan.
Part of the colonial army is demobilized. As the men return to the Scandinavian Union they once again find their jobs occupied by women. This time the transition is even harder and the first women protesters appear in Göteborg.
Following elections two control commissions are shipped off for Bosnia and Libya.
In Bosnia everything is brewing. Croats, Serbs and Montenegrins are all playing their hand as are the Ottoman Empire, FGN and France. Violence is frequent but the Scandinavians manage to get a mostly fair referendum going.
The Russian civil war peters out with the communists holding on to Siberia and a collection of generals and industrialists drawing up an new republican Russia west of the Urals. Knowing the strength of the Monarchical alliance the Russian republic recognizes the St. Peterburg and Ukrainian republics.
In Libya the players are fewer but the violence worse but a referendum is also held there.
As referendums seem to be a way off colonial rule the Indochina independence movement ask for one. As the French are consumed in the closer to home affairs the referendum is negotiated to take place the year after.
The Kurdish uprising enters its fourth year.
The Chinese government declare the civil war has ended. It is time for rebuilding the country and unite the former warring fractions.
Britain and Scandinavia ask the Chinese government to recognize independent Korea so that their troops may be shipped back home.
With tension in Siberia between the US and Siberian Soviet and a defeated Japan to the east a neutral buffer that is not to invite Japanese presence is now viewed in Peking as an alternative to any Chinese designs on Korea and the government recognizes the Korean independence.
1952 The new constitution of the Scandinavian Union is implemented. The monarch still wield considerate power and is able to dismiss government. (though no monarch would probably do so as it would invoke the wrath of all political parties)
But by now it is stipulated in the constitution that defence, national security, foreign policy and major economic ventures must be approved by the elected government.
All previous nobility inherited rights are abolished without compensation. As a consequence the country of Slesvig has its administration changed to reflect the now abolished rights of the Ritterschaft. The Holstein Movement of Slesvig throw a three day festival in celebration of the change.
Greenland, Samí and the West Indies are granted Home Rule.
Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua are granted independence within three years, in which time the foundations for democracy is to be founded in these lands to ensure that all peoples – native and Scandinavian will have a place in society.
Riots directed against Samí autonomy and Danish nobility occurs in Norway. The Norwegian nobility is perceived as foreign – Danish and to be the true oppressors of Norway directing the Storthing. The autonomy given to the Samí and independence to the colonies only serve to fuel the mood.
In the riots three noblemen are killed and the Union Commissioners of Police sends reinforcements to counter the riots. This action triggers off more Norwegian sore sentiments as the reinforcements are from other parts of the Union – Denmark and Sweden.
The Storting of Norway holds a session in Kristiania where secession, Home Rule or independence is debated. In a heated debate in the Storthing Norwegian politicians demand home rule for Norway.
A trade and cooperation treaty is concluded with the republic of St. Petersburg.
The Russian republic enters negotiations with the Soviet Union of Siberia to reunite Russian lands and get rid of the US intrusion in Siberia.
The new state of Libya is inaugurated. And so is Bosnia. Indochina votes for independence.
Following the examples of Libya and Bosnia the Kurds argue to be given independence and are supported by the British and French. But they are not alone, almost everywhere in colonies independence is demanded.
1953 Following a year of debate the Storthing decide that a referendum is to be held in Norway to determine its future relation to the Union.
The majority of Scandinavian politicians are sure that it will be a resounding YES to stay in the Union.
The referendum is a close run as 49,8 % vote for separation from the Union. The influx of Danish shipyard workers during the war is blamed to have shifted the balance. But it is also perceived that women generally voted against separation.
The outcome is much debated in the Scandinavian Union. Especially the politicians of the Storthing is discussing the issue and how badly they misjudged the Norwegian situation.
King Georg 6. of FGN dies. He is succeeded by his son Ernest Augustus 3.
Bosnia is ridden with unrest. Serb and Croatian meddling is suspected. But also French and Ottoman agents as well as Italians seem to be active. The Bosnians turn to the FGN for assistance in reorganizing its security forces.
Romania accuse Hungary of oppressing its ethnic Romanians.
In a large number of British colonies Independence is negotiated with the British government.
Like in the British colonial empire the French realize that generally the time of colonies has run out and except for Algeria negotiations of independence is initiated.
French oil companies begin searching the Libyan desert for oil deposits.
1954 Henrik Kauffmann runs for PM in this years elections which the Holstein Movement wins with a resounding 53%. With the backing of the Social democrats the government muster 74%.
Henrik Kauffmann turn his attention towards the colonies to negotiate a cooperation treaty and rights of air and naval bases to be held by the Scandinavian Union in the colonies when they go independent.
The Bosnian security forces crack-down on Serb and Croatian sponsored separatists.
This action trigger Serb and Croatian rhetoric about their fellow countrymen being oppressed in Bosnia and that they should be liberated. As the rhetoric grow worse and the security situation in Bosnia deteriorate the FGN put heavy pressure on the Croats and Serbs.
Having no common border with Serbia Hungary is asked to let FGN troops use its territories if need be. As Hungary is in a war of words with Romania the FGN is allowed to move troops into a zone adjacent to the Serbian border.
As Serbian nationalists declare the Austrians and Hungarians have returned to oppress Serbia, Croatia invade Bosnian territories.
FGN demand that Croatian forces be withdrawn from Bosnian territory but the Croatia's feeling secure that the FGN army isn't worth jack shit and that France is going to support them continue the advance into Bosnia.
The FGN blow is lightning quick seizing Zagreb within a week and Croatia surrender. The modernized Motorgeschütz forces was instrumental in the advance and is also in the following demonstration against Serbia, a Motorgeschütz division moved into Hungary.
Watching on the sideline Romania quiet down its rhetoric.
France does protest the FGN use of force but facing a British as well as FGN and Scandinavian front the French back down.
Seeing the Europeans being consumed in European affairs the Ottomans sense an opportunity and invade the Caucasus. The invasion makes the Caucasus republics call for Russian intervention which is duly received. The Russian army is just able to stop the Ottomans in the Caucasus.
The European powers loose their grip on their colonies – 1954 is the year of independence.
Somalia enters negotiations with Britain about the future of British Somalia. FGN house the negotiations.
Map of the World 1954 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902902&postcount=814)
1955 Ghana, Togo, Cameroon and Papua are granted independence.
A few hundred Scandinavians flee the countries but generally the transferring of power is smooth and without violence. Except in Cameroon where the Ritterschaft are forced out due to their previous actions. Scandinavians not associated with the Ritterschaft are allowed to stay.
The Scandinavian Union manages to negotiate air and naval base agreements with Ghana, Togo and Papua. Negotiations with Cameroon are drawn out.
Not forgetting his former role as Minister of Foreign Affairs Henrik Kauffmann in cooperation with the FGN PM calls for a conference of security and cooperation to be held in Kristiania. The conference now has a myriad of problems on its hands.
Based on the Scandinavian and FGN experience Henrik Kauffmann argue that the peoples of the world be given the right of self determination, as long as they have proven themselves worthy of it through will or deeds.
No problems are actually solved but a cease fire negotiated in the Caucasus. The other brewing conflicts are to be addressed at follow-up conferences.
Kauffmann succeed in having the follow-up conference held in Kristiania too.
The Russian republic calls for a Russian conference to address conflicts in the Caucasus and Siberia. Cooperation is secured and the Russian republic and the Soviet Union of Siberia ask for a session with the US at the next Kristiania conference regarding Siberia and with the Ottoman Empire regarding the Caucasus.
The last Spanish and French troops are pulled out of Italy.
A French oil refinery is build at Tripolis, Libya.
Map of the World 1955 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902903&postcount=815)
1956 The base negotiations with Cameroon are ended as the last Ritterschaft member leaves Cameroon and the Scandinavian Union is allowed an air and a naval base at Bimbia.
The conference year. Representatives of almost all states appear in Kristiania to negotiate settlements of their conflicts or potential conflicts.
Russia and the US reach agreement on US leaving Russian lands in Siberia but obtaining a lease of Kamchatca for 50 years.
Realizing the world is far from perfect Henrik Kauffmann speak of a permanent conference to be seated at Kristiania.
Only the US is not in absolute favour of the idea and Japan reject it but at the final meeting they both vote for the proposal.
Apparently there was an increase of fission bomb armed flights out of Truk towards Japan in the days following the proposal. But there was no proof to substantiate this and the Scandinavian Union air-force denied having stepped up their flights in the Pacific.
Being at odds with most great powers the Ottoman Empire contract FGN and US firms for development of its petrochemical industry. Building a pipeline from Mosul to Adana is undertaken and in Trieste petrochemical plants are founded to receive crude oil from Adana. US interests are mostly in the Basra area.
At Kristiania the Ottoman Empire agree to pull its troops out of the Caucasus if Russia does so too. Effectively making the Caucasus republics clients of the Ottoman Empire but securing peace at the Russian southern border.
1957 The Holstein Movement initiate a programme of supporting peasants of Cameroon to make them able to make a decent living. And provide for some surplus.
Ghana and Togo are exporters of cocoa, tobacco and foodstuffs.
Papua is exporting coffee, iron, gold and copper.
In all four former colonies a political system of small constituencies representation has been instituted to secure the Scandinavian part of the population a representation in relation to their numbers. In time, it is realized this securing of representation is going to become less of a sure thing. But then it is the hope that the political systems of the countries have made up for any lack of numbers and that representation will follow the politically adept.
During the colonial time almost 150.000 Scandinavians moved to settle in the colonies.
Many had been enticed by government assured loans to emigrate.
A quick overview reveal that 50.000 went to Ghana, 25.000 to Togo, 15.000 to Cameroon, 50.000 to Papua and 10.000 to the West Indies.
In Ghana, Togo, and the West Indies most immigrants were peasants, in Cameroon administrators and in Papua it was a mixture of workers and peasants due to the 1867 small gold rush and the major industrial and mining enterprises set up there.
Another 100.000 went to settle in the USA.
Due to the military base agreements between the former colonies and the Scandinavian Union, units of the Scandinavian Union Navy and Air force are present in each country.
A conference centre is being built in Kristiania to house the permanent conference on world security.
The British – Somalia negotiations are transferred to the permanent conference on world security.
Peace however uneasy settle in the Balkans.
Italy is once again in political turmoil as king in exile Umberto, son of former king Victor Immanuel direct royalist politics but the communists are also active.
Russia and the Soviet Union of Siberia enters formal cooperation on military and foreign policy matters. This sets off St. Petersburg and Ukrainian fears of reincorporation into Russia.
1958 Henrik Kauffmann at age 70 decide to leave politics. His legacy is lingering on and the Holstein Movement win elections but at a reduced majority of 50,1%.
The Social democrats no longer support the Holstein Movement as they support the fight of workers for higher wages and more welfare.
At the Kvanefjel deposits in southern Greenland which have been known since 1806 uranium is detected.
St. Petersburg Republic ask the Scandinavian Union to turn the cooperation agreement into a military alliance.
The Scandinavian Union turn to Britain and FGN to get their backing on the matter. It is decided to enter formal negotiations with Russia to ensure the independence of the St. Petersburg Republic.
As Russia is unwilling to enter such negotiations or give the St. Petersburg Republic assurances of its independence, Britain, Scandinavian Union, FGN and St. Petersburg Republic sign a defence treaty. Russia then gives the required assurances.
Ukraine also looks around for allies especially as Russia begin rumbling about the former Soviet Black Sea fleet now the Ukrainian Navy. This sets off Britain to guarantee the Ukrainian independence. Again Russia backs down giving Ukraine assurances of its independence.
The British – Somalia negotiations is ended having Britain hand British Somalia over to Somalia at the end of the year.
The US grant independence to the Philippines.
1959 The Scandinavian government begin negotiations with the home rule of Greenland as to how the mineral deposits of Greenland should be worked.
As the mining would mean a substantial income for the home rule of Greenland a plan is drawn up sharing the profits. 40 % is going to Greenland and 60 % to the Scandinavian Union as the home rule of Greenland is unable to raise the funds needed to mine the deposits.
FGN and Scandinavian scientists begin work on a communications satellite to ease long distance telephone communications around the world. Britain and France are invited to join the work which Britain does.
In light of the Egyptian independence in 1954 the Arab population of Algiers begin demonstrating for independence.
Congo is given independence by Belgium.
The European colonies in the Americas – Surinam, French and British Guyana demand independence. Belize frightened of Guatemalan intentions stick closely to Britain.
As the colonial powers make ready to ship off reinforcements the US invoke the Monroe doctrine and let the navy patrol the Atlantic.
At Kristiania France make much of its fission capabilities which prompt a US detonation of a fissionable device in New Mexico.
FGN and the Scandinavian Union tries to mediate but the US reject Scandinavian mediation as Scandinavia is still a colonial power. The FGN president of the Permanent Security Conference is not able to reconcile the parties but France step down and refrain from reinforcing its forces in Guyana.
Egypt tries to find a sponsor for building a dam across the Nile to irrigate the desert and control the river.
1960 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:9 mill. Norway:4 mill. Denmark:5,1 mill. Total:18,1 mill.
Mining uranium at the Kvanefjel is initiated.
The conference centre for the permanent security conference (PSC) in Kristiania is finished.
The Scandinavian Union propose that the PSC should be headed for a ten year term by a member state agreed upon by referendum. FGN is suggested and voted for by the majority. Japan, Croatia, Romania and a few other states vote against the FGN.
FGN ask France to give the Italian government a joint declaration of support. FGN will silence the propaganda pouring from Umberto. Who is viewed in Hanover as a security issue as Italian Irredenta is gaining momentum in regard to South Tirol and Trieste.
After some hesitation France agree to joint action and suggest to support the Italian government by French and FGN police.
As Umberto feel being in hostile territories he leaves the FGN for Portugal. Spain however warn the Portuguese that no propaganda going from Umberto to Italy will be tolerated. Umberto is asked to take up residence in the Acores.
The demonstrations spread from Algeria to the Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire.
The former Scandinavian Union colonies in Africa is seen as a counterweight to the South African Union Apartheid policy – it is possible for blacks and whites to live together in an African nation.
Map of the World 1960 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902905&postcount=816)
1961 The FGN convert its fission bomb rocket to move a payload into Earth orbit. The first test flight from Rügen is considered very promising.
The Scandinavian Union build a launch pad in the Carolinas close to the old fission bomb test site.
The Romanians bring up their old grudge against the Hungarians again, protesting the living conditions of ethnic Romanians in Hungary.
The Hungarians rely on their good relationship with the FGN but also establish a kind of rapprochement with the Ukraine as the Romanians also protest the living conditions of ethnic Romanians in Ukraine.
Civil war is raging in Algeria between the French and the Arab populations. The French army is shipping off troops to support the French population. The French president declare Algeria an integral part of France.
In the Ottoman Empire the Arab subjects demonstrate against French aggression in Algeria. The demonstrators are quietly supported by the Ottoman administration and from the USA.
1962 Work on the Scandinavian, FGN and British communications satellite is finished and the first satellite is launched from the Carolinas.
The satellite only orbit the Earth three times before contact is lost and it re-enters the atmosphere burning up.
A small nuclear power plant is built close to Göteborg making for a supplement of cheap energy.
Plans are drawn up for more plants to be built in the Scandinavian Union, the Faeroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and the West Indies.
Even if those hydro plants that was damaged or destroyed during the Soviet War have been rebuilt and some coal/oil burning plants are still in place a wider range of energy produce is desired and nuclear energy decided upon.
The availability of uranium within the Scandinavian Union makes for self supply and no need for being dependent on foreign supply of fuels.
Serbia join Romania in its attacks on Hungary seeing an opportunity to pay back the 1954 crisis.
As FGN warn Serbia and Romania against aggression directed against their neighbours Russia voice some pro-Serbia rhetoric.
Croatia voice her support of Hungary's enemies.
If only to annoy the Russians Poland support the Hungarian course.
The FGN presidency of the Permanent Security Conference at Kristiania tries to put the crisis on the agenda of the PSC but the Romanians, Serbs and Croatians all view FGN as party to the matter and refuse to cooperate.
France, Italy and Russia conclude arms deals with Romania, Serbia and Croatia.
All of the involved parties mobilize part of their reserves.
As the FGN with support of Britain and Scandinavian Union tries to calm the situation in order to avoid a major war in Europe Romanian and Serb armies crosses the Hungarian border to settle the issue.
The Croatian army is mobilized on the Hungarian border.
The Hungarians tries to plea for FGN aid but the FGN inform them that it is trying to contain the conflict so as to avoid a major European war.
Faced with the grim facts the Hungarians mobilize the reserves and use their mobile forces to throw the Serbs back across the border while keeping the Romanians pinned down in the Carpathians.
For fear of Russian reprisals the Ukrainians mobilize their army but take no part in the conflict.
The Ukranian fleet is mobilized and effect a blockade of the Romanian ports even if strongly protested by Russia. A RN squadron is moved into the Black Sea.
Poland however moves a division into Hungary that is sent on border guard on the Croatian border freeing Hungarians for use against either aggressor.
Surprised by the swift Hungarian response the Serbs ask Russia and France to open talks with the FGN to get them out of the mess. Sensing a breakthrough the FGN delay the talks for a few days, just enough to let the Russians and French know who is running the show.
Serbia is let off the hook rather easily on status quo ante and dismissal of any claims to Hungarian territory. The ratification of the protocol is not to take place until war has been ended.
The Hungarians transfer their troops to the Carpathians front. Offensive action is not undertaken however.
The demonstrations in the Ottoman Empire directed against the French aggression in Algeria slowly turns into demonstrations against the Ottoman rule and the Ottoman army begin repressing the demonstrations.
1963 King Charles of the Scandinavian Union dies.
As he doesn't have any issue the succession is turned into a political question in the Storthing.
After much bickering and hearing of the last will of the deceased King it is decided that the issue must be decided by the peoples of Scandinavia. The Socialists and Social democrats argue that a republic should be among the possible outcomes, but the government is not ready for this and argue that if ms. Augusta Fredericks is rejected by the peoples a new situation is at hand.
The Social democrats then insist on constitution change making for any future monarch to be elected by the peoples.
In the final discussion the Holstein Movement government backed by the conservatives manage to have the referendum narrowed to two questions:
is ms. Augusta Fredericks to inherit the throne or
is ms. Augusta Fredericks to be elected to the throne.
There is much controversy about admitting ms. Augusta to the royal estates before the referendum but the Holstein Movement succeeds in allowing her so, as she should be given a chance to show herself off in a royal setting.
After more debate in the Storthing the young woman, age 33 is given 6 months to prepare herself, in which time she is allowed to live at the palaces of the Union and travel the Union for its peoples to get to know her.
Henrik Kauffmann dies age 75. He is given a state funeral which is not attended by the SSB (Stor Scandinavisk Bevægelse).
At Kristiania the FGN and USA tries to make the Ottoman Empire be more lenient on the demonstrators which the Ottomans reject as interference in their internal relations.
Egypt begin talks of Arab unity to combat the Ottoman Empire.
Three nuclear power plants are planned for Greenland. One is to be situated in the south close to Qaqortoq from where it will be possible to supply the towns of Paamiut, Ivittuut, Narsaq, Qaqortoq and Nanortalik without having to cross outlets from very large glaciers.
The second in Nuuk which is also to supply Qeqertasuatsiaat and Maniitsoq.
The third at Sisimiut. This will later supply Kagaatsiaq and the southern Diskobay area south of the Ilulissat icefiord.
In Iceland the nuclear plans are turned down for the time being because of the instability of the area.
A small nuclear plant is begun at Charlotte Amalie in the West Indies.
The Hungarian-Romanian war continue in the new year. It is mostly a skirmish in the Carpathians between a Romanian army that is slowly worn down due to a non-declared blockade instituted by the Ottoman Empire at the Straits and the Ukrainian navy in the Black Sea.
The Hungarians on the other hand receive war materiel of Scandinavian manufacture.
As the Romanian losses mounts during February at an unacceptable rate the Romanians ask for negotiations. As in the case of Serbia the FGN dictate let off Romania rather easily but it has to recognize the borders of status quo ante and dismiss any claims to Hungarian and Ukrainian territories.
The FGN invite Romania and Serbia along with Croatia to sign the protocol in Hanover. Along with Hungary, Ukraine and Poland sign the protocol. Britain, Scandinavian Union, Ottoman Empire, France, Italy and Russia guarantee the borders of the involved parties.
The civil war in Algeria goes into a new year. To take the heat out of the civil war the French government invite the moderate Algerian leaders to Paris for peace talks.
A solution is agreed to giving the Arabs of Algeria full citizen rights of France in exchange of all weapons being handed over to the French army or Gendarmerie. During fall peace settle once more on Algeria.
The Shah of Persia begin reforming his country to make it into a more modern society.
January 1: On new years day an astonishing 97% of the Union constituency vote in the referendum on ms. Augusta Fredericks. An 85% majority vote for option 1) that she is to inherit the throne. The result makes the Social democrats astonished as they had expected a much lower vote in support of option 1).
Ms. Augusta Fredericks is crowned on February 1. taking the name of Margrete 3. in reverence of her great-grandmother.
The second communications satellite is launched into space from the Carolinas. This time the satellite enters orbit but the telecommunications fail after a few hours.
On New Years Eve the Queen address the Union in a direct television transmission the first of many.
Serbia and Croatia digs up their old quarrel over Bosnia. But FGN support the Bosnian government in a most demonstrative way that leave no one in doubt as to the reaction of pressure put on the Bosnians. In a joint exercise FGN combat aircraft deploy into Bosnia and fly missions close to the Croatian and Serb borders.
France protest the FGN demonstration and sends off a Naval squadron for the Adriatic to take part in manoeuvres with the Italian and Croatian navies.
The Ottoman Empire accuses Egypt to be a warmongering state that call on citizens of the Ottoman Empire to fight their lawful government. This is seen as deliberate Egyptian act of destabilizing the Ottoman Empire with the purpose of later seizing Ottoman territories. This will not happen!
As Ottoman troops enters Egypt the Permanent Security Conference debate the developing situation and FGN, Britain, France, Scandinavian Union and Russia tries to make the Ottoman Empire stop its expedition. Only with the intervention of USA is it possible to have the Ottomans agree to a cease fire that is to be observed by USA, French and Scandinavian Union observers along the Suez canal.
1965 Queen Margrete 3 marries the younger brother of King Ernest Augustus 3. of FGN, Georg.
The very open minded queen jokes about her being too old to have children but at the end of the year she is visibly pregnant.
Following the royal wedding the Queen and Prince Georg travel the Union lands and colonies. They even visit the Nicobar Islands where they get a most touching reception by their subjects who have never before been visited by their monarch. Being there the Queen insist upon visiting all her subjects even the penal colony!
Returning to Göteborg following the journey of the Union the Queen use her royal prerogatives and calls the Storthing for a session that is to be transmitted live on television.
Recalling her experience of the Nicobar Islands the Queen ask for a new penal code that will put an end to the execution of capital punishment as well as deportation to the penal colony. In addition the deportees is to be taken to their part of the Union to serve out their sentence and the status of the Nicobar Islands changed to home rule.
The Queen also argue that exploitation of the Carolinas should end, the peoples – her subjects – of the islands have not asked to have a fission test site, a rocket launch pad and a bomber squadron armed with fission bombs placed in their paradise like surroundings.
The Queens proposal fire off a heated discussion. The Carolinas was paid for with blood from all over the Union. The Nicobar penal colony is a necessity to deter criminals from doing their evil deeds against peace loving neighbours. Scandinavian power projection needs bases overseas like in the former colonies.
During the discussion the Social democratic leader argue that this change of colonial status is only able by reform of the Union constitution.
“Then change it” the Queen replies.
“Not by royal decree” the Social democratic leader respond.
“Then take the burden of right to interfere in government away from the monarch” the Queen answer.
“Oh yes” the Queen respond.
“But” the Queen argue “my line is to be recognized as successors to the Scandinavian Union as right descendants of Queen Margrete 2 and my oldest child is to inherit the throne”.
“Yes your son will be king” the Conservative leader says.
“No my oldest CHILD” the Queen demand.
A heated discussion followed in which the Holstein Movement and the Conservatives refused to change the status of the monarch but the Social democratic party refused to accept a constitutional change without changing the status of the monarch which would also serve to make the Scandinavian Union a true democracy.
Following the Storthing debate the Queen gave an interview in which she recalled her childhood in Slesvig with not uncommon arbitrary nobility justice based on prerogatives of the hardships of living during the Soviet occupation but also memories of her loving grand-mother the Queen Margrete 2 who always invited her grand-children for Christmas and celebrated their birthday.
And how she looked forward herself to become a mother.
Because of the upcoming constitutional referendum the Storthing decides against having the third communications satellite launched from the Carolinas.
The Queens New Years Eve televised speech is the subject of several months discussion. Should she really encourage the nation to vote on the constitutional referendum? Was it a wrong decision by the Union to vote for her ascending the throne? The Queen have sent the war-weary nation into change unwanted!
France initiate a developing programme for the Balkan countries. Only Bosnia refuse to take part in the programme.
The Ottoman Empire occupies the Saudi Arabian kingdom to govern against enemy action. This action fires off demonstrations in Yemen and Oman which British troops crack down on – but not to the satisfaction of the Ottoman Empire that view the ongoing demonstrations there as tolerated by the British.
A military coup in Congo and following civil war makes for much famine in the country. Cameroon, Ghana and Togo are the ones first off with humanitarian aid in foodstuffs.
1966 Queen Margrete gives birth to a healthy boy who is named Frederick Charles Georg. Her first presentation of the son when leaving the Royal Hospital, Göteborg is transmitted by television.
In the following years the Queen let Scandinavian television in more closely on her life which only serve to increase her popularity.
The referendum on constitutional change makes for settling of the succession issue with having the eldest child inherit the throne as in the old Royal Succession Law of 1665, grants home rule to the Nicobar and Carolina Islands and change the status of the Monarchy to a purely representative function.
The Conservatives and SSB are adamant opponents of the change but the other parties back it up.
The vote in favour of the change is substantial a full 82% which the Social democrats perceive as a great victory of the will of the workers.
The Holstein Movement see the result as the peoples will to preserve the Monarchy.
Following the referendum a new penal code is passed abolishing capital punishment and deportation, which anyway is no longer possible as the new home rule of the Nicobar Islands oppose of further deportation to their territories.
A lease of the launch pad in the Carolinas is negotiated and the third communications satellite is launched into orbit. This time the telecommunications work properly and the Queen is able to address the first meeting of the Carolinas home rule assembly by phone.
Work begin on a joint FGN, Scandinavian Union, British television satellite.
The Queen address the opening of the Permanent Security Conference in Kristiania by the words of the US constitution that all men are born free and equal and now every peoples not allowed to decide their destiny should be allowed to do so.
Her speech is strongly applauded by the Arab delegates.
In her New Years Eve speech the Queen thank the peoples of the Union for their willingness to accept responsibility for their future! And she thanks them for letting her retreat from political bickering and letting the last peoples of the Union decide their own destiny as well as putting an end to old-fashioned penalties of capital punishment and deporting peoples even if having done criminal deeds to disease and early departure from life.
Egypt tries to raise the Arabs against the Ottoman move to occupy all of its controlled part of the Arabian Peninsular by claiming this is a move against the Arabs.
This rhetoric only catches on in Palestine and on the Peninsular of course.
The general feeling among the Arab population of the Ottoman Empire is that “we have been part of this for so long, we know what we have – life is okay – we don't know what we're going to get”.
One minority dwell on the Arab past and would like the grandeur of yesterday to come about again. Another minority wants the Caliphate to be abolished and a new instituted but most care little of religious matters to take this seriously.
But there is widespread resentment among the Arab intellectual youth in the Ottoman Empire about serving in the military. Desertion and absenteeism is widespread.
The Kurds are still a nuisance on the border with Persia.
A close call of famine in the Bihar state of India have Britain ask FGN and Scandinavian Union to supply Bihar with grain.
1967 The Queens New Years Eve speech is analysed on Union television. The peoples of the Unions responsibility for their future? This is the greatest of all questions and one which the various politicians have their answer to. The debate goes on throughout the year at all levels of society. OUR responsibility?
In Norway some minority claim they have the responsibility to govern their future and demand secession but the majority understand that the real core of the Queens address was to make the peoples of the Union understand that their responsibility is to ensure Union stability so that it may prosper.
The minority campaign is not taken seriously by the majority but they have the right of speech as all peoples of the Union have.
In her News Years Eve address the Queen says that she feels the peoples of the Union understand what is expected of them now and in the future. And she is so happy because of the affection she and her family receive.
In the Ottoman Empire the Arab intellectual youth begin discussing how to attain home rule or independence by looking at the example of other colonies that have attained this.
How the masses are to be mobilized to demand home rule or independence is another matter. Communism, socialism in its various forms and nationalism are tried out.
As several West African nations suffers of famine due to coups, counter-coups and civil war Ghana and Togo as well as Cameroon are able to supply these with much needed foodstuffs.
The unstable situation in West Africa have the leaders of Ghana and Togo discussing closer cooperation on security and military matters. One matter of security is availability of foodstuffs. Ghana, Togo and Cameroon begin programmes in neighbouring countries of increasing crops outcome to guard against famine.
The Holstein Movement is asked to support the West African foodstuffs programme which it agree to do.
1968 Another analysis of the traditional New Years Eve speech. Its time to sober up early to be part of the discussing – what is expected of us?
At this point almost all proceedings of the Storthing is transmitted by television and the peoples take a keen interest in politics.
At the regular summer visit of her in-laws in Hanover Queen Margrete or Augusta as she is called in FGN is asked what she have done to her countrymen? Only what You did here in 1944!
Telsat the FGN, Scandinavian Union, British television satellite is sent into orbit transmitting television between the three countries as well as those willing to pay for it.
France begin a rocket programme in order to rival the FGN, Scandinavian Union and British programme. A rocket launch pad is being built in the Algerian desert. And a railway to connect it to the cities on the Med coast.
The Arab youth movement begin to splinter. One cause is which ideology to use to mobilize the masses.
Another is which geographical entities to supplant the Ottoman Empire once its yoke is thrown off. The result of ideals taken into reality.
1969 The 150 anniversary of the Scandinavian Union. And there was much rejoicing.
Except for the crash-landed SAAB fission bomber in the Carolinas that sank to a depth of 100 m. The following raising of the wreck and the two fission bombs even if intact made for the small environmental movement of Scandinavia take off for real.
Part of the aftermath of the accident is a scrapping of plans for nuclear power plants in ecological fragile areas of the Union among these Greenland and the West Indies.
The Greenlandic plans had been mothballed since their inception due to horrendous cost of building the projected plants and a presence of coal in situ.
The West Indies plant had also been cancelled due to cheap oil available from the USA.
Part of the 150 anniversary was a parade of the peoples that make up or made up the Scandinavian Union – Sami's with reindeer, Inuits with dogs, Icelanders with horses, Faeroese with sheep, West Indians with sugar cane, Ghanesians, Togolese, Cameroonians, Papuans and peoples of the Nicobar's and Carolinas as well as Danes, Norwegians and Swedes in all their traditional outfits.
Other parts of the parade was examples of Scandinavian ingenuity – SAAB aircraft, Volvo cars, Anglo Dane trucks, Marines, Drabant Guards and artillery all displaying the produce of Madsen and Aaker works. But also peasants, workers, fishermen, nobility and royalty made up the parade.
The festivities was an occasion for the political leaders of the former colonies to meet their Scandinavian counterparts off the political scene as well as representatives of especially the FGN, Britain, the Baltic countries, St. Petersburg Republic, Ukraine, Russia and Poland but also France, Spain, Portugal, Ottoman Empire and USA.
The presidents of Ghana, Togo and Cameroon ask for closer cooperation with the Scandinavian Union to counter any threats to their security. Even if they are well off in an African context and they are, the general situation in West Africa is one of coup and civil war which they do not wish for their countries to be part of.
A plan of closer cooperation is to be drawn up between the parties to make for a larger Scandinavian Union military presence in the countries and more youth of the countries to be sent off to the Scandinavian Union for education at universities, military academies and other institutions.
Papua do not view its situation as being threatened but as so many of its industries are Scandinavian owned a Scandinavian Union presence is unavoidable and anyway not unwanted.
The home rule of the Carolinas ask for the fission bomber flights out of their islands to be terminated. They are afraid of more accidents in the tropical paradise.
The air force generals reject this as it would need a bomber with a 10.000 km range! The base on Sakhalin was closed down by the USA following the end of the Soviet/Japan War. The only alternative would be to move the fission bomber base to Scania Havn in Papua.
Which is decided upon some years later.
France begin built an oil pipeline from the Libyan oilfields in the desert leading into Algeria.
The Arab movement boils down to demanding an Iraqi a Syrian a Palestinian and an Arabian Peninsular state to become independent. In the four areas a number of different political and activist movements begin an uncoordinated struggle for independence.
The British look on with interest and begin the process of making Yemen, Hadramaut and Oman independent nations.
1970 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:9,39 mill. Norway:4,2 mill. Denmark:5,1 mill. Total:18,69 mill.
The cooperation plan for Ghana, Togo and Cameroon is debated in the Storthing. The Scandinavian population follow the debate with interest and the general sentiment is that the former colonies should be supported by the old land.
The environmental movement is also active working for initiatives in the former colonies to be preserving of the environment and that pollution is to be avoided.
A group of students occupy the Lund and Göteborg Universities demanding the rule of professors abolished and modern means of teaching and study implemented.
After a few days the deans of the Universities gives in and like actions follow at other universities in the Scandinavian Union.
A similar situation develop at the FGN universities.
In Italy this turn into political demonstrations by both right wing and left wing political parties and their supporters.
At the Permanent Security Conference the FGN ten year presidency is making for some difficulties as the two European blocs of Germanic and Romance countries have an argument over which country to elect for the presidency.
The USA is proposed by the Germanic countries this is rejected by the Romance bloc which then goes on to propose Spain which is rejected by the Germanic countries.
The compromise candidate is China which receive the votes of both the Germanic and Romance blocs as well as the USA. The last one bring along a fair number of Latin American nations whose presidents owe their chair to the USA intervention in the 1940ties.
Yemen, Hadramaut and Oman is given independence. Much to the irritation of the Ottoman Empire. A British military presence is kept in the area – just in case.
The British action fuel the Arab independence movements in their fight against the Ottoman Empire.
Another close call famine in India. The Scandinavian Union advocates the principles of the Holstein Movement as a means to combat famine by making the peasants able to sustain themselves by increasing agricultural produce.
Map of the World 1970 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902906&postcount=817)
1971 A TV-feature of the former colonies status of today makes for a lot of private ventures to support them. But also for emigration due to rising unemployment following recession in the Scandinavian Union as in other European countries.
Especially the ability of Ghana, Togo and Cameroon to feed a large part of West Africa and maintain a rather high standard of living impresses the Scandinavians. An quite a number decide to emigrate to live a new life in the sun.
As recession is being felt in Europe the Romanians begin talking of all Romanians belonging in Romania. Including those living in Hungary. A sharp burst from Hanover makes the Romanians turn the rhetoric down even if some protest emanate from Paris.
The student takeover of universities as happened in the Scandinavian Union and FGN in the previous year takes place in the Netherlands, Belgium and Hungary.
FGN and the Ottoman Empire initiate talks of giving independence to the Arab population of the Ottoman Empire. France strongly support giving independence.
The FGN draw up a map that makes Mosul and its oil wells part of the remaining Ottoman Empire. The Arab lands are to be divided into four entities: Iraq, Syria, Palestine and Arabia. The Sinai Peninsular is to be handed back to Egypt.
1972 The focus on the former colonies makes the raising of funds for irrigation of the Cameroon savannah easy. The stability of the political systems of the former colonies is a decisive factor in raising the funds.
The mining industry of Papua is also benefiting of political stability.
The common Scandinavian begin visiting the home rule areas as well as the former colonies of the Union as tourists.
The student movement for takeover of universities appears in Italy. As a by product old political issues are re-kindled and violent demonstrations and police brutality is the order of the day.
The FGN plan of Arab independence is presented at Kristiania. The Arabs at once are infuriated at the arbitrary division of the former Ottoman Empire territories and reject the plan.
As news enters the Middle East of the plan the Kurds decide to act on their own to secure a Kurdistan.
But as the plan is discussed by more realpolitik minded minds it gains acceptance.
1973 To combat recession the Scandinavian Union suggest a closer economic cooperation in Europe like what happened in Scandinavia following the Napoleonic Wars. FGN, the Netherlands, Belgium and Britain are asked to co-found the cooperation.
The cooperation is founded to help workers, funds and services migrate within the cooperation in order to strengthen the economies of the founding nations.
The former colonies of the countries and their overseas dependencies are to be given priority ahead of other countries for trade.
One trade partner of importance is Russia that is a net grain importer due to her difficulty in self-supply.
The student movement spread to France and Spain. In both countries the situation is less violent than in Italy but more so than in other affected countries.
Italy is still in political turmoil with leftist and rightist political groups fighting each other in the streets and police cracking down arbitrarily on anybody poking their head up.
In Paris political parties begin to discuss the possibility of armed intervention in Italy to reassess the Italian Republic.
FGN plan of Arab independence is discussed at Kristiania. A Kingdom is instituted in Syria and republics in Iraq, Palestine and Arabia. The Sinai Peninsular is evacuated by the Ottoman army and the Egyptians move in but to the protest of the Palestinian Republic that demand that part of Ottoman Empire to be their part of the spoils.
As the Palestinian Republic doesn't really command any armed forces of value the Egyptians are able to retake all of the Sinai Peninsular, but the seeds of instability is sowed among the Arab nations.
1974 Scandinavian Union, FGN, the Netherlands, Belgium and Britain found the North European Economic Cooperation – NEEC.
Invited to associated status are the former Scandinavian Union colonies, the British Commonwealth nations, Indonesia, Congo and the former FGN colonies.
This global trade networks members and associates are able to combat the recession to some extend.
The benefit to the associated states is the ability to keep in close touch with the European members and gain up-to-date technology and access to institutions such as universities, training facilities of different trades and military academies.
In response to the founding of the NEEC France initiates the founding of the Romance Economic Cooperation – REC by France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. In Italy this fires off a burst of political violence which is countered by more police and troops patrolling the streets of major cities.
The political situation in the country have Italy withdraw from the REC negotiations. The Italian withdrawal from the REC is a major blow to the programme as it weakens the European basis.
In France the political parties openly discuss the need to reinforce the Italian Republic by French troops.
FGN warn France that it will not tolerate armed intervention in Italy.
A Scandinavian air force squadron of fission bombers are relocated to Aalborg Airfield to make for the shortest flying time towards France.
The Chinese presidency calls for negotiations at Kristiania to end the conflict.
In Russia the recession hits very hard as grain is in grave shortage and famine is lurking just around the corner. This year the Russian government is able to overcome the crisis.
The forming of the NEEC is having a negative effect upon the Russian ability to overcome the crisis as the NEEC is raising prices on any produce.
More instability is sowed in Arabian lands as Persia puts pressure on Iraq for a negotiation of the Shatt-al-Arab waterway. Iraq sure of USA support reject the Persian threats.
Making use of its income of oil sales Iraq is able to equip her armed forces with modern weaponry but time to master their use is not available.
Egypt tries to rally the Arabs against the threat of Persia but its conflict with the Palestinian Republic makes for all efforts running out in the sand. The Arabs are as disunited as ever.
1975 The Scandinavian Union cover 80 % of its electricity demand by nuclear power plants.
A military coup in Italy is carried out by army officers to put an end to the Italian chaos.
The coup-makers are viewed by the Italians as puppets of France and a general strike is proclaimed and all major cities hit by anti-coup demonstrations.
Within two days the coup-makers realize they will fuel a civil war if they shoot on the demonstrators. Both the French and the FGN diplomats to Rome call upon the coup-makers to move the army back into the barracks and have democratic elections proclaimed. Realizing the support they counted on isn't there the coup-makers withdraw the army to its barracks.
This move is applauded by both Paris and Hanover. The Italian parliament is to be marked by strong left and right wing parties but slowly as time goes by a more centre orientated policy is gaining votes.
Russian grain production is slowly declining and drought hits the southern parts of the country forcing it to ask the Ukraine to supply grain which it does but at a horrendous price as the Ukraine itself is hit by the drought. Even so the Russian government is once again just able to weather the storm.
In Central Asia famine is widespread.
The Holstein Movement suggest the Russian ambassador to Göteborg to implement the Holstein ideas in Russia to make its peasant able of greater produce. The Russian ambassador just laughs at the proposal.
Persia demand the handing over of Shatt-al-Arab waterway to Persian control which Iraq rejects. This is followed by a Persian assault on Iraq that occupies the Iraqi coastline and threatens Baghdad.
Seeing the opportunity the Ottoman army enters Iraq occupying Kirkuk. The Persian army wheels north facing the Ottomans. Surprised by the Persian response the Ottomans negotiate a partition of northern Iraq along the Zab al Asral river.
Making ready to assault Baghdad the Iraqis ask for a cease fire and agree to cede the Shatt-al-Arab waterway to Persia.
1976 In response to the feeling of greater insecurity in an unstable world the elections of this year centres mainly the defence issue and reduction of unemployment.
The general perception is that the armed forces are to be reorganized and especially the army enlarged to soak up some of the unemployment. Unemployment should also be reduced by internal migration to areas of growth and allocation of state funds to overseas projects like the irrigation of Cameroon which for the last four years have made for a small number of Scandinavian peasants migrating to Cameroon to take advantage of the project.
The developing Russian crisis makes for the Scandinavian army to be enlarged to 250,000 men.
The Marines is enlarged to three brigades one each with a headquarters in the West Indies, Nicobars and Carolinas but most of the troops deployment in West Africa.
Both Navy and Air force transport capacity is stepped up for the eventual transfer of the Marines as well as an Army infantry division. Most of this capacity is attained by making civil airliners and merchantmen part of mobilization forces.
NEEC members initiate a search for oil in the North Sea to lessen dependence on oil producing countries.
REC tries to recruit Italy once more but is rebuffed. The REC is never a serious threat to the NEEC because of the subordination of former or present colonies to the system. Even if these do get some privileges in trade relations they don't get the kind of treatment their fellow countries do by the NEEC.
Russian grain produce is still low and grain must be imported. The Russian situation is well known in other countries but there is no will among the Russian ruling class to change it.
During a civil war in Cotê d'Ivoire France intervenes by way of Algeria to secure its interests and citizens.
During following years France uses Algeria as a springboard to intervene in several West African states to the annoyance of both British Commonwealth members and former Scandinavian Union colonies.
1977 There is much debate within NEEC countries of why to enlarge the community in times of economic crisis.
Several Social democratic politicians as well as intellectuals argue that the conflicts of nations should be settled by PSC not by building military alliances.
But these are the minority and Hungary, St. Petersburg Republic, Finland and the Baltic States enter the NEEC. Poland, Bosnia, Ukraine and Ottoman Empire are given associate status.
REC react by associating Croatia, Greece, Romania and Libya. Serbia surprisingly reject such an offer and instead ask for being an associate state of the NEEC.
Russia still being short of grain and seeing St. Petersburg Republic and the Ukraine entering or being associated to the NEEC approaches the NEEC to get a better deal on grain. The NEEC is willing to give Russia a better deal, but it is too late.
Due to bad harvest since the catastrophic year of 1975 famine spread within Russia.
The import of grain tend to help a little but the general perception in Russia especially among the ruling class is that helping yourself is to be first priority and the relief programmes in the countryside breaks down. As famine spread and little help is given people begin to migrate out of the stricken areas.
Former Scandinavian Union colonies join in a trade community with the British Commonwealth nations of West Africa to counter the French influence in the Region as emanating from Algeria.
1978 The Storthing debate additional relief funds to be allocated for Russia. The Conservatives and SSB are strongly against it - “let them rot!” “Its their own fault!” But the Storthing pass a bill of relief funds.
The Russian famine continue to spread through the central parts of the country. The peasants leave their dried out land migrating to the cities that become overcrowded leading to breakdown of grain supply which leads to more migration.
Russian refugees of famine and poverty begin to show at the borders of Poland, St. Petersburg Republic and Ukraine.
Poland and Ukraine send the refugees back to Russia but St. Petersburg Republic allow scores to enter and settle them as possible.
As presidents and dictators in South America die out democracy slowly gain ground in the Region. But seen as communists by the USA and in need of trading partners which are scarce due to the European NEEC and REC they look towards Asia and Oceania as well as Africa.
Seeing opportunity on hitting back at the USA France have REC initiate talks with the South American democratic states to establish their own market.
1979 Drought hits central Russia killing off the remnants of relief programmes.
Mass migration takes place within Russia for the western borders. Within a few months more than a million Russians flood the borders of St. Petersburg Republic, Poland and Ukraine as well as the Baltic States.
NEEC initiate massive relief programmes to aid their member states and associate states to cope with the disaster. Ukraine itself is had hit by the drought and in need of relief.
Demonstrations and insurrections are the order of the day in many parts of Russia and government reacts violently.
As the refugees filter west into the Balkans the REC is drawn into the relief programmes to aid their associated states.
Military intervention in Russia to re-establish law and order as well as securing relief aid to be carried to those in need are strongly debated in the Scandinavian Union. Almost none would like to have this kind of interference in the Union – but this is a matter of emergency!
The general view is not against intervention but the majority is marginal and not to be tested by the politicians at this time.
USA and REC enters a trade war over South America as the US tries to force REC off the Americas by taxing REC produce and lowering prices in South America. The REC follow suit.
1980 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:9,7 mill. Norway:4,49 mill. Denmark:5,3 mill. Total:19,49 mill.
The late 1970ties experience have the NEEC work on a joint space programme to develop a surveillance satellite that is able to provide images of the world in regard to famines but also to provide intelligence.
It is debated whether the satellites should be manned or remote controlled. The majority is for remote controlled vehicles but it is realized that a manned vehicle will be the centre of public attention.
The financial situation is not for manned space flight so remote controlled vehicles is decided upon.
The Scandinavian Union strongly support the space programme as it is seen as a mobilization of societies resources that will help combating unemployment.
Serbia is given associated status by the NEEC.
As the famine spreads in Russia so does unrest. The net result is a country in something like civil war. Expatriate relief organizations pull their organizations out of Russia for fears of having them become victims of the warlike situation.
The resolve in the Scandinavian Union to support armed intervention is getting stronger.
As the Chinese presidency of the Permanent Security Conference at Kristiania is terminated an obvious candidate for the presidency is not recognized. As negotiations proceed India is agreed upon as president of the PSC for the next ten years.
The first task of the new presidency is a complaint of the West African Commonwealth and former Scandinavian colonies countries of continued French interference with the internal affairs of its former West African colonies that is upsetting the whole region.
As the French minister to the PSC dismisses the “uneducated and uncivilized blacks of West Africa” he incurs the wrath of all African black nations as expressed sarcastic by the premier of Ghana, Scandinavian Ritterschaft descendant Gerhard von Molkte, “and I am praud zu be among my fellow cauntrymen if reckoned an uneducated, uncifilized black by a naerrowminded national chauvinist like you, sir”.
“I must zay that your statements fit you into ze South African category! Of which I guess you're praud!” More applause.
Due to the many investments, number of emigrants and military presence the Scandinavian Union strongly support its former colonies in West Africa.
1981 The first NEEC surveillance satellite is launched into orbit.
The situation in Russia is just as alarming as thought and worse.
Central Russia is a dustbowl.
If there was doubt about intervention pictures of the Russian dustbowl changes the opinion of the Scandinavians. If we were that hard hit we'd welcome it is the general perception.
The aid to Russia should be used to rebuild the land and resettle its refugees of which a large number have entered the Scandinavian Union after flooding the Baltic States and Finland.
As more and more refugees crosses the borders to the west the Russian government is asked to join its peoples for negotiating a treaty to resettle the country.
At first the Russian government refuse to negotiate but realizing that China is carving out chunks of Siberia along the USA and that its army is only marginally intact in Belarus and to the north of Moscow as well as some “islands” along the major rivers, in the Urals and in West Siberia.
Army commanders doesn't listen to the Russian government either because of trying to cope with a disastrous situation demanding every available resource or out of disobedience because they try to establish their own “Empire”.
Literally Russia has fallen apart and the Siberian Soviet Republic reclaims independence.
The Chinese army beats the US army to Nerchinsk and Chita. Moving west the Chinese reaches the lake Baikal and continue its drive to Irkutsk.
The USA once again occupy the Siberian eastern coastline.
The Ottoman Empire have its army probe into Russian territory but are told by NEEC that it will lose associate status if it take advantage of the situation. Grumbling the Ottoman Empire steps down and the army is ordered back to barracks.
Japan also want a share of the Siberian Soviet Republic but are impolitely told by China and the USA to mind its own business.
The Russian government representatives arrive in Hanover after a dangerous journey. With phonelines still intact they are able to communicate with the government in Moscow and is given mandate to negotiate a settlement.
After a few day's the phonelines broken apparently due to a coup in Moscow following demonstrations against the government and uprising.
Britain demand access of NEEC troops to Russian territory in order to protect relief efforts and secure those in need do get help.
Realizing that order has broken down in Russia the rest of the NEEC countries back up the British demand and after some negotiating the Russian representatives cave in.
A relief programme is designed that from Scandinavian Union bases in St. Petersburg Republic, FGN ones in Poland and British in Ukraine with NEEC military protection will deliver needed foodstuffs and medical equipment to Russia. Russian army units that do not cooperate will be disarmed by NEEC units.
The Russian representatives of the talks are to follow the advance relief columns and secure Russian army cooperation.
Within an month supplies have been built up as designed. Through radio broadcast the Russian populace as well as army units and civil servants have been notified of the NEEC effort to be undertaken and the Russian governments agreement to comply with the NEEC actions.
The relief columns moving out of St. Petersburg Republic and Ukraine meet virtually no armed opposition as even the Russian army units are almost starved out of existence.
The column moving out of Poland are stopped at the border by Russian army units that demand the relief goods handed over. As negotiations by Russian representatives doesn't yield results the NEEC call in an airstrike as well as artillery support. The months of fall see the NEEC armed forces, FGN army and Luftwaffe, destroying the remaining Russian army units in Belarus. This late delivery of relief aid to Belarus have this part of Russia too emptying the last foodstuffs stocks to be on the brink of famine when the relief finally arrives.
In West Africa Dahomey and Upper Volta demand a border revision with Ghana and Togo. The demand is rejected by both states. The demand is seen as originating in Paris.
Another border revision is demanded by Cotê d'Ivoire on Gold Coast which is also rejected with the full force of the British Commonwealth.
France is notified by NEEC members Britain and Scandinavian Union that warfare by proxy in West Africa is intolerable. The NEEC action in Russia cools French aspirations in West Africa but France insist on the right to defend all of her territory also the African.
The 1967 agreement of Ghana, Togo and Cameroon on security and military matters is renewed and expanded due to recent events into a defence agreement. A joint Ghana, Togolese, Cameroon military exercise take place in Ghana and Togo with Scandinavian Union transport ships and aircraft lifting a Cameroon brigade into action. The Scandinavian resolve impress Paris.
West African states form the Pan-African League that is to combat the racist regimes of South Africa and France by giving support to the resistance movements of South Africa and work with the PSC to evict French presence from Africa. The Pan-African League is given political support of Britain and the Scandinavian Union.
Map of the World 1981 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902907&postcount=818)
Since the beginning of the race riots 1935 in the USA several black artists, jazz musicians, dancers etc. chose to leave the US for more friendly environments where their performance would be allowed and not endanger their life.
At first many went to Paris but arriving in Europe they soon discovered that other big cities like Hanover and Göteborg would welcome them too.
As the situation in the US didn't change substantially for a decade many a black artist decided to make the big European cities their new home.
The Josephine Baker murder only served to spur the trend – Returning to the US in 1938 to take part in the funeral of a relative, Josephine along with several mourners were killed as the church were burned down by white racists. Josephine wasn't in the church but was singled out from among mourners outside and gallowed from a lamppost. Police arrived much too late to catch the murderers.
Thus in the cities of Paris, Hanover and Göteborg “Jazz-quarters” grew around residing black musicians and artists.
During the following three decades the black artists communities were self reproductive by arrivals from the US and the colonies or in case of Hanover from the former colonies of the host countries.
Just a few were able to attend formal art schools in their host countries but this changed especially following the independence of African colonies in the late 1950's and early 1960's and the enrolment of new state administrators at former colonial powers universities.
Until then the music was mostly seen as rebellious in regard to the US and its domestic development because of the linking with the communist and racist disorder.
It was also considered rebellious as an exponent of teenagers against authorities but this was somewhat softened due to the Scandinavian and FGN royal youth adherence to the music and its performers.
Over time the Jazz establishments of Paris and Hanover became quite competitive. Moving in the wake of the French – FGN competition for supremacy on the continent the annual festivals of both cities became more and more spectacular. The performers knew of the competition but viewed it as unavoidable and were contend with the great interest in their music.
Göteborg also had its own Jazz festival, never as spectacular as in Paris or Hanover but intimate and drawing all the major musicians to perform.
As time went by Jazz became respectable and its performers were common party to films made by Scandinavian Film Industry and UFA in the 1960's and 1970''s.
The funeral of Louis Armstrong July 1971 was attended by many a prominent resident of Göteborg with the Queen walking along Lise Petersson, Armstrongs third wife whom he'd met in Scandinavia. Other attendees arrived from Hanover and Paris.
In the 1980's Jazz have become a respectable component of the European music culture even if deemed the antiquated musical expression of hopeless parents and other symbols of authorities by youth.
1982 A corruption scandal unfolds in Scandinavian municipalities. A large number of entrepreneurs have been paying mayors of larger cities for letting their firms attain valuable contracts.
As a result a reform of municipalities is to be carried out cutting down the numbers to make for larger units and thus make a savings on administration.
Other parts of the state administration is also cut back. This adds numbers to the unemployed and strikes are common throughout the Union.
To help fight unemployment and ease communications with especially FGN two long bridges spanning the Great Baelt and Oeresund is planned.
The Scandinavian Union argue at the PSC that some peaceful solution have to be found to end the West African crisis.
Suffering from economic recession aggravated by the trade war with the US France is at this time not uninterested in a solution.
Another factor is the growth of population in Cameroon which due to the savannah irrigation programme have reached 12 million and is still growing. Due to the cooperation agreements with the Scandinavian Union and NEEC the Cameroon population is generally doing very well in an African context.
The Indian presidency of the PSC begin negotiations of a security and prosperity pact for West Africa.
Having de facto conquered most of Russia west of the Urals NEEC ponders what to do with their new colonial empire.
The only sane approach is to have the Russian govern themselves but the events of the past 50+ years are proof to many that this is a bad idea. Realizing that some stable form of administration not too tainted by the last 40 years events is needed the St. Petersburg Republic is asked to take over administration of all of Russia west of the Urals.
The St. Petersburg Republic demand to undertake the task that all of its administered territory to be acknowledged as associated with the NEEC to ease rebuilding. The demand is recognized as being a just one and granted.
Due to the actions of the St. Petersburg Republic during the years of famine the choice is a popular one in Russia. That peoples who'd fled famine were fed and resettled within the Republic isn't forgotten in Russia.
The Siberian Soviet Union rejects the new Russia as represented by the St. Petersburg Republic.
China continue to nip off bites of Siberia in the Irkutsk area west of lake Baikal.
Both Persia and China begin programmes of relief for the Central Asian republics that was also hit hard by the drought. Pakistan later joins in the effort.
These programmes are seen mostly as an effort by the donate states to gain influence in the area.
1983 The municipalities reform awake a lot of political discussions. Which municipalities is going to merge and what about the future political landscape. A Metropolis Göteborg dwarfing all other cities and parts of the Union is seen as the great spectre.
Kristiania, Stockholm and Copenhagen municipalities all demand to be enlarged more than planned.
Russian refugees are repatriated to Russia/St. Petersburg Republic. Not all are willing to leave the safety and comfort of the Scandinavian Union but those are forced off. Very few are allowed to stay due to the unemployment and Scandinavian unwillingness to feed idle hands. Only those able to obtain a job or a scholarship are able to stay.
The opening of the PSC in Kristiania see the signing by France, several West African nations, Britain, Scandinavian Union and Spain of a security and prosperity pact in which France agree to reduce its armed forces in Algeria and enter a West African Security Conference, a Sub-committee of the PSC that will negotiate local conflicts to make for peaceful settlements avoiding armed intervention.
The successful settlement makes the African Nations turn towards South Africa to make an end to Apartheid. The South African government is called upon to change its political system to make for all races to live together in prosperity as in the rest of Africa (or at least as in West Africa). The South African government is rejecting the call.
The St. Petersburg Republic begin enlarging its administration to cover all of Russia. NEEC deliver aid in foodstuffs and agricultural machinery as well as aerial photos of Russia for the administration to plan for meeting demands.
The Siberian Soviet Union is no threat to the St. Petersburg Republic as it is consumed by the Chinese threat and fighting a war on the Angara River and in the Sayansk Mountains.
Japan tries to take advantage of the Chinese preoccupation in Siberia by putting pressure on Korea but is firmly confronted by China and the USA as well as the European powers.
A major part of the Chinese air force is moved to bases in Machuria and around Shanghai.
The Chinese navy sortie from Taiwan into Japanese waters where it is met by a US squadron.
Both China and Persia realize that there is too little to gain in the Central Asian republics in terms of political or economic value. Both countries scale down their programmes in the area.
1984 Prince Frederick Charles Georg turns 18 and enters the University of Hanover.
The financial crisis of the decade is known as the poor-eighties in the Scandinavian Union. Especially workers are hard hit and strikes are frequent, as are the case in many other countries.
The peasants are not as hard hit as agricultural export is still a major income even if it have to be state subsidised when going to Russia/St. Petersburg Republic.
The workers and small business owners hit by the crisis migrate in increasing numbers to the former colonies, especially Cameroon and Papua as these countries are in need of administrators and skilled workers.
The construction of the Great Baelt and Oeresund bridges is initiated.
The Scandinavian Union as well as other nations continue the repatriation of Russian refugees. As the returning numbers are more than the St. Petersburg administration can handle a plan for repatriation is negotiated.
Students should be allowed to finish education before repatriation or funds allocated for the building/refurbishment of schools and universities in Russia by the NEEC nations. This make for more investment by NEEC in Russia.
The USA decide to put the squeeze on the REC by negotiating a trade agreement with the NEEC giving it a better position in the Americas.
The 1983 confrontation of Japan and the other powers make for change in Japanese politics. A progressionist party come to power following public demands of better living standards which require more foreign trade which demand an open door to especially China and the contemptuous Westerners.
The road to better living standards is long as Japan is hit by the worldwide economic crisis as are everybody else.
1985 The municipalities reform is carried out in the Scandinavian Union reducing the number of municipalities to a third.
Göteborg grows north to Stenungsund, south to Kungsbacka and east to Lerum. Out of all proportion to many but as the capital and home of much industry it is allowed to grow.
Russians still flee St. Petersburg Republic but are promptly returned when discovered.
The PSC tries to reconcile the Siberian Soviet Union with its neighbours but the effort is futile. The Siberian Soviet Union is submerged in old communist rhetoric of being the victim of imperialist aggression. It calls upon all true socialists to defend its course.
As expected no one bother.
China declare that Yenisei River is going to be the western limit of its expansion.
With China having left the Central Asian republics and Persia having severely cut back its programmes the situation deteriorate.
Portugal declare it is going to give East Timor independence within a year.
As South Africa hasn't changed its apartheid policy the Pan-African League calls on all members of the PSC to condemn the South African rule and isolate it. The West African Security Conference members support the move as does Britain and Scandinavian Union.
As Halley's comet is going to pass Earth this year a lot of interest is devoted to celestial mechanics as well as good old superstition. And we weren't hit by an apocalypse.
Map of Göteborg Municipalities 1985 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902909&postcount=819)
1986 Scandinavian peasants begin to invest in Russia/St. Petersburg Republic.
Enormous tracts of land are put up for sale but the new owner has to farm the land and half the crops must be sold to the government at a fixed price.
As manual labour is available at almost no expense the bargain is still providing a not insignificant gain.
The Horn of Africa is hit by gigantic swarms of locust. Adding to disaster is a drought that leads to famine. Most of the effects of the famine is to be countered by West African relief aid and FGN is another major donate of relief aid to Somalia.
The ability to counter the major part of the African Horn disaster is a great boost to West African confidence.
A conference held at Accra agree on closer cooperation within the West African Security Conference – WASC on trade and transport. A French-British-Scandinavian Union company is formed to connect the various countries rail and road networks into a common communications system linking up with the navigable parts of the river Niger.
Developing is slow as Britain is the least interested party of the company and the burden fall on France and the Scandinavian Union.
East Timor is given independence. Internal unrest almost immediately breaks out. Indonesian involvement is suspected but not proven.
Indonesia put pressure on Papua due to Indonesian internal unrest.
The Scandinavian air force base at Scania Havn is put on alert and fission bombers launched. The Marines at Scania Havn is moved east to the border with Indonesia. A Marine brigade is shipped off from West Africa to Papua. At this show of force Indonesia step down. The crisis is averted.
A sub-comittee of the PSC comprising Papua, Indonesia, Australia, India, Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, Scandinavian Union and Portugal is set up to negotiate any new crisis.
1987 Supernova 1987a is registered in the Large Magellan Cloud. Its the first supernova to be observed with the eye since 1604.
The interest in celestial mechanics is greatly revived as is the history of Tyge Brahe in the Scandinavian Union.
A Desert Locust plague hits West Africa urging the cooperation of the WASC countries to counter the plague. The Desert Locust is to return in 1988 and 89.
The unrest in East Timor is about to tear the small nation apart. A meeting of the PSC sub-committee is called in at Singapore. Indonesia deny any involvement.
To reinstate order in East Timor the sub-committee decide to send in a force of a Scandinavian Marine battalion, an Australian infantry battalion and an Indian infantry battalion.
Indonesia protest the decision but nothing more. At the end of the year order have been reinstated in East Timor.
1988 The poor eighties have had Scandinavians come back to the church after a couple of decades with lesser numbers seeking consolation in it.
The great Russian famine in these modern times was another contributing factor.
REC associated nations in the Balkans leave it and tries to form their own economic system that is supported by Italy.
St. Petersburg Republic is unable to reconstruct Russia and rebuild the Central Asian republics.
As nobody else show an interest the Ottoman Empire decide to aid the republics. Negotiating a route north of the Caucasus the Ottoman Empire is able to supply the republics and keep up communications.
Isolated South Africa ask PSC to open negotiations with the African nations. Negotiations will only be possible if South Africa dismantle the apartheid system.
1989 The economic crisis show signs of wearing off.
The FGN, Britain and Scandinavian Union reconsider the manned space flight. It is decided to launch a manned vehicle within two years.
The long term objective is to launch a telescope into orbit. The manned vehicle will be needed to service the telescope.
The new South African government announce that apartheid will end and all citizens gain equal rights. Negotiations are opened in Kristiania at the PSC with the African nations for a peaceful transition.
Seeing the Ottoman Empire being engaged in Central Asia Persia fuels the Kurds in the Ottoman Empire to demand independence or at least autonomy. The Ottoman army crack down on the Kurds.
The Ottoman Empire warn Persia of interference with Ottoman internal affairs might provoke an unwanted response.
An Ottoman air base is built at Kyzyl-Su in Turkmenistan.
1990 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:10 mill. Norway:4,8 mill. Denmark:5,5 mill. Total:20,3 mill.
As the economic crisis wears off its time to spend some time dining out. With the influx of New Orleans musicians came the New Orleans cuisine to supplement the traditional Scandinavian cuisine, the Creole of the West Indies, the North Atlantic meat-heavy dishes, West African, Indian and Papua as well as Pacific cuisines.
The Russian refugees made for the Russian cuisine being established too.
Going through the restaurant quarter along the quays of Göteborg you'd get to inhale the mouthwatering odour of half the world. You'd get to taste the meat of any animal living in cold or warm sea, on the ground or in the sky from the Arctic through temperate, sub-tropical and into the tropics. All sorts of fruits and vegetables and it be fried, cooked or grilled with garlic, curry or chilli's.
You order – we serve.
And its all, except the New Orleans cuisine been here for a hundred years!
The Cameroon census:
As Persia continue the support of Kurds in the Ottoman Empire the Ottoman army is moved up to the Persian border. St. Petersburg Republic and NEEC quietly support the Ottoman Empire. Persia scale down its support of the Kurds and the crisis cools down.
Map of the World 1990 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902911&postcount=820)
1991 Prince Frederick Charles Georg graduate the University of Hanover and is sent on a tour of the Union to make himself familiar with his future Kingdom.
A manned satellite is launched from the Carolinas. The FGN pilot is merely a passenger as the vehicle obits the Earth.
The experience gained is used for the planning of another larger vehicle with room for two pilots.
The audience gained television broadcasting of the launch and later landing in the Pacific of the satellite is a tremendous boost in FGN, Scandinavian Union and Britain to the programme. All sort of wild schemes is aired for manned space flight and colonization of the Universe.
The Ottoman Empire accuse Persia of supporting Kurdish rebels, sheltering them on Persian territory. PSC tries to mediate the conflict but no result is obtained.
1992 The bridge across the Great Baelt is finished and opened to traffic.
The second manned space vehicle is launched. This time it is manned by one FGN pilot that is able to control the vehicle.
Most of the manoeuvring is still done from the Space Centre in Bavaria however.
As manned space flight is now possible discussions on what to do next is held. It is decided to go for a landing on the Moon.
Ottoman Empire troops venture into Persia to hit back at Kurdish rebels. Persia protest the incursions and mobilize troops at Tabriz. PSC manage to cool the conflict and winter helps too.
1993 The bridge across the Oeresound is finished. The bridges shorten the time of transport through the Scandinavian Union. A new express train going from Göteborg to Hanover is put into service.
Come spring the Ottoman army are mobilized and launches an offensive into Persia. Moving against Tabriz north and south of the Lake Urmia the Persian army is slowly pushed back.
Ottoman air force planes interdict the Persian line of communications to Tabriz and bomb Tehran.
A massive Persian air attack is able to take out the Ottoman airbase at Kyzyl-Su.
In late April the Ottoman army is able to move into Tabriz. Adding in small scale to the Ottoman war effort is the Turkmenistan army that keep up a border skirmish with Persia tying up some Persian units.
PSC tries to mediate an armistice but neither side is ready for this step.
Keeping the pressure on Persia the Ottoman Empire reopen the offensive in May moving out of Tabriz going for Caspian Sea shore with a diversion attack aimed at Tehran!
Making the wrong decision the Persian army concentrate on defending Tehran and the Ottomans are able to push through to the Caspian Sea at Astara.
The Ottomans then declare themselves ready for the mediation of PSC to bring an end to the fighting. A cease-fire is agreed upon but following the agreement the Shah of Persia is deposed by a military coup.
1994 At the turn of the year 1993 due to the newly built bridges a new trend emerged among the Scandinavian bourgeoisie – going by train from Göteborg to Hanover, Vienna, Paris, Rome, Budapest or the Adriatic celebrating New Years Eve and then to awake in another part of Europe.
The adventurous goes east visiting Warsaw and devastated St. Petersburg Republic Russia raising itself from the dust only to dump yourself at some relatives Russian mega-farm and party at almost no cost with every temptation you'd ever dream off possible.
As the railway was rumoured to be secure the Scandinavian peasants wives went into Russia too and this kind of entertainment abruptly ended.
The third manned space vehicle is launched crewed by one FGN and one British pilot it orbits the Earth. Aboard the vehicle is a television camera and later a film made by the camera is shown which is a huge success.
The Persian army open an offensive to push Ottoman Empire forces out of Persian territories. The Ottomans are not to be dislodged and its Turkmenistan ally aided by Ottoman officers and troops and a rebuilt air force is able to launch a limited offensive out of Ashkhabad if only to show teeth.
Within a week the Persian offensive is grinding to a halt and within two the Ottoman army is able to take the offensive and throw the Persians back. Following another mediated cease-fire the Persian junta is overthrown.
Los Angeles is hit by a major earthquake.
1995 The complete catalogue of Papuan languages is issued by the Scandinavian Science Board of Göteborg, a 136 years after arrival of the Scania in Papua.
A great achievement but it attends only the interest of a more than limited circle of linguists.
The astronomical and astrophysics division of the Board have quite a popular following.
The fourth manned space flight by one British and one Scandinavian pilot. Following the return of the vehicle the design for the Moon vehicle is intensified.
It is to be a two pilot vehicle with a orbiter vehicle and a landing vehicle. The orbiter is to be remote controlled while the landing vehicle goes the last part of the journey.
When the pilots leave the Moon in the landing vehicle they rendezvous with the orbiter, change vehicle and return to Earth in the orbiter.
A major earthquake, 7,2 on the Richter scale hits Kobe in Japan. The damage is so thorough that the Japanese government decide to ask for foreign aid in digging out casualties and later rebuilding the city.
1996 Queen Margrete falls ill apparently without reason. She has developed a cancer tumour in the left side breast.
At thirty prince Frederick Charles Georg still hasn't married and most peoples worry now about the future of the Union. The prince is seen as young and hot headed and mostly unfit for ruling a country of prominence and importance like the Scandinavian Union.
A major earthquake in Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China kills 240, injures more than 14000 and makes hundreds of thousands homeless.
1997 Queen Margrete is operated having the cancer tumour removed. She is in good shape but her peoples worry.
Prince Frederick Charles Georg is showing signs of maturity taking his mothers seat at state councils.
The fifth manned space flight to test the Moon landing and orbiting vehicles. The test is a success and everything is ready for the go at the Moon. The flight is scheduled for summer 2000.
China refuse to renew the lease of Hong Kong and Britain hand over the city.
1998 Queen Margrete have recovered and is back in business. She publicly encourage the prince to marry and secure the royal line.
The prince seems a more responsible character nowadays but still he hasn't showed signs of being interested of marriage.
The boulevard press speculate that the prince is a homosexual but nobody is sure of anything. He is often off on trips to the West Indies. His interest in this part of the Union is most appreciated but he is rebuked for not taking the situation of the Union serious.
The Queen however strongly support her son.
The Queen is very anxious about help reaching those suffering from natural disasters and encourage her peoples to help anyone in need.
Hurricane Mitch hits Central America with devastating results. Almost a million is made homeless and 12000 dies.
1999 Queen Margrete falls ill again. The cancer metastasis have spread in her body and she is in bad health.
In November she is able to announce the engagement of prince Frederick Charles Georg to miss Helena Henrietta Frandsen, Ph.D. tropical medicine, the beautiful daughter of a immensely wealthy planter of St. John, West Indies.
The young couple have been seeing each other since the princes first visit to the West Indies during his tour of the Union in 1991.
Everything should be just fine except that miss Frandsen is partly of African descend. Is this an outrage???
A major earthquake hit Izmit in the Ottoman Empire killing 17.000 and injuring 44.000.
Macao is handed over by Portugal to China.
On New Years Eve the fireworks at midnight is the most such burned off in the recorded history of mankind. The thoughts about leaving a century and entering a new have been many. Would Satan appear? Would Earth disintegrate? Enter the fifth horseman? Many scenarios were pondered over but the next morning half the world woke with the worst hangover ever.
2000 The census of the Scandinavian Union:
Sweden:10,3 mill. Norway:5,1 mill. Denmark:5,7 mill. Total:21,1 mill.
Queen Margrete 3. dies in January and her son an heir Prince Frederick Charles Georg is crowned as King Frederick 8/3/4 of Denmark/Norway/Swedes, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Greenland, The Samí, West Indies, Nicobar Islands and Carolinas.
The marriage of prince Frederick Charles Georg and miss Helena Henrietta Frandsen is postponed for the official time of mourning – a year.
A FGN rocket launched from the Carolinas land a two man crew, FGN colonel Franz Fritzlar and British commander Edwin Monk on the moon after a journey that had millions watching their TV sets.
After four hours on the Lunar surface the crew takes off in their vehicle only to land in the South Pacific where they are picked up by the Scandinavian Union cruiser Frederick VI and taken to a short press conference at Scania Havn, Papua before taking off from the Scandinavian airbase for London and Hanover.
In the Scandinavian Union this great achievement was overshadowed by the death of the Queen and the discussing of the upcoming royal marriage.
Map of the World 2000 (http://alternatehistory.com/discussion/showpost.php?p=1902912&postcount=821)
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