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cerebus
April 24th, 2008, 11:35 AM

1672 Isaac Newton’s letter on light and colour is read to the Royal society and criticised by Robert Hooke. Newton threatens to withdraw from the Royal Society. The cracks are papered over.

1679 Newton and Hooke correspond on light, the movement of planets and many other subjects. They disagree but are still polite to each other.

1680 Newton ends his letters to Hooke. Hooke continues to write occasionally. Their relationship deteriorates from unfriendly rivalry to icy feud. (It is amazing how much of science is filled with these.) Newton will make sure the correspondence is destroyed as part of his efforts to claim all credit for gravity and electrics.
POD
1681 Hooke’s latest letter to Newton about telescope apertures mentions in passing that new results from Hamburg suggest his theory of light may be mistaken. Newton is incensed and writes to Halley (who has friends in Germany) demanding more details. Halley does his best but what he sends is a garbled account of Von Guericke’s electric experiments. Newton tries to set up the experiments to refute Hooke but uses copper wire (not silk thread ) due to the mistranslation of a spelling mistake.

1682 For the next ten years Newton works privately on many subjects one of which is his study of electrics based on the apparatus he had built. He dislikes the popular theories of fluids preferring corpuscular theories. He starts by spinning a magnet mounted on a wheel next to a wire and showing a compass is deflected. Then using the size of sparks as a measure of potential he proposes his laws of electrics.

1. The flow of electric corpuscles (OTL Current) is such to oppose the movement of a magnet and the force on a magnet is proportional to the flow, inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the wire and such that the magnet would move to oppose the flow of corpuscles

2. The flow is proportional to the electric potential (OTL Voltage), the cross sectional area of the wire and inversely proportional to the length of the wire (now referred to as the width where W=k A/l) (OTL Conductance). This is usually written as F= PW (OTL I = V/R).

(The time this takes comes from his biblical numerology studies which I assume will have little effect on the future and because he is Newton, he tells nobody about his work)[/FONT]

1683 Robert Sieur de La Salle reaches mouth of the Mississippi and claims Louisiana (present day East NuSpania and West Carolina) in the name of Louis XIV and with 700 colonists from France founds FortSt Louis.

1687 Newton is persuaded to publish his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in which he reveals his theory of gravity and laws of motion. Hooke claims he has not been given credit for his suggestions. This is probably true.

1701 War of Spanish Succession. (Entirely unaffected, changes so far are limited to Newton and his immediate household.) [/FONT]

1703 With the death of Hooke and Newton’s election to the Presidency he achieves a dominance over the Royal Society and British science, which will be unchallenged for the next 25 years.

1704 Newton publishes his work on corpuscle theory of light in OPTIKS which includes a chapter on electrics which he separates from ‘statiks’. He also discusses an experiment in which a spark in one loop causes a spark in a second isolated loop. This effect he explains as the movement of electric corpuscles through the lumniferous aether just as light corpuscles move.

The example of Newton is often quoted as the irreplaceable genius without whom the progress of human knowledge would be quite different. However although he made several significant discoveries I contend that he produced nothing that would not have become known in the next generation. Consider, calculus was invented independently by Hooke and Leibniz, Charlesworth or Franklyn were as likely to formulise electrics, theories of gravity were wide spread in the scientific community and it can be argued Huygens’ theory of light was superior.
My conclusion is that once the scientific method is adopted the path of science is constrained. The general worship of the great man is as fatuous as it is demeaning. No matter how great the genius the most he can do is speed up or retard the inevitable march of progress by a few years.

Inevitability and the history of science (Josiah Winthock, University of WestPort, Williamsland 1905)

Winthock is one of the most mediocre of thinkers and so spends what little genius he has on diminishing those who are far beyond him.

An answer to Inevitability: Oxford Quarterly Science Review (Naiomi Takahashee, Oxford University Press 1907)

1706 Birth of Benjamin Franklin in Boston, Newengland.

1709 In an attempt to defend Newton’s light theories from attack by the followers of Huygens’ wave theory George Bratton manages to send a signal 281 feet using a primitive electric semaphore.

1710 Newton oversees the move of the Royal Society to new premises in Crane Court and institutes invitational public lectures by famous scientists as a defence of his theories. Naturally nobody opposed to his ideas will give a lecture there until the Rev White in 1798.

1713 Treaty of Utrecht. End of war with France and Spain. Britain gains East Newfoundland, Hudson, Gibraltar and Arcadia. Austria gets most of the Spanish European empire and United Provinces gets fortresses in Austrian Netherlands. Spain gives Britain the Asiento, the right to sell slaves in South America, this is passed on to the South Sea Company (which loses money on the deal).

1714 Asked to testify before the Longitude board Newton lists the possible methods (chronometers, transits of the moon, moons of Jupiter and Bratton’s signals) and states they are all impractical. Parliament votes funds for a prize.
(Changes are now widespread in the scientific community, their support staff (instrument makers and servants) and the upper classes interested in science)

1718 Mississippi company founds New Orleans.

1719 Charlesworth develops the first practical electric pump (OTL generator), powered by a water wheel and used to drive his experiments in electric communication.

Collapse of the Mississippi Company in France causes economic slump and political unrest.

1720 Collapse of South Sea Bubble in September, Walpole becomes the first Prime Minister.

1723 Franklin moves to Philadelphia and then to London. He attends Charlesworth’s lectures at Crane House and continues to correspond with him when he returns to Newengland.

1725 Henri Pitot develops the electric turboule or turbul (OTL motor. Note the word turbine has not yet been coined and now probably never will be) in order to power a water pump at the top of a tower to simulate rain for a royal masque.

1728 Demonstration semaphore (from the Greek, a carrier of signals) system set up and signal sent form London to Dover (65 miles).
Newton Dies.
Franklin returns to Boston and opens printing business in partnership with his father in law and in competition with his brother.
(From this time change starts to spread significantly beyond the scientific community).

1729 Treaty of Seville gives Spanish coast guards the right to search British ships in south American waters, Captain Shadwick loses his left thumb while being arrested for smuggling in the West Indies.

1730 Charlesworth receives the first Copely medal for his work on Semaphore signals. Daniel Bernoulli invents probability-thermodynamics.
Harrison starts his work on chronometers.

1735 Founding of the Royal Semaphore Institute (RSI) in York to train the builders and operators of semaphore stations. The crest of the institute shows a shield vertically divided, on the left is a gold lightning flash on azure while the right is a red bull rampant on white. The supporters are figures of mercury and the motto is Sapientia Superat Moras. (usually translated as “wisdom overcomes chaos” but RSI members translate it as “Brains beat Shite”.)

1737 George William Frederick born at Cliveden. (future King George III, a different person to OTL although still plain spoken, not very bright but respectable. He does not get Porphyria.) Franklin invents the Franklin Balls which quickly replace Newton’s Plates in semaphore stations. (OTL capacitors).

1738 The Sullivan Spark Code is introduced. This indicates letters by a system of one or two sparks (known as a Stutt). The combination of up to six Sparks (written as | ) or Stutts (written as : ) indicates a letter, number, other symbol or common English Phrase. For example ‘the’ can be indicated by | : | / : | : : / | | / while | | | | | | / is “God Save the King”

State of the art in 1740

The idea of semaphore signals and electrics has stimulated interest in science and raised the profile of scientists and scientific institutions. There is now an obvious answer to the question “What use is science?” . The result is a fashion for science and a craze for electrics among the upper classes in England spreading rapidly throughout Europe. More wealthy amateur scientists will choose to look at physics rather than natural history and a boost will be given to the idea of natural laws.

However while this will change the life of individuals, particularly in the upper classes the total effect on society will be superficial. People will talk more about science but this will not translate into significant scientific advances. Although in this world scientific historians will trace the start of the industrial/scientific revolution to this period.

The Royal Navy is the only institution with both the money and will to consider building semaphores, instant communication between London and the western ports would be useful in the event of war and priceless in a Nor’Easterly wind. Luckily Charlsworth, although a clergyman comes from a Naval family and a second cousin of Sir Charles Wagner (First Lord Of the Admiralty at the time). Sullivan was captain of HMS Union when he invented the code. The result was a reasonably strong pro-semaphore faction in the Navy. The opposing faction considered the whole idea to be a waste of money and dispatch ships and couriers were quite adequate.

OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY(23rd edition:1893)

Stutt (stǔt) (Pl stutts) noun 1. In Sullivan and similar codes, the rapid repetition of the signal, used in conjunction with the spark and silent intervals to represent letters, numbers or symbols. 2. In poker and similar card games two of a kind and by extension a pair of anything (Virginian). 3. Breasts (Royal Navy, arch). ORIGIN uncertain: possible reference to Yorkshire dialect word ‘stut’ meaning a bull from the appearance of the signal in early semaphore stations or to OE ’stutte’ meaning to hesitate. First use: 1739 Travels of Charles Wesley, “ March 2d, 1739. I was at Mr. Sidebotham’s, with Mr. Farrant and others. I urged him to throw away his science, his sparks and his stutts; but he adhered to them with the greater obstinacy.” [/FONT]

1739 War with Spain. Sometimes known as the war of Shadwick’s Thumb. Magnified by Pitt and Grenville for domestic reasons, Walpole is reluctant to fight, neither combatant is very enthusiastic.

Semaphores have been set up in Plymouth, Portsmouth, Chatham, London (Admiralty House), Birmingham, Holyhead, York, Dublin and Edinburgh. First experiments with semaphores on ships.

1740 Dutch ‘fortress’ semaphores built (wind powered). First commercial semaphore company set up, the Royal Dover Semaphore Company, with the Prince of Wales as honorary Director. The London and Southern Semaphore Company, as it is later known, is one of the few ever to pay significant dividends.

1741 Semaphore mania, twelve legal semaphore companies set up along with no less than 86 illegal share issues. These include the “London, China and East Indies Semaphore Company” and the “Company to talk to semaphores on the moon” both of which receive significant investment. Admiral Terrence attacks Porto Bello in Panama. The British are ignominiously repelled by local forces after only two weeks and most of the captured silver ends up at the bottom of the sea following a hurricane. (This is not celebrated as victory and God save the King is not written)

1742 First Royal Semaphore stations built in France. By Royal decree no semaphores can be built without a official approval and must be operated by the Royal Semaphore Officer (OSR). In practice only government stations are built.

Collapse of Semaphore bubble in London, City closes down illegal companies and launches prosecution of two notorious promoters (not for fraud or stock manipulation, which is legal, but for breaking the rules of trading). The result is a sharp drop in the legal share prices as traders cover their losses by selling, this produces a general fall in share value. The country ends up with four charted semaphore companies (London and Southern, Scottish and Northern, Royal Welsh and The Irish Semaphore) with significant capital and a lot of fleeced investors. They all use slightly different systems and compete to build coverage.

Walpole resigns as First Lord of the Treasury after the disputed Great Bedwyn election result is voted on (a traditional vote of no confidence in the executive following an election).

British invasion of Cuba is resisted strongly and the force is finally withdrawn in order to launch the attack on Florida.

James Howard Lieut.RN proposes a semaphore method of determining longitude.

1743 British invasion of Florida is a total disaster, as all future invasions will also be. Diseases, swamps, murderous Americans (OTL Indians), local Spanish forces that know the land and a country with absolutely no value. The British and their colonists, will launch a total of four invasions in the next fifty years all with much the same result. I don’t know why eighteenth century British governments fixated on Florida, presumably because it is the easiest part of Spanish America to invade. There is a traditional Carolina saying “Never fight the Russians in the winter, the Yanks in Boston or any man in Florida”.

1744 French invasion attempt scattered by storm (who tries to invade across the Channel in February?) Anglo-Spanish war merges with the eight years war. (OTL war of Austrian succession)

Franklin sells out to his brother, gives up business and devotes himself to science. He proves sparks and lightning are the same phenomenon.

1745 Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland, initial government complacency turns to panic after the Jacobite army destroys Cope’s army at the battle of Falkirk (19th September). Thanks to the Semaphore the news reaches the British army in Europe in a matter of hours and troops are rushed back to England. Charles Edward loses a vote in council to invade England thanks to reports leaked from the Edinburgh Semaphore (still in English hands) about preparations for defence.

Princess Sophie Augusta Fredericka Maries Prince Peter of Russia and changes her name to Catherine.

First semaphore station in America built in New Orleans by the Viscomte de Tailibere. This is the first of a chain intended to reach up the Mississippi to Canada.

1746 Massive English army under the Duke of Cumberland invades Scotland and crushes rebellion, clan structure destroyed and Highlands ravaged. Charles is wounded in a skirmish after the battle of Dunbar and dies of an infection on Skye inspiring the traditional Scots lament The Prince of the Isles.

Franklin receives the Copely Medal and is elected a Member of the Royal Semaphore Institute.

1747 Franklin invents the lightning Rod and designs an improved semaphore mast. He is elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and invited to England.

Calendar Reform Act passed in Parliament and adds 11 days to bring English dates in line with Gregorian calendar. (A few years before OTL and the start of the year is moved to 1st January for all purposes) There are riots from those people who loose out but most landowners make a profit. The tax year is also changed to payment on Jan 1st , the increased income is used to expand the navy, including semaphore systems and to reward supporters of the crown.

1748 Peace. Everybody gets back pretty much what they started with.
New England Semaphore Company set up by Franklin and Thomas, it is not a success but by public subscription it builds the first long range Semaphore station outside Europe. Intended to communicate with ships at sea, with Franklin’s genius it achieves a range of 1300 miles.

1749 First Austrian, Prussian and Russian semaphore stations. First long range French Semaphore Stations in Canada. Franklin travels to England with instructions from Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. He receives honorary doctorates in Philosophy, Medicine and Law from Oxford, Edinburgh and CambridgeUniversities. He is feted by society and his scientific lectures receive a standing ovation. His political aims have a limited success. Pennsylvania’s charter is modified but New York and Massachusetts will have to wait.

The State of the art in 1750

Electrics is dominated by the shadow of Newton, particularly in Britain. (His reputation is, if anything, even higher than in our world) Newtonian is becoming a synonym for reason, science, logic, genius and wisdom. (Consider OTL Einstein or rocket scientist) This unquestioning adulation will not outlast the present generation of scientists and by the 1790’s the Newtonian orthodoxy will be challenged from several directions. Leibniz’s notation for calculus is too useful to be lost (but its widespread use is delayed for a decade or so) becoming common in Europe about 1760 and in England about 1800. The Newtonian notation for dx/dt and dx/dl (a dot or stroke over the variable) will remain in common use (The stroke is derived from his electrics theories and does not exist in OTL).

The prevailing corpuscular theory confuses the phenomenon of weir transmission (OTL Induction) with the production of semaphore particles (OTL radio waves). It allows no useful predictions about semaphore signals. (There is obviously no concept of wavelength and the frequency of the transmission is confused with the frequency of the AC supply and both are considered as the mass of the particles emitted. The signals are assumed to follow the curve of the earth under gravity as opposed to bouncing off the heavyside layer producing more erroneous conclusions about velocity and mass of these particles.)

The flow of electric corpuscles (OTL Alternating Current) is studied but static electrics (this will come to include OTLDC) is looked down on and considered a chemical phenomenon. Thus electric energy can not be stored but must be made when required using a Charlesworth pump. Atmospheric (OTL Newcommon) engines, water wheels and windmills are all used as power sources. Weirs (OTL transformers) have been developed for semaphore stations and are just being applied to the transmission of power. The first efforts to use electric pumps and turbuls (OTL generators and motors) are taking place in coal mines in Yorkshire.

A Semaphore operator or Master of Electrics with MRSI after his name (traditionally known as “Sparks” at sea) is an important person. The master of an arcane skill, protected by a powerful professional body and in great demand. The leaders of the profession are becoming internationally famous. George Shuttlebotham even ends up a Russian Count and an alleged lover of Catherine the Great. (OK I know butterflies should prevent any such monarch but she is simply too good to loose)

Commercial semaphore stations are large expensive towers with tall wooden masts on top carrying thick copper cables, they are individually tuned and operated by experts (Members of the Royal Semaphore Institute in Britain). They have a range of about 300 miles but have been detected at much greater distances.

Long range stations are operated by the Royal Navy and the French Royal Semaphore Corps and are massive, imagine church towers with several three stage masts on top. They usually are operated by a “Master of Signals” (a warrant officer) and eight junior “signalmen”. It is an accepted perk that they also send non official messages (for a fee) so long as it does not interfere with official business. They need significant power usually provided by a nearby dam and water power. Some also have windmill sails to conserve water.

Sea going semaphores are also cranky and bulky, use man powered pumps (OTL dynamos) and have a transmission range of about 50 miles. They are equally expensive, need expert users (warrant officers) and the admiralty has fitted them in 12 first rates only at this point. However such a device can receive a transmission from a RN shore station over 1000 miles away.

Improvements to masts (OTL aerials) and increased power will increase range, the development of the powder tube (OTL coherer, not a valve despite the name) will increase the sensitivity of stations in receive posture but the spark will remain as the indicator.

An agreement is being discussed with the new Portuguese foreign minister (de Melo) to lease land on Pico Island (Peacoe Station in English) to build a Semaphore in the Azores.

In the next ten years transmissions from Cleggan (Galway) to the Peacoe ( Azores) to St Johns (Newfoundland) will become practical but semaphores, particularly long distance ones, will remain large, expensive and temperamental. Maximum range will approach 2000 miles.

cerebus
June 30th, 2008, 12:38 PM
1752 Franklin invents the powder tube.
The Massachusetts Assembly call him back and cut off his allowance. Franklin has made the acquaintance of Lady Mary Godolphin, a famous (married) beauty who attended his lectures and, to the scandal of society, they live together. Naturally he has no desire to return to Boston and his difficult marriage to plain Jane Pattern.

Joshua Darby starts production of puddled iron.

1755 Lisbon Earthquake, wrath of God not being considered a reasonable explanation this marks the start of scientific seismology and encourages natural explanations for events. Felix Capello proposes the movement of deep cracks, not visible from the surface and invents the Cappellometer to detect earth movements.

Portuguese Prime Minister (de Melo) survives and his efficient response to the disaster solidifies his power and hence the British alliance. Britain sends significant aid to Lisbon including Admiral Hutton’s squadron alerted by semaphore.

Death of Frederick Prince of Wales from “conjestion of the lung”.
(Money from Semaphore company changes his life a bit but cancer gets him in the end.)

Hudson Bay Company Charter modified.

1756 Start of Five years war also known as the Mississippi War (in America) and the Carnatic War (in India). The Royal Navy purchases the Boston Semaphore station and the New England semaphore Company is wound up. Franklin makes a profit of over £1,000.

The French invade Minorca in May and Byng (or his very close analogue) gets there on the 11th with fourteen ships of the line (courtesy of the semaphore), three of which have semaphore and the result is a rather bloody battle which forces the French to withdraw to Toulon. French forces besieging Fort St Philip surrender on the 3rd June and Minorca is British. The French Admiral, De Châtillon is executed for abandoning the army. As Voltair said “Le Roi demande la tête occasionnelle pour arrêter les autres officiers perdant leur”.

The OTL quote “The British occasionally shoot an admiral in order to encourage the others” is thus replaced with “The King demands the occasional head to stop his other officers losing theirs”. A different French Admiral and better communications in the British fleet produce a different battle.

Mary Godolphin writes “The Chains of Woman” an early gynalist tract proposing equal rights for women.

1757 Death of George II, George III becomes King of Great Britain, Ireland and Elector of Hanover.
Birth of William Pitt the younger ( Not the same person as OTL but he inherits his father’s political skills).

Mary Godolphin dies and Franklin returns to Newengland.

Carolina militia invade northern Florida and suffer huge losses, mostly to disease.

Simon Yates builds the first condensing engine used to power the Manchester semaphore station.

1758 Battle of Santo Domingo expels French fleet from Caribbean.

Harrison and Howard receive £7,500 each from the Longitude Board. The full payment of £20,000 is never made since the exact wording of the prize implies an astronomical solution.

Here is an extract from "The Poor Apprentice's Guide to Elektriks" by Jesusaved Shuttleworth(1751)

cerebus
June 30th, 2008, 12:40 PM
An account of the true history of the Wreck of the Vitesse and the glorious victory of Santo Domingo in the year of our Lord 1758

The sloop of war HMS Vitesse, under the gallant Lieutenant Wrathe sailed from Plymouth on the 29 September with a cargo of stores and mail for Admiral Timms in the Caribbean. By chance they fell in with the French fleet under Admiral De Roubé heading South West. Fleeing overwhelming odds they attempted to reach Bermuda with a warning. However a Vile French Frigate had observed the ship and gave chase. While attempting to escape in a white squall the Vitesse was wrecked on the island of Christian. By God’s Great Providence no less than Seventeen of the crew survived the wreck including Master of Signals Clegg (MRSI), a passenger, although Lieutenants Wrathe and Morse were drowned. The ship having been deemed irreparable and the weather and the French Frigate preventing an attempt to build a boat, Master Clegg proposed the company salvage the cargo of the Vitesse and build a semaphore station. In five days the necessaries were raised from the wreck, a mast lifted and a tide wheel erected for power. On the low tide of the seventh day Master Clegg succeeded in contacting the station at Port Royal. Admiral Timms at once ordered all ships to sea and recalled Admiral Hutton from his cruise to Charles Town. The First Sea Lord approved his dispositions and the combined fleet met the French at the battle of Santo Domingo in which the French were roundly defeated.
The Loyal West Indies Merchants voted Master Clegg £500 and a set of silver plate inscribed “Science in the service of trade, trade in the service of country”.

(Actually the battle was a tactical draw with the French losing three ships to the British four (including the two lost in the subsequent storm) but strategically the French failed to protect Cuba and would not return to the Americas in force)

cerebus
July 7th, 2008, 12:15 PM
NOTES
I have shown few changes in the war of the Austrian succession (1744), faster messages might help France at war in Europe and crush the Jacobites quicker in England, they might shorten the war or take some of the heat out of English politics but probably not so much anyone would notice. The military gains from the war were mostly handed back at the peace and I can’t see that being affected.

By the diplomatic revolution of 1756 however the French have an extensive continental semaphore system and the beginnings of a chain from Louisiana to Quebec, which is under attack by colonial forces from Virginia and Newengland. Britain has a commercial system covering most of the British isles. The Royal Navy has long range stations at Cleggan (Galway), Penzance, Dover, Holyhead, Gibraltar, Peacoe Station (the Azores), St Johns (Newfoundland), Boston (built with the help of a public subscription organised by Franklin and incorporating several of his inventions), Charleston, Port Royal and Mahón . The French/Colonial sparring in the wilderness is likely to receive extra British reinforcements and preventing the completion of French Semaphores in America will be a major war aim. However those stations will allow the French to concentrate better than their opponents and to defeat all but the largest incursions. The French have the best codes at this point and are much more professional in North America. They are just out numbered.

Prussia and the UnitedProvinces also have extensive systems in place but Austria has four stations and Russia only two (Moscow and St Petersburg). Austria has a station dedicated to listening to other stations and this provides some advantages before other countries institute new military and diplomatic codes. By 1758 Dover Station (RN) will have a section designed for listening to French transmissions.

I suspect the course of the war would be significantly different but I would expect the improved communications to favour the defensive on land (that is mostly Frederick the Great) and outside Europe help the Royal Navy. Capturing and destroying enemy semaphore stations (expensive, vital and slow to rebuild and calibrate) would be a significant tactic. More effort spent on Louisiana and Mississippi to take the semaphore forts might mean less spent trying to take Canada, which holds out. Also better communications mean faster talks and a quicker treaty.

After the War the peace terms will include efforts by Lord Chattam (Pitt the elder) to hold islands to secure British communications and to limit the communications of others. Communications with India (perhaps using the Ottomans or Portuguese and Dutch territory in Africa?) will be a priority for both Britain and France.

Is this the period when the Dutch east indies company was going bust but nobody noticed for 100 years? Semaphore reports home may stop this, or on the other hand might cause a collapse in confidence in the Netherlands.

Tighter control may limit the excesses of the representatives of the East India Company. I am leaning towards the HEIC being confined to Bengal and North East India with the Government along with short lived competitor companies ending up in control of the South and West of India respectively.

Since there is an easy method to transmit power there will be little incentive to produce small, efficient steam engines (like the Rocket ). Running a wire (OTL cable) from a large engine would usually be easier. On the other hand semaphore stations are an obvious and valuable use for a steam engine. Even an inefficient engine would be useful to supplement wind and water power.

How will improved communications affect the next 20 years in America? My knowledge of the War of independence period is limited but I suppose it will bind the colonies tighter to home and give the American sympathisers more weight in Britain. In 1770 it will be easier to get a message from Boston to London than from Boston to New York! (remember NY does not have a semaphore station yet, Boston does since Franklin's company failed.) On the other hand easier control from London might put American backs up even more. A major French presence in Canada would also drive the northern colonies into British arms. Without the war of independence the colonies would likely remain separate until the Empire tried to rationalise the situation, perhaps in the nineteenth century. Each colony would try to spread west competing with each other and with the northern colonies of Hudson, Superior and Ohio.

I was not aiming for an Uber Britain but most of what I have looked at simply amplifies British advantages in the 18th & 19th centuries. The only other people I can see are likely to gain over OTL are the Russians.

cerebus
July 7th, 2008, 12:21 PM
1759 Allington builds the first self propelled electric vehicle, known as the “Turbol” it travels round a track tethered by the cable.

Founding of the Serviço Real de Semáforos (Portugese Royal Semaphore Service).

1760 Robert Drake wins the battle of Mashirabad and overthrows the Nawab of Bengal. The Honourable East India Company takes over the Diwan of Bengal. This is usually considered the foundation of Company India.

1761 Treaty of Vienna, France loses West Newfoundland, Mississippi and Louisiana to Britain but retains Canada north of the St Lawrence and East of lake Superior . Many French settlers, some of which were originally from Arcadia, are shipped north (at British expense) and become the people known as “Les Louisienes”.
Spain recovers Cuba, Florida (unlike OTL) and North American territory occupied by French settlers west of the Mississippi in exchange for accepting British claims on New Orleans and “Free passage“ of British traders through all Spanish territory north of the Rio Bravo River. This last is not intended seriously by the Spanish and will be a source of much future friction.
Prussia retains Silesia but feels betrayed by the British peace offers.
France cedes Karikal but recovers Pondicherry, Chandangore, Guadeloupe and St Lucia.

1762 Lemmual Moreton invents the Spinning frame and kick starts the industrial revolution.

Lieutenant Newton Praisethelord Savage (RN) writes “On the transmission of weather in the North Atlantic and the GermanSea”. This is the origin of scientific weather forecasting based on semaphore information from America and ships at sea.

Tsar Peter is overthrown and Catherine II acclaimed as Russian Empress.

1765 William Frederick George (Future William IV) born at Brighton. He does not get on with his father (none of the Hanoverians did) and scandalises society by having three children by his mistress Marie-Josephine de la Pagerie, a catholic, French Creole from StLucia. Her enemies claimed she was 1/4 negro and secretly married to the prince.

1769 Louis XVI becomes King of France. George Boneapart is born in Minorca.

1770 First Partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria.

1776 Death of Earl of Chatham (William Pitt the Elder). His son William Pitt the younger takes the family seat in parliament at the age of 19.

Britain becomes a net exporter of cast iron.

1778 Ebenezer Hackett discovers the Stamford Isles (OTL Hawaii) and makes a treaty with King Kamehameha who he mistakes for the king of all the islands. Part of the treaty is the right to build a semaphore station.

1779 First electric train with static cable introduced at Polgooth mines.

cerebus
August 5th, 2008, 11:38 AM
A knowledge of science is as vital to a well rounded Lady of quality as one of Italian or Drawing. A wife must be a helpmeet to her spouse and no modern household can be run without an understanding of Mathematics, Horticulture, Cyphers, Hydraulics and Electrics. In addition a wife who can not understand her husband’s work is deprived of one of her most important roles.

{Science for Gentle Women by A Lady }

The recent fashion for electriks among young ladies will result in the disgrace and ruination of more than one if the practice is not checked urgently by their husbands and fathers. For example on Thursday last while walking in Millsom Street I observed Miss S___ of W___ H___ standing in a first floor window and using her fan to Sullivan to Major B___ of the ___shire Foot who replied using his newspaper. The lack of propriety in such an action is only matched by the crudity of the silent conversation which was completely comprehensible to many Gentlemen there present.

{Letter to the Bath Gazette by Admiral Connors (rtd)}

State of the art in 1780

Improvements in transmission, particularly the use of steam engines for power and better designs for masts along with improved sensitivity for receiving has pushed the maximum range over 2500 miles. The Howard Directional Mast allows the direction of a semaphore station to be determined and is a significant navigational aid. All Royal Navy stations send out a time signal at Greenwichnoon and midnight, determined by local chronometers corrected by signal from Admiralty House. This is an enormous help in determining Longitude and with improved chronometers is producing a navigation revolution (in the Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Indian ocean at least).

On land the French are working on a portable semaphore that only fills three carts and can be erected in less than 28 hours. The military advantages are obvious. Incidentally this leads to the unpleasant tactic of blowing up church towers when retreating to make it more difficult for the attacker to set up his portable semaphore station and eventually to the even more unpleasant tactic of booby trapping the towers in the hope of damaging valuable equipment and skilled electists and semaphorists

The Royal Navy leases several bases from the Portuguese government and has purchased the land known as Table Station from The Dutch East Indies Company. With the islands that have been annexed to the crown these form a chain connecting Bombay to London via Seychelles, Handover (Juan de Nova),Table, Saint Helena, Ascension, Principe, Brava and Gibraltar. Add in Newfoundland, the North American stations, Peacoe, Bermuda, Barbados, Jamaica, Macapa, Riogrand and the Falklands. This gives a coverage of the Atlantic and Indian ocean no other power can hope to match.

First electric trains are operating at coal and tin mines in Britain. The first proper railway will be the Redruth and District line (later the West of England Railway). While the Pensett and Dudley line is the first to operate pure passenger trains. ( With this early use of railways there will be far fewer canals and probably fewer turnpike roads.)

Steam engines at this point are large and stationary.. In this world there is little incentive to produce small steam engines. Once transmission is sorted out by trial and error then it becomes practical to build a large steam engine by a harbour or river landing for easy access to coal and water and run a wire to where you need the power.

The only reason to shrink a steam engine is to put it on a ship and steam ships might thus be delayed.

For railways a moving steam engine might be more efficient but electric power got there first.

The QWERTY effect in action.

Religious Digression

I expect a bigger fashion for Science will increase interest in Deist philosophy and perhaps Masonry in the upper classes.

Slightly lower down the social scale I anticipate an increase in dissenters. A new profession with no religious barriers calling for highly literate operators and skilled artisan manufacturers, all centred in the North of England.
I expect Semaphorists to contain dissenters out of all proportion to the whole population. Methodists, Baptists, Anna Baptists, Quakers, the Wee Free and Lady Huntigdon’s Connection the list is endless and I expect many more original to the Time line.

In France the Royal Semaphore Corps is officially restricted to Catholics but the support staff is full of Huguenots and ex-Huguenots. While in the United Provinces semaphore and electric companies have mushroomed and helped trigger a religious revival.

Elsewhere monarchs rely heavily on foreign experts, British, Dutch or French to run their semaphore systems. Although there are already complaints in Russia about the number of Jews in the Imperial Semaphore Service.

I get the feeling the electrics and semaphore industries are more likely to be staffed by the upper crust of the working class, like printers they need to be literate and have valuable skills. I think they will tend to be liberal, cooperative, evangelical, anti slavery, anti drink, pro reform, free trade and local government.

I foresee a time when the electric members of the RSI will find them selves at odds with the old guard semaphorists which may lead to a split analogous to that between Doctors and Surgeons. In the end the Electists (a word derived by analogy from Artists) would win as their importance rises with the increase in electric applications.

Order of Service

St Clair’s Church, York
17 October 1779

(Recorded in the personal papers of Margaret Praiseye Fuller and annotated as follows: Attended at the personal request of Lady Pulsey, a compleat travesty, insulting to God and false to Science. Popery combined with Alchemy. Only the thought of my dear Fuller's position kept me in my seat)

Celebrant Rev James Wilson (MRSI)

Greeting

Hymn “Lord of the Boundless Curves”

Creed

Reading Genesis 1:14 (And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven)

Reading 1 Thessalonians 1 (Prove all things)

Hymn “Christians Awake”

Sermon Text Genesis 11:1 ( And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech)

Hymn “Space and time created he”

Communion

Hymn “ Let all the nations know”

Exunt

cerebus
August 5th, 2008, 12:37 PM
1780
Investigation of Dutch East India Company reveals widespread fraud and worse, significant hidden losses. There is a loss of confidence and several Dutch trading houses break. The Brinkerhoff crash initiates a recession.

The Prince of Orange chooses this time to move against his personal enemies. At just the wrong moment Jonathon’s Bank in London calls in its loan to the Prince who tries to raise the money on an already tight Amsterdam market.

Riots sweep the Netherlands under the leadership of the Semaphorist Mathias De Grout.

Birth of Lucy Winters (later Lady Greenholm), one of the great scientists of the 19th Century.

1781
The Dutch Revolutionary War. Anti Orange and anti English forces take power in Holland and make a secret treaty with France and Spain. The office of Statholder is removed from the Orange family, the Republic is reformed and the Prince flees to the Austrian Netherlands and then to England.

The influence of French and Newengland philosophers combined with the severe recession and a hard line Calvinist revival seems to be the trigger and Europe is taken by surprise. DeGrout and his followers declare universal (male, property owners) suffrage, freedom of religion and an end to privilege by birth. Many Oligarchs are purged and the East India Company (VOC) is nationalised. A surprising number of the previous ruling class remain however and apart from a new Puritanism and prudishness they seem to manage as well as ever.

The Prince of Orange tries to organise an invasion to regain his power but has little luck. The Republic of the United Provinces demands the British expel him.

The British under Lord North dither and in October slide into war. Prussia repudiates the British alliance and recognises the new Dutch government. Dutch forces occupy Table Station and the Austrian Netherlands and attack British ships in the North sea.

The Royal Navy has been run down after twenty years of peace and the North Sea fleet is very badly mauled by the Dutch who go on to raid Lowestoft.

George Boneapart joins HMS Ajax as a midshipman.

Austria is convulsed by the Hungarian and Bohemian revolts and is unable to do more than protest.

1782
Encouraged to believe this is the chance for revenge France and Spain declare war on Britain while the Northern league (Denmark, Sweden and Prussia) declare strict neutrality and deny their ports to combatants (this is an essentially anti British move).

France and Holland occupy Hanover after the battle of Neustadt.
Spain attacks Gibraltar and invades Portugal.
Canada defeats a Newengland invasion force in the battle of Three Rivers. French forces and clients in India attack the East India Company. While Spanish forces from Mexico and Florida attack Carolina.

The British launch an invasion of Brill. After a successful landing the army fails to take advantage. DeGrout, breaks the dykes, rushes reliable Amsterdam regiments to contain the invasion and Orange supporters noticeably fail to rise. Thousands of British soldiers die from disease in the flooded countryside and an ignominious evacuation is inevitable.

Admiral Fanshaw fails to intercept the French sailing to Canada and Admiral Sheen is court-martialled for failing to stop the fleet’s return to Europe. He was outnumbered, the French had the weather gage and he was caught in the aftermath of a storm. Despite this Sheen was expelled from the service. (He was reinstated in 1821 at the age of 97 having out lived all his enemies).

The Lord North administration falls and William Pitt becomes Britain’s youngest ever Prime Minister at 25.

Dutch settle Endrachtsland (OTL Western Australia) and found Republic city.

This is a war against three naval powers, France, Spain & The United Provinces of the Netherlands. However the fighting in Canada and Carolina is not comparable to OTL American Revolution and the Semaphore advantage will allow the Royal Navy to hang on until the spring of 1782 when new and recommissioned ships will provide enough slack to secure the channel approaches cover the North Sea and still pick off any isolated squadrons around the world.

1783
Pitt pushes through the Army and Navy Reform Acts. The Royal Navy escapes major changes but gets a thorough shake up, improved conditions of service and a lot more money. The army is significantly reformed, Boards of Commission ensure basic military skills in officers, while fixed prices for commissions open the upper ranks to the only modestly wealthy.

For example a colonelship of foot is fixed at £2060 and an ensign is £82 -8-0 including sales tax. The militia is down graded to a purely local defence force and new regular regiments formed. Particular effort is made to recruit the “natural warrior peoples of the Empire, Irishmen, Highlanders, Americans (OTL Indians) and Hindoos.” Several regiments are taken over from the Hudson Bay and the East India Companies. Newengland, Virginian and Carolinan regular regiments are also raised.

Significant taxes on luxuries, imports and exports are pushed through Parliament and the Colonial Councils, with the threat of an income tax if enough money is not forthcoming and the Colonial Bill of Rights as a quid pro quo. As part of the deal the nomination of MPs to the rotten boroughs of Lostwithiel, Milborne and St Michaels Mount is assigned to the American interest. This creates (unofficially) 6 Members who represent Newengland, Virginia and Carolina. This becomes one of the conventions of the House and, in time, part of the (unwritten) constitution.

Reinforcements are sent to Hudson, Carolina and Newengland. An expedition, known as the secret expedition, although its sailing was known throughout Europe, captures the cape from the Dutch. As Louis XVI said “one can not predict the actions of the Royal Navy as no scheme is too silly for a British Government to contemplate.”

The 29th (Worcestershire), the 68th (Iroqui) and the 73rd (Duke of Athol’s Highland) regiments face an invasion from Canada and at the battle of Semaphore Hill turn back an invasion of 7,800 French and Canadian Soldiers supported by three cannon. Despite being outnumbered more than three to one the regiments held their position for three days. The French being short of supplies then retreated. Their Commander DeMouchy stated “ The English were completely beaten, with only americans in reserve, outflanked to the north and overmatched in every way, they did not realise it. The hill was red with the coats of their fallen but when my men attacked the survivors rose up and threw them back down the hill.” The British suffered over twelve hundred casualties, the Iroqui in particular were left with only 173 officers and men. All three regiments are entitled to wear eagle feathers in their cap badges (now replaced with silver replicas). The diarist Hutton who was present at the battle (and fought as a volunteer) wrote “ The three regiments made an awful sight as they waited on the hill. Then as the French came up the Indians let loose with a series of terrifying yells answered by the pipes from the Scots but from the Worcesters came no sound save a quiet ‘steady lads, steady’ from Sergeant Major Hook.”

Spain wins the phyrric victory of Viseu defeating organised Portugese resistance but is soon forced to withdraw troops from the south to hold down the restless countryside. This turns the siege of Gibralta into a formality.

1784
The year of wonders. This year saw a series of victories for British arms, starting with the battle of Mauritius where the French and Dutch Indian Ocean fleets were shattered by the Secret Expedition under Commodore Jones (The Welsh Wolf). The battle of Chandagore saw the defeat of French power in western India and the battle of Trincomalee alowed the capture of the best harbour in the Indies.

Fort StLouis falls to British troops in Canada and Carolina and Virginian regiments turn back the Mexicans at the battlle of Autauga River.

The Battle of the Sands forces the Dutch fleet back to port and prevents the junction of the allied fleets. While the battle of Cape Delanao frees Minorca from all danger of invasion. The capture of a Dutch East Indies convoy and blockading of the Spanish treasure fleet causes major financial problems for all three allies. Only the collapse of Portugal and the predictable disaster of the invasion of Florida spoiled the party.

Fifteen year old acting Lieutenant Boneapart captures the fabulously valuable Dutch Eastindiaman “UPC Brutus” and loses his left arm in the process. Then despite an attempt by the Dutch crew to overpower the prize crew, he sails the heavily damaged ship into Plymouth harbour, where it sinks at the moorings. Boneapart’s Breakwater is a general toast in the Royal Navy.

Marie-Josephine de la Pagerie becomes mistress of the Prince of Wales.

Faced with state bankruptcy and the “armed mediation” threatened by Prussia and Austria, France and Spain, make peace with the treaty of Aix. The United Provinces struggles on until September then makes peace also. Portugal, the Austrian Netherlands and Hanover are restored, Britain gains Trincomalee and the Western Cape in South Africa while America north of the Arkansaw and occupied by British settlers is cedded by Spain along with the Galapagos islands, other British settlers in Mexico are (officially) removed and Britain pays compensation. The Prince of Orange does not return to Holland and his son eventually marries Mary Calthorpe, the claim to the Statholdership is thus now held by the Marquis of Llanwryn.

The war is technically a draw in that nobody gets what they want except the Dutch Republic, which establishes its right to exist.

cerebus
August 19th, 2008, 11:20 AM
1785 The electric candle, a disposable form of electric spark light, is demonstrated in the first annual Royal Semaphore Institute Lectures. This simple device allows anybody with a pump to produce light.

France rebuilds FortStLouis and FortStClaire and strengthens defences on the FrenchLakes, investing in a new semaphore system. A major effort is made to encourage good catholic settlers with rather lackluster results.

1786 Louis XVI demands the French Consul sit in on the deliberations of the Dutch Parliament and puts himself forward for the vacant position of Stadtholder. After some tense discussions a compromise is reached and the Compte DeMouchey is appointed Captain General of the Republic.

Dutch philosophers and scientists flock to Paris where they are all the rage and all the decadence they condemn is more easily accessible.

1787 The Dutch Lodge opens its doors in Paris for the first time. Many names later to become famous are enrolled on the books.

Simon Callens writes “The Chains of Man” a radical call for freedom and equality far beyond those of the Dutch republic. It is immediately banned in France where no less than eleven translations are printed in the next two years.

1788 Royal Society is asked to recommend people to sit on the Committee for weights, measures and currency reform. After 6 years a recommendation to Parliament is made, known as the Lord Derby report. This is the foundation for modern legal and scientific metrology.

An inch was defined as one sixteen thousand millionth of the diameter of the earth at the equator. Known as a Newtonian Inch (Ninch) this was practically the same as the London inch, from this was derived the Nfoot (12 NI) and Npint (=32 NI3). A Npound was defined as the weight of 1 Npint of water at freezing point. A Nmile = 100 000 NI (or about 1.4 london miles).

The system of decimal units was introduced Deca = times 10, deci= 1/10, (Centa and centi are also sometimes used) DInch =10NI, DDInch = 1 Cinch = 100NI, D6Inch = 1 000 000 NI, dinch =1/10 NI, ddinch = 1/100 NI etc. At the same time it was recommened that a new coin be introduced equal to 1000th of a pound (4&1/6th to the penny, 50 to the shilling.) called the Nfarthing or the Newton. DDDN = 1£. This was minted as a small copper coin slightly smaller than the withdrawn farthing. It is not popular but the reminting makes a good profit. All standards are stored at a national laboratory, originally part of the Royal Mint but later moved to the Royal Society National Laboratory in Croydon.

1789 First Russo-Turkish war lasts two years and ends with Russia gaining Crimea and Astrakhan.

Patrick O’Neal operates the first paddle steamer on the Liffey. Thames Rotherhithe Rail tunnel started.

Captain Connors founds colony of Pittston in what is now British Australia.

1790 The Great Truro Train Disaster. A train came off the tracks and rolled into the city centre. 249 people die and over 1000 are injured in the crash and subsequent fire.

A government enquiry blames the narrow guage rails used by the West of England Railway (3’ 6” or 42NI) and The Railway Act lays down 7’ (or 84NI) rails for all public passenger carrying trains. It also prohibits Sunday travel (except in ermergencies) and states electric cables must be at least 12’ from the ground.

cerebus
August 19th, 2008, 11:25 AM
State of the art in 1790

The scientific study of semaphore is constrained by the prevailing orthodoxy and technological innovation in the field is slowed by the Semaphore Institutes and the infrastructure investment already made.

Van Kingma proposes his “corpuscle wave” theory of light to explain problems with refraction. He lectures in Paris to both cheers and catcalls. The great English Scientist Joshua Perkins writes a “Refutation of Waves” pointing out the theory calls for light and semaphore to travel faster in air than in solid bodies, (the opposite of sound). He carries out the famous Perkins-White experiment which proved light is slower in glass. Perkins then writes “In support of Waves” publicly recanting. The controversy will last until 1815 when Vincennes produces the full mathematical formalism for semaphore waves and finally separates them from weir transmissions.

The best semaphores are French built although British Semaphorists say they are temperamental and hard to calibrate. The best pumps and turbols are made in Rotterdam although a significant number of the best artisans have left Holland and many now live in Scarborough.

The maximum range of Semaphore stations has stabilised at just over 3000 miles. The range of shipboard semaphores has reached 150 miles but is limited by the available power.

Clearly railways are going to be wide gauge compared to OTL
Russia will use a narrow gauge of 6DNI to speed up the Trans-Siberian. While France finally settles on 8DNI, aparently just to be different. Holland changes over to the French guage in 1832. West Germany, Turkey and Austria use the British 84NI but Mexico, Prussia and China decided bigger is better and use 9DNI.(That is about 2.28m in OTL).

I am going to move the abolition of the slave trade forward a few years, it was a close thing in OTL before the French revolution, here with more Liberal ideas about and Newengland pressure the act passes.

With better communications Russia is stronger and quicker against Turkey and more willing to act alone.

France starts its moves to dominate the low countries and invests massively (unrealistically) to defend Canada against future aggression. At the same time there are the first tentative moves to liberalise French business and political systems.

Weights & measures and currency is pushed towards decimal systems by scientists who have an increased prestige. In typical British way the system is run along side the old measures that lose influence slowly.

cerebus
August 26th, 2008, 12:23 PM
1791 Franklin writes his “An address for promoting the abolition of slavery”. Newengland colonies petition to have their charters rewritten, following much discussion and a few riots, the result is agreed by the colonial assemblies and the London Parliament. Their borders are agreed and the result includes the absolute freedom of (Christian) religion and the freeing of any “person of bondage” standing on their soil.

Shamed by this and pushed by the evangelicals in Parliament Henry Fox passes the Abolition Acts abolishing the slave trade. Many English and Newengland slave ships reregister as Portuguese.

Abingdon (Galapagos), Easter and Hawaii (Stamford) stations are built in the pacific nominally to support British (and Newengland) whalers actually to prevent the French getting a foothold.

Russian Southern Semaphore line to Sevastopol completed. This gives Catherine three lines, North, West and South covering the three main strategic directions. The North Line links to the Danish and Dutch systems, the South joins the Austrian while the West links to Prussia, Hanover and Britain.

1792 The Royal Semaphore scandal in Paris destabilises the French Government and blackens the name of the King and Queen. Evidence now suggests the Royal family knew nothing of the fraud but the backers had made a great play with the Royal approval and when the scheme collapsed many expected the government to support the company. Notable among those who lost money were small investors including widows and orphans who were encouraged to sign over their pensions to the “King’s Semaphore”. The Queen’s attempts to protect her favourite, the Archbishop of Tours, who clearly was involved, made a bad situation much worse.

1793 Franklin dies at the age of 87, surrounded by his children Richard, George and Mary.

Luciene Grappa invents the mercury spark globe, this is a spark light enclosed in a glass globe containing a mercury vapour atmosphere. The result is a stronger, steadier blue light. A manual starter spark is required in the first models.

Second Russo-Turkish war lasts 3 years and gains Russia the east coast of black sea down to the borders of Ajaria.

1794 Following a financial crisis Louis XVI agrees to convene the Estates-General for the first time since 1614. The “Lowlanders” (Les Basses), so called from their position in the chamber and their pro-Dutch views, demand voting by a head count and the three estates sitting as one. The King refuses but the Nobility say they will not authorise taxes alone.

Following major riots and a total collapse of government credit the King gives way. Les États Unis de France are formed in imitation of the United Provinces. However the French are much more radical, the King is retained as the head of state but all other aristocratic and clergy privileges are abolished.

Land reform gives many peasants a share of the big estates and church properties. Freedom of religion is announced and slavery abolished.

Hispaniola explodes in a massive slave revolt which is mostly ignored in France.

La Fayette is elected speaker and oversees the creation of a constitution of liberal and high minded principles. At this point there is a general reaction against extremism and with the arrival of several Royal Regiments outside Paris Louis feels strong enough to arrest La Fayette and close the assembly.

The arrest is bungled and La Fayette is killed. The Royal Army mutinies, the constitution is suspended (literally) and the FirstRepublic is formed.

Simon Callens is elected representative for Le Havre and renounces his British citizenship.

1795 Start of the French Revolutionary Wars.

Louis XVI flees to Spain but the Queen and the Dauphin are caught. While Austria, Russia and Prussia all condemn the French, Spain is particularly insistent on the king being reinstated with all his powers intact.

The British government under Henry Fox is operating without the support of the King and this limits their actions to vague wishes that the French king and people will resolve their problems peacefully.

The New Republic and it’s Dutch ally are filled with revolutionary fervour. Armies seem to spring from nowhere, in little towns and villages all over France and Holland men rush to fight for their Liberty and their Country. The Semaphoristes and the Artillery are on the whole radical and give the new regime excellent communications and the best guns in the world. Together with the popular enthusiasm this is enough to smash the Spanish and Austrian armies.

The Austrian Netherlands are occupied and divided between the Republics. Avignon is seized as being within the natural borders of France.

Louis XVI is captured by a peasant from Bordeaux while disguised as a woman. He and his family are tried and hung as traitors to the people. The Committee (of national protection) takes power and purges “the highlanders” .

(The OTL Guillotine is considered dangerously elitist. Everybody is hung. Well you can be shot if in the army and in an emergency anybody can be starved, drowned, burned alive or just worked to death.)

Lord Greenholm of Keenset marries Lucy Winters in St James’ Hanover Square.

1796 France invades Savoy and occupies northern Italy. Rome is occupied and the Pope flees to Naples. Venice is bombarded with heated shot when she refuses to surrender and the Queen of the Adriatic burns.

Russia, Prussia and Austria agree on the second partition of Poland, Prussia gets the coast and the North West, Russia Lithuania and the central portion. Austria gets what is left.

The Committee declares Switzerland to be “a natural extension of France” and incorporates it directly into the Republic. The resulting Swiss revolt is put down with savagery.

Britain builds the semaphore stations on Yap, Solor and Nicobar closing the West Pacific gap in their communications.

1797 British Whig government falls and the King sends for Pitt.

Britain protests at the occupation of Switzerland and the Austrian Netherlands and asks for guarantees from the French and Dutch Republics. The French assembly replies by declaring war on all states that keep a king and recognising the “friends of the people”, a few radicals from England, Ireland, Newengland and Hanover, as the rightful government of Britain. Pitt forms the first coalition of Britain, Spain and Austria.

Dutch forces in alliance with the Kingdom of Kandy recapture Trincomalee.

Counter revolution of the Highs in Brittany, Bordeaux and the Languedoc. Canada overthrows the republican council appointed from Paris and declares for Louis XVIII who is comfortably ensconced in a country house in Hampshire and has no desire to rule a country of “Bears, Beavers and snow”. Pitt puts significant pressure on Louis the fat, including refusing to guarantee his loans and in spite of the opposition of the Hawking Whigs persuades him to sail. The Kingdom of Canada is born.

Britain loses the Battle of Punta Galea allowing a combined French and Dutch fleet to sail for the Indian Ocean.

British forces including the 89th (Cree) and 64th (Massachusetts) land in Hispaniola and are welcomed as liberators by the French planters. Unfortunately for them General Cobbit is a noted anti-slavery campaigner and most of his troops agree. He promptly appropriates the entire island and parcels it out to the rebellious slaves, while raising the 102nd (Negro) regiment. The planters appeal to the House of Lords and in 1808 they or their heirs get compensation.

However while English, Hudson and Newengland regiments are decimated by disease, the 102nd prove their worth fighting in the French and Spanish islands and in the disastrous descents on Belize and Florida.

Republican France resorts to the ruthless methods known as the “Iron rule” and crushes the counter revolutionary forces. The French Academy of science is closed down and its members hung or sent to the colours. La Buillet, the father of chemistry will die fighting in Italy. Roubaix declares “Can you eat phlogiston? Can you shoot it? If not then the Republic does not need it!”.
Simon Callens is hung as an enemy of the people after opposing the oppressive measures.

Captain Boneapart is wounded in the evacuation of Bordeaux but survives a popular hero. The Spanish are defeated, Bilbao occupied and Spain sues for peace. The victorious armies are hurried west and defeat Austria in Italy and Germany. Hanover is occupied by the revolutionary armies and Britain is left fighting alone.

1798 Rev White gives the famous Crane court lecture “On the transmission of light” in which he shows Newton’s theory of light is wrong.

Britain occupies the Eastern Cape triggering an exodus of Dutch settlers further east to Natal.

The invasion of Florida is an unmitigated disaster. Commodore Skant hated General Blaycock and they both hated General Cobbit. Fort St Mary turned out not to be abandoned but defended by a particularly stubborn battalion from Cuba supported by 17 heavy guns. Bad weather disrupted the landing beaches and only the exemplary performance of the 102nd(Negro) and the 64th(Massachusettes) allowed an evacuation at all.

In the Battle of the Texel the Dutch fleet tries to break the North Sea blockade and after a very bloody battle retires to port.

Dutch capture Solor station and invade Portugese East Indies.

The French Toulon Fleet escapes from Admiral Fisher and sails for Constantinople where the Sultan has made a secret treaty with the French. Fisher gives chase but his signals are being read by the French and they avoid him. French troops occupy the Holy land, Egypt and build Semaphores for the Ottomans. The aim is to build up their forces until a land invasion of Persia and India is possible.

Battle of the Scillies limits a French invasion of Ireland to a few seasick regiments but Ireland explodes in revolt anyway

The 500 day Republic (actually 504 counted from the proclamation to the fall of Carrickfergus castle on October 14th). Irish republicans are strongest in the North and the South West. The Irish leadership is split three ways, the French and their supporters, the mostly protestant republicans and the mostly catholic Anti-English. British control collapses almost to the walls of Dublin, where troops were based and reinforcements rushed. Sir Richard Long is placed in charge of the reconquest of Ireland. Urgent semaphores call forces at sea to Dublin, these include Virginian and Carolinan regiments en route to the cape. The captured semaphore in Galway transmits an impassioned plea for French assistance. The French Northern Fleet has shot its bolt however and Paris sees Ireland as a sideshow.

1799 New top secret code system introduced by the Royal Navy. RN ships now have three semaphore codes of increasing security, Navy, fleet and ship codes. The RN code for “Am in Extreme Need, Please Assist” AEA will become the international distress code.

Long advances against the Irish rebel army and his veteran regiments cut them to pieces. The Irish Republic collapses in internal strife and the harrowing of Ireland begins. Punitive action against the rebels is very cruel. The Virginians have a particularly bad reputation, Pike’s light Horse (3rd Virginian) achieving notoriety for its brutal repression in the song “Johnny Pike are you breathing still?”.

Over the next two years the population of Ireland is systematically driven off the land, overseas to Hudson, Newengland, Carolina and the Cape, to factories in Galway, Belfast, Dublin and Liverpool and, sadly, to graveyards all over Ireland. The population of Ireland sinks from 5.8 million in 1795 to 3.1 million in 1805.

Pitt organises the second Coalition of Austria, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark and Russia to fight the French, Dutch and Turks. Spain is nominally neutral but increasingly pro-French.

Iron Rule comes to an end in France which is now united behind its Triumvirate of Bousset, Gerrard and Moinsine. Gerrard is sent to Turkey with instructions to destroy the British in India and with significant reinforcements (but probably not enough to do the job). Moinsine is a nonentity who is gradually pushed out of power and Bousset is declared Director of the Republic. A new constitution is written restricting the vote, institutionalising the draft and centralising France.

Battle of Corfu, Commodore Boneapart catches the French Fleet and forces them to the South where Admiral Fisher and the Mediterranean fleet give battle. The French fleet is crowded with soldiers, poor in discipline, short of experience and is badly mauled. Some of the survivors flee west to friendly Italian ports but Triumvir Gerrard gets through to Constantinople.

1800 First electric charabanc (charra or shara) (OTL Tram) runs in London from Paddington to Farringdon. Rails laid in the road do not interfere with other traffic. The famous Paddington Charabanc Company v Culpepper and Weston rules the system is not a railway under the Act and so can be narrow gauge so long as it does not exceed walking pace and has no stations.

Knight, Lowman and Quick found the “Electric” usually taken to be the start of the electric poets movement.

General Cavoir defeats the Danes near Kiel and the Austrians in the battle of Ülm.

British missionaries in New Zealand are massacred at Black pond.

Lord Greenholm reads the paper “On electric nature of light” to the Royal Society to thunderous applause.

1801 George Boneapart becomes the youngest ever rear admiral at thirty two, not a big achievement given the seniority of a young captain, war deaths and an expanding navy.

The Austrians launch offensives in Italy and Germany while the Russians invade Turkey. Prussia drags its feet and only the withholding of the British subsidy gets the army moving at all. British troops land in Italy to support the Austrians.

Too little, too late. The Austrians are defeated by General MacDonald who then turns on the British expeditionary force. General Miles fights a sharp defensive battle near Pisa but outnumbered and out flanked an evacuation is inevitable.

The Russians get more than a bloody nose at the battle of Adrinople where Gerrard catches them engaged with the Turks and destroys the Russian army. A full envelopment followed by a resolute pursuit produces what Blecker calls the perfect battle. Russia and Austria agree to the peace of Verona and French and Turkish territories now meet in Albania.

Death of Catherine the Great (allegedly while in bed with two sergeants and a Koala).

The Prussian and Swedish armies are defeated by General Foch and the Swedish king is murdered after the battle. With the death of Gustavus III Sweden is left with a choice between His brother Charles who was a lunatic and his sister Dorothea who was over 50 and the abbess of a protestant nunnery. Add in the Republicans sponsored by the French, Dutch & the DanishRepublics and Sweden dissolves in three way civil war.

Prussia makes peace and leaves Denmark to its fate. Dutch and French forces create the Danish Republic and the surviving Royal family flee to Norway. The Danish fleet declares for the new king, Christian I of Norway (NOT OTL Christian VIII of Denmark) and much escapes to Norwegian or British harbours. The second coalition is over.

cerebus
August 27th, 2008, 11:56 AM
1802 Pit is dying and crippled with gout. However he is determined to sort out Ireland. He proposes an Act of Unification along with a Catholic Emancipation Bill and an Irish Reconstruction Bill to form Greater Britain (Officially the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland). (In this world the phrase Greater Britain is used to describe what in OTL was Great Britain and Ireland. This is naturally shortened to Great Britain within a generation) Much of the natural Anglo-Irish opposition has been liquidated in the Harrowing but the King is staunchly opposed to Catholic emancipation and much of Anglican England agrees.

However the Prince of Wales, with a catholic mistress and a hatred of his father, supports the move. The American Commonwealths already have de-facto religious freedom and welcome regularising the situation. Pitt dies and without him the Bills fail.

George III calls on Fox to form a government, he hates the man but he feels he can’t rely on Pitt’s friends. Fox strengthens the Anti-Slavery laws and assigns suppression of the slave trade as a Royal Navy aim. He also makes overtures of peace to the Director Bousset. The final French offer includes the return of all British conquests including the Western Cape, Ceylon, Minorca, New Amsterdam, Mississippi, Hispaniola and Bombay while France and Holland retain their conquests including Hanover, Switzerland, Milan and Malta. The British must also return all ships captured and pay compensation for those sunk, King George III must stop claiming the throne of France and help the French recapture Canada. These are, not surprisingly, rejected and the war goes on.

Spain has long since sunk from neutrality to non-belligerency and French Privateers operate freely from Spanish and South American harbours. HMS Trojan enters Montevideo harbour and cuts out the French ShipGuyenne and three of her captives. The Spanish protest and declare war on Britain.

The Pall Mall Packet reveals the open secret that the author of “On the Unification of Electric Phenomena” is Lord Greenholm’s 22 year old wife.

1803 George III dies from an infection caught after an operation to cure gall stones. The Prince takes the crown as William IV, he marries Princess Charlotte of Norway (a very popular queen) and publicly snubs his ex-mistress Mary-Josephine. She however has fallen for the national hero Admiral George Boneapart and they are soon married. The Admiral adopts her son John who enters the navy where he will be known as Fighting Jack Boneapart by his supporters and the royal arse by his detractors.

William dismisses Fox and calls for Lord Rochdale to form a ministry of Pitt’s friends, they at once reintroduce the Irish Bills and with the new patronage push them through. (Lord Rochdale was born George Gordon, Baron Byron of Rochdale, he does not have a limp and has never published any poetry)

Ireland is, as far as possible, made into an image of England, with (catholic and protestant) parish church, squire (well off and improving), renting farmer (doing well off the corn prices) and a poor peasantry providing the labour. Primogeniture forces the surplus population into factories and abroad. The elections sweep the Tories and Lord Rochdale back into power with the Whigs’ influence is vastly reduced, 92 Irish MPs take office, 67 of them Catholics with 35 new Irish Lords.

The British succeed in co-opting the middle and upper classes of Ireland into the empire (and avoiding potato monoculture) but from the point of view of the poorest irish peasant the result is terrible. His chance of surviving the next few years is only about two in three and those that survive stand a one in four chance of ending up abroad.

(British Historians do not dwell on this although it is a popular subject in Carolina which has a population with high percentage of Irish descent and their own reasons for being anti-English)

The French and Dutch start a major ship building programme and establish camps for the “The Republican Armies of England”, with Europe cowed and Turkish Support the time has come to invade Britain. Men and money are demanded from the Republics of Italy and Denmark and simply appropriated in the German states.

Henry Fox denounces the FrenchRepublic as a tyranny and calls on all “free born peoples” to oppose them. He urges his friends to support the government and as the new King refuses to accept him in any office he takes his seat on the back benches with good humour. British national anthem “ Forward Britannia” is played for the first time at the Frivolity Theatre during a performance of “The Lion at Bay”.

Volunteer fever sweeps Britain and the colonies. Hundreds of amateur companies are formed, Hussars, Janissaries, Roughriders and Sharpshooters sprout up all over Britain. Uniformed extravagantly from the factories of Lancashire and Yorkshire, armed with the products of Birmingham and Glasgow they will be excellent recruiting grounds for more useful regular forces and occasionally form the core of a new army unit. Defensive towers are built at strategic points around British coast and a new army semaphore corps is formed for communications. The Royal Navy carries out raids on channel ports and burns the barges and small boats intended for the invasion. The North Sea fleet blockades the Dutch and the Western approaches are guarded by Admiral Simms. Boneapart is put in charge of the Mediterranean fleet and assigned to cover the invasion of Egypt and prevent the French and Spanish fleets passing the straits.

1804 Bousset launches the Adventure of England. Coming by chance at the same time as a serious mutiny in the North Sea Fleet, the Dutch fleet sweeps the North sea clear in the battle of Dunkirk. The rest of the Royal Navy (including several nominally mutinous ships) responds instantly and the Western approaches are stripped bare to allow Admiral Simms to fight the battle of Folkestone. The result is a very bloody battle with great loss of life but the Dutch fleet is destroyed as a credible threat. Unfortunately this allows the French Atlantic fleet to concentrate in Brest. If the Mediterranean fleet can pass the straits then the French will be able to bring a superior force to bear on the Channel and the Republican Armies can be ferried across. The semaphore allows this audacious plan to be implemented immediately, however wind and tide are more difficult to control.

Admiral Boneapart, with the help of a ‘faulty’ semaphore not receiving an order from the Admiralty, allows Admiral Carrone and his Spanish allies to think they had escaped. Using semaphore frigates to shadow the allies, Boneapart follows them west past Gibraltar until the approach of Admiral Shaw’s Squadron (hastily dispatched by the Admiralty) gives him the opportunity. At the battle of Orlego he falls upon the rear of the Allied fleet and annihilates it and when the van wears round to come to its aid it is crushed between the Mediterranean fleet and Shaw’s Squadron. In its own way it was the equal of Gerrard’s Adrinople.
Faced with overwhelming numbers and the dreaded Admiral Boneapart the French Atlantic fleet returns to port and is blockaded in Brest.

South Georgia (OTL New South Wales) settled.

1805 Lord Rochdale forms the Third coalition of Britain, Russia and Austria. General Gerrard overthrows Bousset and establishes himself as Protector of the Republic. (Gerrard is not Napoleon and while a great general is not a particularly good administrator) The Republican Armies march south to face the Austrians. Britain invades Egypt and expels the French and Ottomans. The invasions of Belize and Florida however are abandoned after unexpected Spanish resistance. Austrian success in Italy is negated by French success in Germany and with Vienna under threat the Austrians surrender. Gerrard hopes to use Austria against Russia so the treaty is lenient. The Russian army is defeated in the horrific three day battle of Stettin and the Tsar, angry at the delays in British help makes peace. With invasion impossible Gerrard has only one way left to fight Britain. He starts to organise an invasion of India in alliance with the Turks and Russians. The first act is to expel the redcoats from Egypt and General Foch is assigned the task.
David Coleridge and John Manning publish “country ballads” starting the neo-pastoral school. The Dutch are expelled from the East Indies.

1806 The Frivolity Theatre in Charlotte square is the first to use globe lights. Other theatres follow and a bill to allow electric light companies is proposed in parliament. The London and Southern Semaphore company takes over the Royal Welsh Semaphore company and then mergers with the Southern Electric Railway company. The resulting United British Electric Company starts to lease the right to take electric power from their lines.

General Campbell suggests that with the support of the Egyptian people, clear sea lanes and a reasonable expeditionary force Egypt can be held against any force that France can move overland.. The Government agrees and authorises a large reinforcement of Egypt under Campbell. Egypt declares itself independent of the Turks, purges the Marmalukes and selects Haroun I as king of Egypt. General Fitzpatrick is appointed to organise the Egyptian Regiments on British lines.

Russia attacks Sweden and finally occupies all of Finland. Sweden threatened by the Dutch and DanishRepublics makes peace accepting this.
The GreekRepublic is declared in Athens with the tacit support of the local French commander.
Battle of AlKebir Campbell throws back an Ottoman attempt to retake Egypt.
Battle of Haifa Campbell defeats Foch but is outflanked and forced to retreat to Jerusalem. Campbell is made viscount Derry. Gerrard remarks that “Britain is not a martial race, her generals are all Irish and her admirals all Italian”
Encouraged by the Egyptians the Arabs rise in revolt against the Turks. Gerrard supports the Ottomans in crushing the Greek revolt and sends reinforcements including the red guard (but not the blue) to Palestine.

1807 The Sultan is deposed by the French and the Balkan, Greek and Turkish republics are set up. British records suggest the sultan had been about to withdraw from the French alliance. Start of the Turkish revolt. Foch is forced to retreat, surrounded and out of supplies he surrenders at Acre. The Red Guard refuse to surrender and march through the British and Arab lines to join the French in Turkey. One man in five makes it. Foch is replaced by Planchard who ruthlessly puts down the Turkish rebels. However he lacks the force to crush the British and when he tries the Arabs wreck havoc with his communications. The Ottoman semaphores have been mostly destroyed and south of Constantinople the Royal Navy controls the communications. Planchard batters his army against a series of fortified towns in Lebanon and Palestine until it becomes obvious that he lacks the forces to dislodge the British.

Thames Rotherhithe rail tunnel opens, at 150 DDinch the wonder of the age. Work starts on the first Underground Sharra line.

1808 Russia is beginning to make excuses about the terms of the French alliance, Spain is being polite to British diplomats, Prussia is trying to recruit a national army without being obvious and Austria is starting to make trouble in the Balkans. Protector Gerrard can not afford to leave them unwatched so he sends his best, General Thomas, to break the Turkish Rebels and push the British out of Egypt. Thomas knows this is not going to be easy and establishes a chain of fortified Depots across Anatolia and builds up his forces. Dover station manages to decode his reports to Paris and Derry (Campbell) is warned. He retreats rapidly abandoning his Turkish and Arab allies. The Arabs melt into the dessert but the Turkish Rebel Armies are crushed. He falls back on the defensive lines near Suez and backed by the Egyptian army waits to be attacked.

End of the Swedish civil war. With the final defeat of the Republican armies and the death of Charles, (officially from a fever but many historians believe it was murder) Dorothea becomes Queen. She promptly abdicates and the Duke of Sodermaland is proclaimed by the Riksdag as Gustavus IV.

1809 General Thomas, in hostile country and at the end of his logistical tether decides his only hope is to break the defences immediately. His plan assumes the Egyptian armies are worthless and faced with overwhelming numbers the British will break. However they are not and they don’t. Thomas loses a third of his army in the battles and another third in the retreat. British finally capture Malta.

George Edward William, the future George IV, is born at Prior House (now StantonPalace) in Bath. He turns out to be a surprising Hanoverian speaking five languages, taking a first in philosophy at Oxford and writing papers for the Royal Society under the name of Mr Leroy.

Ernst Von Gotha invents the chemical pump (OTL battery). A laboratory toy it eventually becomes important in staticplating.

cerebus
August 27th, 2008, 12:00 PM
And here is the map, assuming I can get it to load that is:(

cerebus
September 10th, 2008, 11:51 AM
1810 Turkey is turning into a monster that eats armies. The Turks are always defeated but never seem to stop fighting. If the French concentrate to fight Derry he retreats and the country explodes in their rear, if they disperse to fight the Turks the British advance.

The French Army and Diplomatic communications are being read by the Royal Navy Signal station with a turn around of less than a week although the Naval codes are a much tougher nut to crack.

Italy explodes in revolt and encouraged by this the fourth coalition is formed and Spain, Prussia and Austria declare war on France and the UP. Gerrard reverts to his revolutionary origins, abandoning his baggage and living on the land his army concentrates with amazing speed and he launches a massive invasion of Germany.

The Prussian are crushed, their Polish territory is separated as the Republic of Poland and most of their German lands are ravaged. Turning on Austria Gerrard advances on Prague.

At this moment Russia comes off the fence and joins the coalition. Trusting the Austrians will be unable to move quickly Gerrard throws every man he can muster at the invading Russians.

The Russian general Tanakoff is caught completely by surprise and his army is smashed. He manages to retreat but loses his guns, baggage and half his infantry. Gerrard then turns on the second Russian army and defeats it in a decisive four day battle. With the prestige of four great battles behind him and his armies closing in on Vienna, Austria agrees to peace.

Russia gives up Russian Poland and makes peace also.

Spain withdraws from French territory and pays an indemnity.

French forces crush the Italian rebels and the king of Piedmont is forced to flee to a British warship. End of the Fourth coalition.

1811 Britain is fighting a war with no obvious end, she is secure from invasion but heavily taxed, bad harvests raise the price of bread and there are serious riots in Bristol, Manchester and Glasgow.

The Bank of England has had to suspend gold payments and the paper pound note is worth only 18 shillings compared to gold.

The French embargo on British goods now stretches from Danzig to Constantinople excepting only Portugal. Only massive semi-legal smuggling into South America and completely illegal smuggling into Germany keeps the factory wheels turning.

However the Republics have their own problems. Industry has dwindled to nothing and the size of the armies mean there is a shortage of labour in the countryside. The United Provinces are bankrupt and their traders have been liquidated or fled to London. There are reports of cannibalism in the harsh winter if 1810-11.

The Italian, Polish, West German and Danish republics are a sham, dedicated to extracting men and money to feed the Republic’s armies. The Greek and Balkan Republics are a net drain and the Turkish Republic is a joke.

The Russians are licking their wounds but will no doubt be back in the Summer, a French occupation of Constantinople and Warsaw is a direct threat and everywhere a boat can float the bloody British appear with gold, munitions and an offer of trade. Moscow and London are both unreachable and if the Protector relaxes his grip Russian troops and British expeditionary forces will invade his United Republics of Europe and all his allies will desert him in an instant.

Mysore war in India ends with the occupation of Mysore.

1812 General Derry invades Anatolia as General Tanakoff leads the Greatest Russian army in history (so far!) into Bulgaria. The Balkan Republic collapses, Protector Gerrard concentrates his armies with his usual speed but underestimates the Russian numbers and suffers his first ever major defeat in battle.

He orders his forces in Turkey and Rumelia to hold fast locking a large number of veterans up as useless garrisons. Mahmud III is acclaimed Sultan and British Ships bombard Constantinople. The garrison surrenders in September and the new Sultan recognises the Greek Kingdom, the Kingdom of Arabia and the Kingdom of Egypt.

Austria joins the Fifth coalition and threatens to cut Gerrard off from France, West Germany explodes in a massive popular revolt against the French. Gerrard wins a pyrrhic victory over the Austrians and retreats into Italy. Start of the second Italian revolt.

Sweden and Norway join the fifth coalition and invade Denmark. Denmark sees which way the wind is blowing and asks for a Norwegian Prince to be their new king. The defection of the DanishRepublic is a heavy blow and many fortified strong points fall to the coalition forces when the Danish garrison opens the gates.
Norway does not approve of the Danish settlement but Sweden has no wish to get involved in a discussion of legitimacy. Norwegian forces drop out of the coalition although still officially a combatant.

1813 France is really scraping the bottom of the manpower barrel now and soldiers’ pay is years in arrears.

Denmark overturns the Republic and institutes a constitutional monarchy under Christoffer III.

The Dutch pull their armies out of Germany without informing their allies and make a separate offer of peace through the New Norwegian king Frederick IV.

The Protector and his supporters know that if they back down France will collapse, only the threat of foreign invasion holds it together. Gerrard makes an audacious plan. If he can defeat the British army landed in Northern Germany, he will overawe the Prussian (who are threatening to join the coalition), pull the Dutch back into the war, Lord Rochdale may lose the upcoming elections and the Whigs may make peace.

Relying as so often before, on the slowness of the Austrians he marches his armies north. However this time he is mistaken.

The three day Battle of Damme (also known as “That Damn Battle”), British and West German forces fight stubbornly to delay the French. Finally Gerrard realises his gamble has failed and the Austrians under Archduke Karl are only 4 hours away. He launches both the Red and Blue Guards at the British Centre in the forlorn hope of sweeping the British out of the way.

The French and British Guards Regiments meet on the brow of the hill and the French are thrown back. The defeated Protector retreats to France but he faces an alliance of Britain, Denmark, West Germany, Prussia, Austria, Russia and Spain. The French armies are now fighting on French soil and are destroying what little is left of French agriculture. Vastly out numbered by ¾ million allied troops the French fight on until Gerrard is captured by Viscount Derry’s army near Reims.

Gerrard dies while in British custody, probably of an infected wound. This triggers the whole industry of pro-Protectorist and Anti-British mythologizing that influences French thinking to the present day.

The Republic collapses and a committee of self appointed Parisians invite the return of the king. Louis is now quite settled in Canada and suspects any attempt to return France to the old regime would be pointless. He appoints his nephew Jean as his regent and representative. The republican wars (1781-1785 and 1796-1813) are over.

cerebus
September 10th, 2008, 12:05 PM
NOTE

Europe is wrecked. I suspect even more so than OTL, with 18 years of continuous war, more intense and even more ideological. Only Norway, Russia, Spain and Portugal do better than OTL though not by much, they may not have been directly fought over but they all had rebellions and massive military losses. The population, capital, industry, trade and agriculture of Europe have all been reduced drastically. Practically every European Government is in debt to British Bankers.

Semaphore stations in Europe have been built for military purposes but nothing like the huge coverage of Britain. Britain has more than 800 times the rail mileage of the rest of the world put together and is by far the world’s leading producer of Iron, steel, coal, cotton, linen and woollen textiles, refined sugar, tin, copper, sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide and output is increasing rapidly. In many of these cases the second largest producer is a British colony. London is the dominant centre for insurance, banking and transhipment of tropical products. Colonies outside Europe are all either British controlled or reliant on British investment, shipping and trade after years cut off from their masters. Britain has over 80% of the worlds shipping and in 1814 her navy outnumbers the seven (France, Spain, Sweden, Russia, Portugal, Norway and UP) next largest combined. Britain controls 95% of semaphore stations outside Europe and dominates the North Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean and South China seas.

Spanish overseas territories have not seen a Spanish official for twelve years and are on the point of revolt, their overseas trade is carried in British ships and they need nothing from the mother country. The typical revolt of the 1820’s and 30s produces a short lived republic that splits into smaller parts and often ends up as mutually hostile dictatorships. The major exception is Mexico where despite losing its Northern and Western territories and suffering about twenty years of civil war, a constitutional monarchy is set up under Carlos I a distant cousin of the Spanish crown. Although hovering between authoritarian personal rule and Republican rebels the country manages to survive and modernise.

Turkey does particularly badly having been fought over and suffered a guerrilla war (küçük savaş,or in English the Kucuck war?)that merged into a civil conflict and a racial one. Losing the African provinces, the Arabian provinces and Greece proper. On the other hand all the old structures have been swept away and the Anatolian heartland remains.

Norway has a higher population than OTL as she has gained loyalist refugees from Denmark. She is also richer and has gained the entire Danish navy and merchant fleet, since the British sank or captured anything Danish and turned captured ships over to their ally. The British have also protected the Norwegian empire in the Caribbean and handed over a port in India and a tiny island in the East Indies.
In the long run Norway has few natural resources but does have a great deal of hydro electric power (in this world that includes tidal power). I think that would be as useful as OTL coal for industrialisation.

Science and technology is slightly behind OTL except in the areas of electrics and those industries affected by it. Steam power favours large fixed installations, but paddle wheel barges are being built. Railways are significantly advanced but are electric with large static generators, moving steam engines do exist but are specialist devices. The 7’ wide track favours powerful, large trains and comfortable carriages but significantly slows railway building in difficult country and while cheaper to run are more capital intensive to build. Combined with semaphore networks this is a significant communications revolution advanced by about 60 years. Easier power transmission will encourage the factory system (say 10 years advanced) although with a slower growth of chemistry and the liquidation of the French Academy and other scientists in the wars there will be a delay in the chemical, coal tar and dye industries. The first experiments in selling electricity are being made by semaphore and railway companies.

cerebus
October 6th, 2008, 12:38 PM
1814 Treaty of Arras.
The Ottoman empire is reconstituted excluding the ArabKingdom, the Kingdom of Egypt and the Kingdom of Greece. (This leaves Turkey controlling approximately OTL Bulgaria, Rumania and Macedonia as well as modern Iraq and Kuwait) Austria expands to include the kingdom of Serbia and about half the Balkan republic, the remainder is returned to Turkish control.
Russia gains Azabyjan at the expense of Turkey and the crowns of Poland and Finland. Germany is still a mix of minor states with the King of Prussia dominating the North East, the West German confederation under the leadership of King William of Hanover and Great Britain and the South German or catholic league dominated by Austria. The total number of German states drops from more than 300 to 46. Sweden regains its southern provinces from Denmark.

The United Provinces remain a Republic but manage to hang on to Java, Natal, Kotte in Western Ceylon and Endrachtsland (OTLWestern Australia that nobody else wants).
The Kingdom of Flanders is created with a German monarch and British guarantees (This is smaller than OTL Belgium).
France is reconstituted as an (unstable) constitutional Monarchy on the British lines with a two house parliament and King Jean III.
The Kingdom of Northern Italy is established including Savoy, Piedmont and most of Lombardy.
Austrian Italy includes Venice the rest of Lombardy and the eastern Papal States. The rump of the Papal States around Rome, the Kingdom of Tuscany and the Two Sicilys complete the picture.
Britain returns sugar islands in the Caribbean to Norway, Spain and France.
Britain, the United Provinces, Norway, Portugal and France are confirmed in the ownership of their Indian ports and a share of the Dutch East Indies.

All signatories agree to abolish slave trade immediately and to remove slavery in their territories “within the next generation”, a wonderfully vague phrase.

1816 The Electric Revolution in Turkey.
The electric faction take power and with the support of the Sultan initiate the modernisation of Turkey. The state is reconstituted as the kingdom of Turkey , Al'Iraq and Bulgaria with the support of Britain, who desires a strong Turkey to restrain Russia and Austria. The exploitation of the coal fields begins, rail ways using the British 84NI width are begun and the cotton industry is started.
Political structures are copied from French and British models and the state is secularised.

For the next few decades little parties of Turkish officials wander all over Britain and Europe copying everything from industrial methods to the design of army boots.

Post war down turn triggers the Freemen riots in Northern England and Ireland. Migration to American commonwealths increases and westward expansion begins to pick up speed.

Mac Rea determines the speed of semaphore as 1.23D10 NI/s. This will be refined over the next few decades until the modern figure of 1.180D10 NI/s is achieved in 1859.

1817 John Fisher demonstrates water consists of two atoms of Hydrogen and one of Oxygen using a Chemical pump. (OTL electroysis).

1818 Electric globe switch invented by Johan Nillson. (OTL diode) The Nillson globe allows electric corpuscles to flow in only one direction allowing electric flow to be converted to static flow. (That is AC to DC). Britain introduces the Cent (technically a CentiPound), a large copper coin equal to 10 Newtons, there are 5 in a (silver) shilling and 100 in a (gold) sovereign ,( 105 in a Guinea). Old pennies and half pennies remain in use but are gradually withdrawn. This leaves Britain with a LSN system.

Vincennes reads his paper on the mathematical origin of light to the Royal Society.

French Colony of Jeanville founded in New Zealand, with British support to expel Dutch republicans.

1819 Dutch industrialisation starts with the founding of GSEC (Gross Semaphore Electric Compane).

John Fisher uses chemical pump to produce pure samples of Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Strontium, Bromine, chlorine and Mollium (OTL Aluminium)

cerebus
October 6th, 2008, 12:41 PM
And Here is India

cerebus
October 16th, 2008, 12:02 PM
State of the Art 1820

Electric flow is being sold by Railway and Semaphore companies in Britain and Newengland. It is used for power in factories and lifts, heating, cooking and lighting in upper middle class homes.

Canada is moving inexorably into a client relationship with Newengland, whose economic dominance of North America is resented by Virginia and Carolina but particularly by Mexico and Spain.

Indian cotton textile production has been ruined by competition from British factories and she is declining to be a producer of raw cotton, tea and opium.

Tea is the drink of choice throughout the English and Russian speaking world, served with milk and sugar if Indian and with Lemon and sugar if Chinese. The Spanish, French and Dutch speaking world prefers Coffee whose production is dominated by Portuguese Brazil. Chocalatle as a drink is mainly confined to Mexico but DeGroot’s of Amsterdam are just starting their production of solid Chocalatle which will revolutionise the confectionary industry.

Steam ships are well behind OTL and hence armoured ships and barbettes will be delayed as well.

The North Transept is notable for a series of memorials to the Lackland Family of Jerusalem Hall. There is an associated legend which states that in each generation a Lackland will give his life for King and Country and this will preserve the Family, the Village and the Kingdom.

In Memorium
Samuel Lackland 1716 - 1760, being a colonel in the service of the Honerable East India Company on the Bengal Establishment died on the field of Mashirabad, discharging his duty with Zeal and integrity.

Captain John Lackland (RN) late of the frigate “Spark” who was killed by a musket ball in the siege of Bordeaux. 1752- 1797. “Rest now my faithful servant”

Sacred to the memory of Ensign John William Lackland 1790 – 1807 who fell in the siege of Acre to the great sorrow of his parents and siblings.

Captain William Samuel Lackland of the Royal Semaphore Corps died in the Charleston Depot Hospital of a fever contracted on active service 1781 – 1826- “He died that ye may be free”

Major William John Lackland of the 102nd(negro) Regiment 1810 -1844. Who died in the descent on Darrien, as he lived, inspiring his men with his example of courage and honour.

Erected to the memory of Mary Cathcart Nee Lackland 1832 – 1858 by her grieving children. She fell at the siege of Nagasaki while loading for her husband Captain James Cathcart who fell beside her. Their bodies lie far from home but they are not forgotten.

Excerpt from “The Church of St James across the water- A short account” Rev Small 1871 private printing by Garth & Sons of Manchester.

cerebus
November 7th, 2008, 11:13 AM
1820 Admiral Boneapart is given leave to volunteer for service with Peruvian Navy and defeats Spanish Pacific Armada at the Battle of Panama.

France invades Morocco after maltreatment of her traders. King of Morocco has no children and appoints French King as his heir.

First commercial paddle steamer on the great lakes.

1821 Spain protests (unofficial) British support for independence movements in the Americas. She introduces laws to prevent any subject trading with Britain and sends out special Viceroys to enforce it . The result is to alienate even loyalists.

All the Spanish colonies in America erupt in revolt and Spain blames Britain. They promptly launch a very badly organised invasion of Portugal and order loyalist forces to concentrate in Mexico to invade Louisiana and Carolina. They also destroy the Laguna semaphore station on the tip of Baja California, which had been built following an agreement with the Governor of Mexico not ratified by Madrid.

Royal Hydro Pump Company founded in Christiana (OTL Oslo). This company will grow to supply flow to feed not only its own industry but also the requirements of Sweden and Denmark.

1822 Anglo Spanish War.

The British are caught completely by surprise as nobody thought the Spanish court would be so stupid. Much of the navy is mothballed and a great deal of the rest is scattered around the world suppressing the slave trade and securing the East Indies.

However it soon becomes obvious that Charles IV has bitten off more than he can chew. British Troops on the way to the East Indies via the Stamford Isles (where the king has asked for help in a civil war) are diverted to Williamsland (OTL Californias & Oregon). The Portuguese prove easily able to resist the invasion and the Spanish are without allies. Most foreign governments politely assume Charles IV has gone mad.

First Commercial paddle steamer on the Clyde.

Lady Greenholm’s master work “On the unification of magnetic and electric phenomena” shows the speed of semaphore depends on the square root of the product of magnetic and electric sustainability. (inverse of OTL Permeability and Permitivity of free space).

Her Paper is read by her son while she sits next to him and glares at the audience.

The Royal Society votes to accept Women members.

1823 Charles IV abdicates and dies, often assumed to be murder but he was over 75. Ferdinand becomes King of Spain. Peace of Paris is signed. Britain promises not to aid rebels against the crown (but will not prevent private individuals being employed by such governments). Both parties agree to full free trade outside Europe and Spain recognises British claims in America, which now include Williamsland and Nuspania.

1824 Start of Mexican civil war the next 12 years are spent putting down republicans and american revolts. Carlos I comes out on top.

Dr George Pring detects Heavy Semaphore Corpuscles in the output of a medical Neilson. He calls them Pions and shows they pass through flesh but not bone and darken silver nitrate. Medical use of Pions soon takes off although a rash of cancers in the 1830’s emphasise the importance of shielding. (OTL Xrays)

1825 The Abolition Acts abolish slavery in British territory from 1832. The Colonial legislatures in Carolina refuse to ratify the Acts and are declared in rebellion to the Crown. Some Virginian legislatures do likewise but withdraw in the face of British (Newengland, Negro & American) Regiments.

1826 Short lived Carolina Republic is occupied. Prominent is the West Indies battalion containing the 102nd and 111th Negro Regiments.
Admiral Boneapart dies of a fever while on service in Jamaica. He is shipped home and buried in Westminster Abbey.

Admiral Peach a famously hard living, hard fighting man, is caught by a newspaper reportress in flagrante delicto with three ladies of negotiable virtue in his office at Trincomalee. It is probably a put up job by abolitionists eager to get a more active pursuit of slave traders. The news reaches London papers over night and the Admiral is ignominiously sacked.
(Society is becoming more prudish, 20 years before nobody would have cared)

Princess Mary marries Prince John of Austria.

OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY(23rd edition:1893)

Peach (pēch) (Pl peaches) noun 1. The tree Prunus Persica, of Chinese origin now widely cultivated. 2. The fruit of the same, with a downy skin, pale yellow flesh and a single deeply sculpt central stone. 3. a prostitute or lady of easy virtue. (Royal Navy). ORIGIN OE ’peche’ - OF-Latin – Greek ‘persikē’ meaning a Persian lady. First use: 1440 tr. Palladius De Re Rustica (Fitzw.) V. 122 Peches han their seson At May Kalendes hem tenoculate. 1833 The Fighting ships (Boden) Ch 3 The men cheered the peaches waving from the breakwater as the Steadfast warped out. NOTE the derivation of 3. from Admiral Peach ( 1774 – 1831) of the East India Station is probably apocryphal as translations of peach are found in Chinese, Malay and Thai as synonyms for a pretty girl.