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May 4th, 2006, 10:30 PM
Weimar World Timeline
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May 21st, 2006, 03:35 PM
March 13, 1920 Reichstag member Wolfgang Kapp makes an impassioned speech on the floor of the Reichstag protesting the end of pay to Freicorps members. He warns that many more actions like this could lead to a nationwide Putsch. (OTL Kapp was one of the leaders of the Kapp Putsch.)
March 14, 1920 Central Schleswig votes over 80% in favor of reunification with Germany.
March 20, 1920 A NSDAP sympathizer within the Reichswehr blows the whistle on up and comer within the party, Adolf Hitler, who is revealed to be a Reichswehr spy.
March 31, 1920 Alleged Reichswehr spy Adolf Hitler mustered out of the Reichswehr, and is reported to return to his native Austria.
April 10, 1920 Government stops paying Freikorps units.
May 9, 1920 Hitler joins the Heimwehr in Austria.
June 20, 1920 Elections for the Reichstag results in significant gains for the DVP and DNVP, minor loses for the SPD. Chancellor Gustav Bauer (SPD) forms a new grand coalition government and reorganizes the cabinet; making Gustav Stresemann (DVP) Foreign Minister.
August 11, 1920 National Disarmament Law takes effect; disbanded civil guards.
August 19, 1920 Second Silesian Uprising, French troops do little to control the situation.
January 16, 1921 Aristide Briand becomes Prime Minister of France, begins shortly thereafter discussions with German Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann regarding reparations.
March 21, 1921 Plebiscite held in Upper Silesia. They vote to remain part of Germany.
May 3, 1921 Polish forces under Wojciech Korfantry invade Upper Silesia.
May 4, 1921 Stresemann gets Briand’s France to enforce the rule of law in Upper Silesia; the Poles are required to leave.
July 1, 1921 Tentative agreement is reached for more favorable reparation payments by Germany, mostly due to the growing respect between Briand and Stresemann.
July 11, 1921 NSDAP under Anton Drexler votes to join Julius Streicher’s DSP.
January 15, 1922 Stresemann secures loans to German government, allowing the Reichsmark to be fixed to a gold standard.
April 16, 1922 Treaty of Rapallo signed between Germany and the Soviet Union. Both countries renounce all territorial and financial claims against the other.
April 18, 1922 First international conference on Esperanto in Geneva, initiated by the League of Nations. The unanimous recommendation of the conference is to advise the member states that Esperanto should be taught at elementary schools around the world as the first foreign language. While this suggestion was taken up on the agenda of the LoN for the third time, like the two times before no consensus could be reached due to France's rigid position, born from the desire to keep French as the language of diplomats.
July 21, 1922 High inflation begins in Austria. The gold standard based German Reichsmark is little affected.
October 27, 1922 Benito Mussolini establishes his Fascist dictatorship in Italy.
March 13, 1923 Adolf Hitler, inspired by the example of Benito Mussolini, starts a more political wing of the Heimwehr, centered on the Pan-Germanic faction of the paramilitary group.
June 3, 1923 After new elections for the Reichstag, Gustav Stresemann becomes Chancellor of a center-right coalition government. He retains the portfolio of Foreign Minister.
February 28, 1924 Reichspresident Friedrich Ebert makes the first visit of a German head of state to Great Britain since the war.
November 22, 1924 Strasser wing of DSP goes into rebellion over Streicher’s leadership.
December 1, 1924 The Locarno Treaties are signed in London, in which the former Entente and the new European states secure the post-war territorial settlement and normalize their relations with Germany.
January 14, 1925 Germany joins the League of Nations and becomes the fifth permanent Council member.
September 10, 1925 Germany successfully lobbies for a referendum in the Memel region, and they vote in favor of reunification with Germany.
October 3, 1925 The Nobel Committee announces that the Nobel Peace Prize will be awarded to Austen Chamberlain, Aristide Briand, and Gustav Stresemann for the Locarno treaty.
April 24, 1926 Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Berlin Treaty, pledging neutrality in case of an attack on the other by a third party.
June 3, 1926 Friedrich Ebert narrowly wins re-election on the second ballot when the right rallies from a poor showing in the first round by drafting General Paul von Hindenburg as their candidate in the second round.
June 3, 1927 General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck is made Army Chief of Staff.
November 9, 1927 Chancellor Stresemann concludes Treaty of Munich with Czechoslovakia formally recognizing the border between Germany and Czechoslovakia in return for concessions to the German minority in the Sudetenland, including recognition of German as an official language of Czechoslovakia and a minimum number of spots in the Czech cabinet for ethnic Germans.
February 3, 1928 The Simon Commission lands in Bombay. The first of many boycotts organized by the Indian National Congress occurs.
October 24, 1928 Chancellor Gustav Stresemann dies of a massive heart attack. Hermann Müller forms grand coalition government and replaces him as Chancellor.
December 10, 1929 The "Black Tuesday": a collapse of the stock exchange in New York City starts a world economic collapse and results in the Great Depression.
May 21st, 2006, 04:58 PM
March 12 1930 Gandhi starts his march to protest the salt tax law.
June 30, 1930 Chancellor Hermann Müller leaves office when his own party (SPD) abandons the coalition. A center right coalition forms with Zentrum party leader Heinrich Brüning as chancellor.
July 4 1930 Lord Irwin, after meeting with members of the governing Labour Party in London, announces the creation of a round table which will discuss India’s constitutional progress for achieving Dominion status.
October 24, 1930 A coup d'état in Brazil replaces Washington Luis with the populist General Getúlio Vargas. Vargas embarks on a path of social reformism to attempt a reconciliation between the population's radically diverging interests. Reflecting the influence of the tenentes, he even advocated a program of social welfare and reform with striking parallel to the US-American New Deal. Vargas develops a "legal hybrid" between the regimes of Mussolini's Italy and Salazar's Portuguese "Estado Novo", copying repressive fascist tactics, and conveying their same rejection of liberal capitalism, but attains power baring few indications of his future quasi-fascist polices. With a new constitution drafted with extensive influence from European fascist models, Vargas begins reining in even moderate trade unions and turning against the tenentes. His further concessions to the latifundios pushes him toward an alliance with the Integralists, Brazil's mobilized fascist movement.
November 12 1930 The first round table meetings on India show the differences between Indian Muslims and Hindus. The Hindus want a strong central government while the Muslims want a loose confederation. To complicate matters even more, the Sikhs speak up for an independant Sikh nation in Punjab.
January 12th 1931 The first round table meetings on India end. What emerges is an agreement to safe guard minorities in the constitution and the creation of a weak federal government to appease the Muslim delegates.
March 5 1931 The second round table meetings on India begin. Gandhi misses the meetings due to health reasons and the Congress representatives agree on the basis of a communal settlement for India. When the delegates return to India, Gandhi disavows their actions and the agreement, dividing the Indian National Congress party. The Gandhi faction starts civil disobedience but the division of their party shows they are not the representatives of the whole Indian people.
June 1, 1931 Three million unemployed reported in Germany.
June 20, 1931 Herbert Hoover puts a moratorium on reparations.
August 11, 1931 The Austrian Kreditanstalt collapses.
September 13, 1931 The German bank crisis occurs.
September 20, 1931 Alfred Hugenberg made leader of DNVP by narrow margin.
October 11, 1931 Attempts to form a coalition between DNVP, Stahlhelm, DSP, and the Strasser splinter group fail. The DNVP decides to stay in the government for the time being.
March 5, 1932 Julius Streicher, leader of the DSP, is arrested on charges of obscenity and perversion charges. The high profile trial stretches through much of 1932, and is a nadir for the far right.
April 20, 1932 Darkhorse candidate Carl Friedrich Goerdeler successfully challenges Alfred Hugenberg for leadership of the DNVP. He vows that the DNVP will stay the course with the current government.
December 25, 1932 Constitutional rule is restored in Chile. Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma, a member of the Liberal Party, becomes president of Chile, serving until 1938.
March 31, 1933 A conservative coup d’etat topples the socialist government of Uruguay. The socialist reform leaders are either assassinated or flee into exile, and a conservative dictatorship begins. The Colorado party turns further to the left during the dictatorship years.
April 10, 1933 Friedrich Ebert loses badly in the second round of elections against center right consensus candidate and war hero Reichswehr Chief of Staff Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. In his concession speech, Ebert calls for a peaceful transition of power, which by and large happens.
August 5 1933 The Government of India Act of 1933 is announced and will be implemented by 1935.
August 7, 1933 DNVP leader Goerdeler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
October 23, 1933 A letter from Ludwig Erhard regarding economic reform so impresses Chancellor Goerdeler that he brings the man onto his staff as an advisor.
February 12, 1934 Kummersdorf becomes the base for German military rocket research.
March 21, 1934 Adolf Hitler’s Heimwehr faction instigates a civil war after refusing to join Engelbert Dolfuss’s Fatherland Front (the clerical faction of the Heimwehr joins the Fatherland Front, but is in the minority due to the recruitment efforts of the Charismatic Hitler). Several extremist volunteers from both Germany and Czechoslovakia swarm over the border to join the conflict in the early days. Socialists in Vienna take advantage of the chaos and take over the capitol, but can’t make progress very far from the city. With the onset of the Austrian Civil War, Albert Einstein leaves Austria, immigrating to Germany.
May 5, 1934 The League of Nations declares a weapons embargo of all sides in the Austrian Civil War, which is promptly violated by both the Soviets and Italians. The Italians are secretly sending aid to both the the Hitler and Dolfuss factions.
July 2, 1934 Former General Paul von Hindenburg dies, and Germany is thrown into a state of mourning that rivals the one after the death of Chancellor Stresemann.
July 16, 1934 A new constitution is enacted in Brazil. The Vargas government claims that the corporatist provisions of the constitution of 1934 will unite all classes in mutual interests - its stated purpose (but not always reality) in Fascist Italy.
August 13, 1934 President Lettow-Vorbeck ceremonially breaks ground on the newest rail line in Germany, one proposed to carry speed steam locomotives across the length and breadth of Germany. The railways are part of the revitalization package of Chancellor Goerdeler.
September 15, 1934 The Universala Esperanto-Asocio (UEA) finishes its structure reform, becoming the greatest organization dedicated to Esperanto.
January 13, 1935 The Saarland votes over 90% to reunite with Germany.
May 20, 1935 Under pressure from Great Britain and with worsening economic problems, France acquiesces to "limited" German rearmament. Afterward, the rapid ‘development’ of the Reichswehr makes previous German covert rearming apparent, but the Great Powers turn a blind eye to this.
June 3, 1935 Brazilian politics have been drastically destabilized. Vargas' attention focuses on the rise of two nationally based and highly ideological European-style movements, both committed to European-style mass-mobilization: one pro-communist and the other pro-fascist; one linked to Moscow and the other to Rome.
July 8, 1935 The Dominion of India is created. Subhas Bose is named Prime Minister with Mohammed Ali Jinnah as second in command. An Indian parliament is created but British institutions and borders are maintained for the time being. The Indian National Party reunifies but they admit their failure in getting the support of the Muslims and that the two rival parties made the continued existence of this arrangement impossible.
August 30, 1935 A token military force enters the Rhineland. The French government proclaims this as a great diplomatic victory, as the German force is not even strong enough to defend the Rhineland, posting no threat to France. The German government points to this as the full restoration of German sovereignty and the return of Germany as a full member of the international family of nations.
October 3, 1935 Italian troops invade Abyssinia.
November 13, 1935 While the Austrian civil war has so far accomplished little except leading to the glorious deaths in battle of several notable extremists of the age, Hitler makes a bold radio speech from an undisclosed location, calling for the unification of all Germans in Germany and Czechoslovakia with Austria. The speech is only heard in the local area of the broadcast, however.
March 02, 1936 Under the leadership of the UEA, several well-known Esperantists (among them Daniel Bovet, known for his 1937 discovery of antihistamines, hungarian author Julio Baghy, and the famous Robert Cecil) lobby the League of Nations to consider Esperanto as the working language. Despite a year long, drawn out discussion, no consensus can be reached, as France keeps hesitating to support it, and the Soviets feverishly lash out against the suggestion.
May 30, 1936 Italy annexes Abyssinia after a year long war which includes the use of mustard gas. By the end of June, after League condemnation of the annexation, Italy leaves the League of Nations.
July 10, 1936 The Spanish Civil War begins.
August 16, 1936 Closing Ceremonies of the glamorous 1936 Berlin Olympics. President Lettow-Vorbeck hosts a number of his former Askari in Berlin, allowed by the British government to travel from Tanzania to Germany for this event. Later, a photo in the Time magazine, showing the German president congratulating Jesse Owens with the Askari at his side leads the Ku Klux Klan to denounce Lettow-Vorbeck. Many of the Olympians and celebrities from America made the trip to Germany on the impressive Graf Zeppelin II. With its all Helium design, it is felt by many to be one of the safest means of transportation in history.
September 1, 1936 "Red" Vienna falls to a Fatherland Front attack, but Hitler’s faction then attacks the exsanguinated forces of Dolfuss; the city will be a divided war-zone for the rest of the conflict.
September 20, 1936 Germany and the West, fed up with the chaos in Austria and now civil war in Spain, agree to German military intervention in Austria. With the knock-out of the Socialists from the war, French Prime Minister Leon Blum sees little reason to hinder a republican Germany from intervening, as the success of either of the remaining two factions would be undesirable. German troops stream over the border and are by and large greeted as saviors by the war weary Austrians. To further reassure France and the United Kingdom, as well as to cement growing relations, Germany and Czechoslovakia sign a mutual defense treaty on the same day.
October 21, 1936 Rather than surrendering, Adolf Hitler commits suicide in his hideout in the mountains. Nearly all forces of both Fatherland Front and Heimwehr have surrendered to the rapidly advancing Germans, often without a single shot being fired. The few die-hard units are quickly dispatched by the Reichswehr. Dolfuss retires from politics.
December 9, 1936 After a few months of diplomacy, Italy acquiesces to German occupation and a vote on a reunion (the "Anschluss") after the German government agrees to recognize the possession of the South Tyrol by Italy.
February 14, 1937 The Austrians hold a referendum overwhelmingly supporting unification with Germany. Though the Treaty of Saint Germaine forbade Austria from political or economic union with Germany, the Reich points out that they were not party to that agreement, and the Austrian government had essentially ceased to exist. World sentiment favors the unification.
March 15, 1937 Stalin, concerned about the close ties that have developed between Soviet military officers and the Germans during the years of cooperation in the 1920s, launches a purge of the Red Army that will last the year, essentially crippling the Red Army for the next several years.
March 9, 1937 Completion of move of military rocket research to Peenemünde (on the recommendation of Wernher von Braun). Kummersdorf converts over to military applications of atomic research, involving not only several German physicists, but also many Hungarian scientists who have immigrated to Germany to escape the repressive regime in their home.
April 12, 1937 Italy and Hungary form a mutual defense pact, called the Rome-Budapest Axis by Mussolini.
July 24, 1937 Germany proposes in the League of Nations a referendum on Danzig and the Polish Corridor. Poland opposes the idea.
August 20, 1937 Poland’s president, Ignacy Mo?cicki, thinking he could win a referendum that includes both the Kashubian populated Polish corridor and the German Danzig, and noting that a significant portion of the Reichswehr would still be in Austria, gambles and announces his willingness for the vote to happen, but that it must occur by mid September. Germany agrees.
September 10, 1937 Less than a week before the Polish Corridor referendum, the Reichstag approves sweeping minority rights legislation. This is the centerpiece of a wave of radio broadcasts in a campaign to win over the Kashubians in to the German Republic. The broadcasts place emphasis on the Sorbs, another Slavic group living within Germany who have done well (and greatly profit from the new legislation), as well as making distinction between the Kashubians and the Poles.
September 15, 1937 The Polish Corridor referendum, though fraught with fraud on both sides, shows a majority in favor of unification with the German Reich. Very high turnout in Danzig is one factor; another is the substantial minority of Kashubian voters who also vote for unification with Germany. While the German minority legislation and 11th hour radio campaign are believed to have been important factors, most historians agree that the deciding factors were the stability of the German government and their substantially better economic performance during the Great Depression.
September 16, 1937 When the result of the referendum starts to become known, Poland repudiates it as rigged and begins to move troops into the region as a "stabilizing measure". However, within hours of the Polish actions, heavy German troop movement is reported all along the border with Germany, many being identified as troops believed to be in Austria; even the Czechs appear to be mobilizing. Fearing a general invasion is about to occur, Marshal Edward Rydz-?mig?y begins to redeploy troops to hold off a large scale attack and to protect the capitol and key industrial centers.
September 17, 1937 In the predawn hours the Germans strike as expected in the Polish Corridor, but in an unexpected manner. Paratroops land throughout the narrow corridor, within the lines of the Polish forces in the region. While there were many problems with the drop, the surprise move throws the Polish forces within the corridor into confusion, which is taken advantage of by German troops moving in from Germany proper. The chancellor Goerdeler announces that the sole intention of the Germans is enforcing the will of the people in the recent referendum. Rydz-?mig?y refuses offers of assistance from the Soviets.
September 25, 1937 The leaders of France and Great Britain meet with the Germans in Hamburg to discuss the Polish Crisis. By this time, Polish troops have been expelled from the narrow Polish Corridor, allowing the formation of a continuous defensive line between East Prussia and the rest of Germany. Despite Marshal Rydz-?mig?y’s continued belief that the Germans will launch a full out assault, the Germans and Czechs have taken up defensive positions and no further incursions into Poland have occurred. The entire threatened invasion was an enormous bluff playing on Polish fears which tied down the bulk of their battle ready troops. After personal assurances by President Lettow-Vorbeck, the British and French agree to support the annexation of the Polish Corridor to Germany in return for Germany finally accepting the rest of their Eastern border with Poland and allowing liberal access to the Baltic for Polish businesses. With no support from the West, and fear of the Soviets, the Poles feel no choice but to tacitly accept what they refer to as ‘the selling out of Poland’.
October 1, 1937 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returns in triumph to London announcing that they shall have "peace in our time" and that "President Lettow-Vorbeck is a honorable man who we may trust to keep his word, both for himself and his nation".
November 10, 1937 Vargas, already ruling by decree, makes a broadcast to the people of Brazil in which he states his plans to assume dictatorial powers under the second new constitution of his regime (derived from European fascist models), thereby curtailing presidential elections (his ultimate objections) and dissolving congress.
November 17, 1937 Under the Estado Novo, the Brazilian state announces an ambitious "Five-Year Plan" whose goals included the expansion of the heavy industry, the creation of new sources of hydroelectric power, and the expansion of the railway network to develop Brazil's capital base. Empirical data will confirm that Vargas is advancing the bourgeois revolution, at least to an extent.
December 10, 1937 The final report of the British Commission on Palestine recommends a partition: a Jewish Homeland in the Northwest, a Palestinian state in the South and East, and a sizable remnant British Mandate around Jerusalem are suggested.
January 1, 1938 Polish president Ignacy Mo?cicki is forced out of office by the military, and foreign minister Józef Beck is made president, while Marchal Rydz-?mig?y retains control of the army.
January 15, 1938 Poland formally joins the Axis. This is a bittersweet moment for Beck, as Poland is finally starting to become part of a "Third Europe", but one led by Italy, not Poland.
May 1, 1938 The nations of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, and Czechoslovakia announce a Northern European Alliance to defend against communism (the Soviets particularly), and fascism. Quietly, Great Britain has given assurances of support for the group as well.
July 14, 1938 First jet airplane flight occurs at Heinkel Field.
September 5, 1938 Aware of the need of modern industry for abundant sources of power, Brazilian leader Vargas creates the National Petroleum Company to search for oil.
December 25, 1938 Pedro Aguirre Cerda of the Popular Front is elected president of Chile. He implements education reforms, but dies in 1941 while in office.
January 13, 1939 Nuclear Fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and their coworkers at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for Chemistry in Berlin.
February 9, 1939 Bulgaria joins the Axis "Pact of Steel" with Italy, Poland and Hungary.
April 17, 1939 Italy attacks Albania, taking control of the small nation in the name of King Victor Emmanuel III.
June 23, 1939 The Nationalists have taken Madrid, and general Franco declares victory, becoming the fascist dictator of Spain.
October 1, 1939 Start of the Yugoslavian Crisis. Italy, Hungary, and Bulgaria invade Yugoslavia, threatening the complete partition the country. Within days Yugoslavia stands on the brink of collapse. German forces in German Austria mobilize along the border, but the British and French demand that the Italians meet for mediation.
November 4, 1939 The Trieste Conference results in Italy and her allies being forced by France and the UK to accept token concessions: some Dalmatian coast and islands for Italy, and strips of adjacent land to the borders of Hungary and Bulgaria; overall Yugoslavia will be spared from disassembly. The UK is able to demand that the concessions do not cut Yugoslav borders off from other nations in the area.
December 9, 1939 Yugoslavia requests admission to the Northern European Alliance. After heavy lobbying from the German government, the Alliance accepts them.
May 21st, 2006, 08:10 PM
January 14, 1940 Brazil's manufacturing output has increased substantially over the decade, but coffee production has declined. As a result, to further placate the forces of the old order, the government between 1934-37 and under the Estado Novo also has invested considerably in the expansion of coffee production. Coffee is also the principal foreign exchange export earner.
May 12, 1940 Presidential and Reichstag elections held. President Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck in his second election becomes the first President of the Republic to win a majority on the first ballot. With the addition of Catholic Austria to the Republic, the Center party and its allied minor parties are winners as well, and the new Center Party leader Konrad Adenauer becomes Chancellor of Germany (though still in a center-right coalition government).
September 1, 1940 Romanian negotiations to join the Axis break down over demands of land concessions to Hungary and Bulgaria. Fearing that the Romanians may instead join the Alliance, Hungary launches their long considered war against Romania over Transylvania. Their allies the Bulgarians simultaneously attack into Dobruja.
September 24, 1940 The Romanians were doing well against the Italian supported Hungarians and Bulgarians when the Soviets launch a surprise action into Bessarabia. Shortly thereafter, the Romanians are forced to cede Bessarabia to the Soviets in order to save their nation from them and return their attentions to the Hungarians and Bulgarians.
October 24, 1940 Much progress has been made in Brazil since Vargas came to power ten years ago. Cement production increases to 700,000 tons from 87,000 tons in October 24, 1930. Brazil's capacity for electricity generation reaches 1 million kilowatts, of which 60 percent was located in the Săo Paulo area, primarily due to the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Iron and steel output went up to 150,000 tons in 1939-40. The number of manufacturing enterprises more than double during the decade leading up to this date, reaching 50,000. Factories in the Săo Paulo area employ 35 percent of the industrial labor force and generate 43 percent of the value of industrial production. Aside from the export of textiles, the manufacturing industries serve the domestic market almost exclusively. Brazil has 44,100 plants employing 944,000 workers; the comparable figure for December 31, 1920 was 13,336 plants with about 300,000 workers.
November 5, 1940 Arthur Vandenberg is elected President of the United States of America.
December 25, 1940 Romanian soldiers and civilians celebrate as the last of Hungarian and Bulgarian forces retreat from Romania.
January 20, 1941 Romania joins the Northern European Alliance.
February 19, 1941 Communist activist Ho Chi Minh returns to Vietnam after 30 years in exile and organizes a nationalist organization named the Viet Minh.
March 12, 1941 Konrad Zuse creates the first tape-stored, program-controlled computer, which would become the basis for the new field of computing for the next decade.
June 1, 1941 As relations with Japan remain strained, and Europe seems more risky with both the Northern European Alliance and Axis Pact of Steel to deal with, Stalin begins a secret military build up on the Manchurian-Soviet and the Mongolian-Manchurian border, with Georgy Zhukov in command.
July 30, 1941 By the end of the month 30 Russian divisions are in the Far East, the Soviets have an advantage 2:1 in men, 4:1 in tanks and vehicles and 3:1 in aircrafts.
August 9th 1941 The Second Russo-Japanese war starts. The Soviets launch a two front attack with the city of Harbin as their first goal.
August 12, 1941 At the Battle of Vladivostsk, the Soviet Far East Fleet’s attempt to escape is foiled and the majority of the fleet is destroyed.
August 16th 1941 Peruvian forces capture Cuenca after heavy fighting. Both sides are exhausted and both sides agree a cease-fire. But secret pledges by the Colombian government that they will join the conflict helps the Ecuadorians to break the cease fire on September 10th 1941 after the arrival of Colombian “volunteers” and weapons.
August 18, 1941 The Sakhalin campaign launched by the Japanese.
September 26th 1941 Ecuadorian counter offensive recaptures Cuenca. Peru prepares for a final offensive to try to end the conflict.
October 10th 1941 Coastal offensive started by Peru.
November 3, 1941 The Sakhalin campaign ends with a combined army-marine Japanese effort successfully conquering the northern half of the island.
November 16, 1941 Due to the terrain and stubborn Japanese resistance it is not until the middle of November that Soviets reach Harbin. The siege of Harbin begins.
November 21, 1941 Czechoslovakia formally changes its name to the Central European Republic.
December 7th 1941 Guayaquil falls to Peruvian army. Peru sends terms of surrender to Ecuador. Ecuador after consideration and further promises by Colombia refuses. A December ceasefire agreed by both sides, in reality both sides are exhausted.
December 20, 1941 The Hungarians and Bulgarians give up their attempts at Romania and withdraw to the 1940 borders.
December 24, 1941 An informal ceasefire due to weather conditions has set in and both sides consolidate their positions.
February 8, 1942 Ecuadorian counter offensive starts in attempt to recapture Guayaquil, casualties mount especially between Colombian volunteers. The offensive is called off on March 2nd 1942 after failing in their objectives.
February 9, 1942 Peruvian counter offensive starts in an attempt to recapture Cuenca. With majority of enemy forces facing Guayaquil the city falls by February 21st 1942.
February 15, 1942 President Baldomir dissolves the General Assembly in Montevideo and asks the opposition parties to join in defeating the military. Uruguay Civil War starts. Colorado Party changes name to Uruguayan Communist Party.
February 24, 1942 The ceasefire comes to an end when the Japanese begin their effort to relieve Harbin.
March 9, 1942 The Harbin relief effort collapses for the Japanese. Japanese inflict severe losses upon the Soviets in this attack but fail in their objective.
March 11, 1942 Ecuador accepts terms of Peru. Peru gains all disputed territory plus El Oro province.
March 17, 1942 Harbin falls to the Soviets. A Japanese offer of peace in exchange for accepting Soviet border claims in Manchuria is rejected.
April 1, 1942 The Deep Thrust; Soviet forces, finally in better terrain than the northern part of Manchuria launch a combined arms operation to destroy the Japanese presence in Manchuria.
April 12, 1942 Liberal leader Jorge Eliezer Gaitan asks for the resignation of the current Colombian government. He blamed them for the thousands of casualties incurred during the just ended conflict and the economic chaos the nation was suffering. The lower classes, from whom the majority of the casualties came, and the ones suffering more of the slow recovery from the Depression, flock to him, especially in the cities.
April 23, 1942 India is divided into a loose confederation of Hindu majority provinces, Muslim majority ones, and the Sikh Azaz Punjab. Each province is governed with a high degree of autonomy except for foreign affairs, communications, defense, and finances needed for nationwide affairs. The central government is located in Delhi. There was some opposition by all sides to this final arrangement but after some violence it was accepted; it was this or the dismembering of India.
May 1, 1942 Gandhi assassinated by a disgruntled INC fanatic.
May 15 1942 Ceasefire agreement between Japan and Nationalist Chinese allows Japan to move more forces to face the Soviets.
May 20, 1942 Eliezer Gaitan assassinated while giving speech in Bogotá. Start of the Colombian Civil War. Liberal sympathizers take to the streets to fight government forces.
May 29, 1942 Liberal forces capture Bogotá. Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo declared President by the Liberals. Incumbent President Eduardo Santos flees to Cartagena and asks for international recognition of his cabinet as the true government of Colombia.
June 3, 1942 The Brazilian government establishes the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce to exploit the rich iron-ore deposits of Itabira.
June 6, 1942 The largest air battle ever seen is fought on this day. Both sides claim victory, but it appears to be a narrow victory for the Soviets through the sheer number of Soviet planes, not by technical or equipment advantages of which they have none; the Japanese machines are superior and Japanese pilots are about even in quality.
June 18 1942 Two Soviet tank divisions fight an ad-hoc formation equivalent to a reinforced armored brigade near Mukden. The Soviets have mostly T-26s, but with a considerable number of T-34s as well; the Japanese have Type 95 tanks. After the Soviet victory, the Japanese recognize the failure of their tank designs and begin searching abroad for new models.
July 12, 1942 The Japanese have been expelled from most of Manchuria and forced to a defensive line on the Yalu River.
July 28, 1942 Nationalist China refuses to let Japanese forces in China attack north, threatening to end the ceasefire agreement if the Japanese attack the Soviets from Chinese soil.
August 10, 1942 After a lull of one month to recover, the Soviets begin their offensive into Korea.
September 14, 1942 Uruguayan Civil War ends. Communist Party wins and declares the People’s Republic of Uruguay. While neutral, this nation turns into a sanctuary for communist sympathizers from Argentina and neighboring countries. They are immediately recognized by the Soviet Union.
October 7, 1942 The Japanese evacuation of the Liounyan Peninsula culminates with the destruction of the Port Arthur facilities.
November 25, 1942 Juan Antonio Ríos Morales, a member of the Radical Party, is elected president of Chile.
December 31, 1942 The Japanese front is a line anchored by Wonsan and running from there west. Japanese offers of peace (Manchuria to the Soviets, Korea to the Japanese) are considered by Stalin, but rejected.
March 1, 1943 - The American Birth Control League affiliates with several other organizations and reorganizes under the name of the Eugenics Federation of America. It promotes legalization of birth control and abortion as well as legally mandated sterilization for the mentally ill, violent criminals, and others seen as undesirable by the organization.
March 23, 1943 The first jet fighter is developed by RLM using engine design of Anselm Franz.
April 6, 1943 The Japanese launch their counter-offensive. The slow grinding Soviet offensive has been continual throughout the year, but with the arrival of Japanese forces from China and the Japanese shorter supply lines the Soviet casualties are finally beginning to be felt. The Soviet push into Korea has bogged down. With Japan still controlling the seas, it has become a slow, grinding fight all the way down the peninsula, as the Soviets have to take on every fortified pass. The mountainous terrain also does much to negate the Soviet armor advantage. The Japanese actually gain ground and recapture Seoul.
May 1, 1943 Alarmed by the success and aggressiveness of the Soviet Union in the Far East, and impressed by the demonstrations of the German fighter jet, Sweden and Norway agree to join the NEA on the anniversary of its founding.
May 13, 1943 The military ousts Argentina's constitutional government.
June 18 1943 After mediation by the United States, the Second Russo-Japanese War ends when Stalin accepts the last Japanese offer of borders drawn based on the front lines. Manchuria will become the People’s Republic of Manchuria under Mao Tse Tong, but with Soviet troops stationed there guaranteeing they remain within the Soviet sphere. North Korea too becomes a Communist satellite of the USSR. Japan, bled dry by the war, also formalizes the ceasefire with Nationalist China. The Japanese pull out of all of Mainland China, but keep Formosa and Hainan.
July 1, 1943 Impressed with the performance of Soviet armor during the Second Russo-Japanese War, the Reichswehr orders the development of a completely new line of tank inspired by examples acquired from the Japanese.
August 5, 1943 Vargas announces for Brazil a twelve year plan for growth into the interior. To distance himself from the newly defeated Mussolini he begins to go back to some of his left-centre ideologies. The opening of Southern Brazil for homesteading, a more open stance on immigration, and land reforms are key points to his plan. Vargas opens the frontier by opening forts and oil towns around the west and south.
September 20, 1943 In the wake of the Japanese performance in the Second Russo-Japanese war, the Emperor dismisses the militarists and installs more democratically minded ministers.
October 28, 1943 Axis powers launch a surprise invasion of Greece. Bulgaria hits a wall from the very beginning but Italy made some minimal gains before also being stopped. The UK and France consider forcing another conference to deal with the situation, but fall apart with the UK wanting to take a more aggressive stance whereas France wishes to continue the appeasement policy of the past several years.
November 21, 1943 The Greeks, with secret shipments of weapons from the British out of Egypt, launches a counter offensive that recaptures most of the lost territory.
December 1, 1943 Faced with French disinterest in a confrontation with Italy, the UK instead turns to the German Republic and the Northern European Alliance, jointly sending a demarche to the Axis powers to withdraw to their borders or a state of war will exist between them. The Axis received 72 hours to comply. Europe is on the brink of a major war.
December 2, 1943 Armed forces of the Northern European Alliance begin to mobilize. Axis nations’ leaders meet in an emergency meeting in Rome.
December 3, 1943 Axis begins withdrawing from Greece. German President Lettow-Vorbeck announces this as a victory for the democracies of Europe. He also states that the Balkans is not a playfield that could be trampled on by the fascist nations and invites both Turkey and Greece to join their European Alliance. The United Kingdom, disillusioned with the French response to the crisis, announces that it will be formally joining the NEA, which it has supported for years. France appears to stand alone.
January 7, 1944 The A-4 rocket has its first successful launch at Peenemünde.
February 7, 1944 Turkey asks for membership of the Northern European Alliance. With borders with both communists and fascists they consider this their best course of action.
February 21, 1944 Greece asks for membership to the Northern European Alliance. With their pre-Greek crisis neutrality stance shot to bits by the actions of the Axis they decide like the Turkish government that their best course of action was to join the Northern European Alliance.
March 15, 1944 Konrad Zuse forms Zusewerks to develop commercial computers, in large part based on contracts with the German Republic. Zusewerks will be the dominant computer corporation in Europe.
June 5, 1944 Brazil creates a company for the production of materials needed by the chemical industry.
November 7, 1944 President Vandenberg wins re-election in the USA.
December 8, 1944 Denmark announces it will be joining the NEA, completing the Alliance's control of the Baltic.
March 2nd 1945 Border dispute on Tunisian-Libyan border. Small casualties on both sides. Mussolini asks for an apology from the French government, even when his troops were the ones that stray into French territory.
March 9th 1945 Secret buildup of Italian forces in Libya is started under the guise of a military exercise.
April 4th 1945 Italian forces cross into Tunisia in force. While overall the French border fortifications resisted the onslaught, breakthroughs by Italian forces forced the French to abandon the border fortifications and withdrew north on the 7th.
April 13th 1945 Italian forces capture Gabes. French offer cease-fire to discuss border adjustments. But Mussolini refuses out of hand and dreams of pushing the French out of Tunisia altogether and of even greater ones.
April/June 1945 Italian forces continued their advance in Tunisia while French fought a defensive strategy while moving forces into the theater. The Italian advance to the interior in the direction of the Kasserine Pass bogged down but the city of Sfax was captured the 4th of June. Italians have the initiative on all theaters during this period.
April 18th 1945 A motorized corps is organized in France, composed of the 3rd and 4th Armored plus the 1st DLM under the command of Charles de Gaulle for deployment to Africa.
April 19th 1945 Italy expands the war with the beginning of an air campaign directed at the French airfields on the south of France and Corsica. The French responded in kind with attacks to Italian air bases in northern Italy. So far into the war both sides are not targeting civilian targets. By the end of April, French aircrafts coming from the north turn this campaign into a stalemate but the Italians ruled the skies over Corsica.
April 20th 1945 French Somaliland surrenders to Italian forces.
April 28th 1945 Battle of Convoy FG28- Two Italian light cruiser with destroyer escorts tried to intercept this convoy. Unknown to them this convoy was escorted by the battle cruiser Bretagne, a light cruiser and destroyers. On the ensuing battle one Italian cruiser was sunk and the other suffers considerable damage while the French losses were minimal. The French convoys to North Africa thereafter were only affected by an overall ineffective submarine campaign.
May 1st 1945 Charles de Gaulle and lead elements arrive to Algiers. Rest of his Corps will be in theater and ready to enter combat by the end of the month.
May 8th 1945 In the biggest airborne operation in history, two airborne divisions dropped on the island of Corsica and caught the small garrison unprepared. The island is considered secure by the 18th of May after the arrival of another division by sea on the 10th to help consolidate the situation.
May 10th 1945 1st naval Battle of Corsica. The French cruiser Algiers, a light cruiser and escorts clashed with the ships escorting the infantry division on bound to Corsica. The Vittorio Veneto and the Roma made mincemeat of the French ships, sinking both the Algiers and the light cruiser with the lost of a single destroyer. Mussolini hailed this victory as a sign of the Italian superiority in battleships.
May 15th 1945 Mussolini offers terms to French to accept the current situation as permanent. The French refuse out of hand.
May 22nd 1945 French government receives assurances from the German nation that they will stay neutral in this conflict. Great Britain guaranteed this, even stating they will side with the French if Germany breaks their word. Story is that German President Lettow -Vorbeck said. “Your flank is secure. Go deal with our would-be Caesar, and when his little sticks are kindling, tell him Arminius says hello.”
May 24th 1945 French High Command began swift of forces south. While still leaving a sizeable force on the border with Germany, the bulk of the forces in Northern France began to move south in preparation of the one-two punch planned by the French leaders.
June 6th 1945 2nd naval Battle of Corsica. The French plan to gain naval superiority in the immediate waters of Corsica was a classic battle facing two battleships on each side were the lines of communication with the Italian garrison in Corsica was on the balance. The French battleships Richelieu and Jean Bart suffered moderate and slight damage respectively but they fared better than their Italian counterparts. The Duilio was sunk while the Roma suffered severe damage and has to withdraw in the direction of Taranto for repairs.
June 8th 1945 The sinking of the Roma. The battleship Roma, moving away from Corsica after being damaged in battle, is sunk by an aerial attack launched from the aircraft carrier Bearn. While many said the ship prior damage in battle is the real reason it was sunk, this action together with the actions of the Japanese fleet during the Russo-Japanese fleet proved the aircraft carrier was the future of naval forces.
June14th 1945 Italian forces in Tunisia stop offensive operations due to weariness. By now the forces involved have been fighting close to two months without rest and where close to been exhausted. Reinforcements and replacements were been marshaled in southern Italy for the trip to Libya.
June 29th 1945 British government closes the Suez Canal to all military traffic, even troop carriers.
July 3rd 1945- Simultaneous campaigns launched in the French-Italian border and in Tunisia.
July 4th 1945 Late on the afternoon Corps d’Afrique under de Gaulle achieves breakthrough and began his race for Gabes.
July 5th 1945 General Graziani recognizes the danger of the French breakthrough and orders a general withdraw before his forces get encircled.
July 8th 1945 First registered use of gas in the war. Use by Italian forces on the Alps to defeat a French attack against a fortified position.
July 9th 1945 Forces marked for reinforcement of the Tunisian effort have to be deviated north to help stop the French attack on the Alps. Forces in Tunisia were left to fend for themselves.
July 9th 1945 First registered use of gas in Tunisia. Forces escaping from the Kasserine front use gas in their attempt to break free. The shock of the use of gas made possible the escape of the majority of the forces in that front back to the border.
July 10th 1945 First bombardment of cities. Cities on Nice, Marseilles and Grenoble received the “visit” of Italian bombers. French responded later on the day with attacks to Genoa and Milan.
July 11th - 12th 1945 The Corps d’Afrique fought the biggest mechanized battle ever with the Ariete armored division and the Trieste motorized one, part of the forces trying to escape encirclement north of Gabes. Both forces suffered heavy casualties but the Italians failed in their attempt to escape encirclement. De Gaulle units pocketed the Sfax force.
July 19th 1945 Battered Italians forces reached the Tunisian-Libyan border and began to dig in. 75,000 Italians soldiers are surrounded on the Tunisian coast south of Sfax and north of Gabes.
July 23rd 1945 Offensive on the Alps stopped with minimal gains. Some news reporters compared the casualties suffered by the French “as a replay of the Great War.” Still Mussolini was forced by his own casualties to ask his Axis allies for help.
July 24th 1945 Germany and all members of the Northern European Alliance refuse the final Axis petition for right of transit of land and air forces through their territories. Instead, forces must be sent by circuitous routes in the case of Bulgaria and Hungary, and Poland can only send ‘volunteers’ through civilian transportation, with no equipment. Mussolini considers declaring war on the Northern European Alliance over this ‘obstructionism’, but King Victor Emmanuel III forbids a widening of the war.
August 1, 1945 The Kriegsmarine is granted permission to begin design work for a line of aircraft carriers.
August 3rd 1945 French Foreign Legion 3rd REI opens gap on Italian forces in Libyan border. De Gaulle Corps d’ Afrique, now reduced to two under strength divisions in manpower, pours thru the gap. Italian forces began disorganized withdraw east.
August 5th 1945 General LeClerc’s Army of Central Africa began invasion of southern Libya from French Equatorial Africa. Opposition is minimal with Italian forces escaping north.
August 13th 1945 De Gaulle enters city of Tripoli. General Graziani sacked by Mussolini.
August 20 1945 Ethiopians surreptitiously armed by the British and French begin an insurrection against the Italians.
August 22nd 1945 French forces capture el Agheila. French forces in control of Tripolitania and southern Libya. Mussolini offers peace based on the pre-war borders. France, sure now of their ability to take the war to the enemy, refuses to event discuss those terms. War continues.
September 1st 1945 The bomber campaigns begin. Both nations began bomber campaigns against each other cities. These raids continued thru the rest of the war and affected more Italy, due to their industrial sites being located in the northern cities for the most part.
September 4th 1945 Franco rejected the plea of Mussolini to join the war on the Axis side. He used as an excuse that his nation was still recovering from the effects of the Civil War.
September 5th 1945 Italian forces pocketed in Tunisia surrender and go into captivity. More than 70,000 men were captured.
September 18th 1945 French forces launch amphibious invasion of Sardinia. Small garrison on the island overwhelm in 10 days after heavy casualties for both sides.
September 19th 1945 Battle of the
Tyrrhenian Sea Sea. Battleship Impero and escorts intercepted by the battleship Jean Bart and the battle cruiser Lorraine. The aftermath was the destruction of the Impero while the Lorraine suffered severe damage and it took years to repair the extensive damage it suffered. The Italian navy never again tried to contend the French domain of the sea.
September 21, 1945 End of the severe famine due to drought near Hanoi and surrounding areas kills close to one million people but more are saved by a League of Nations effort to help the people in the area. However, Ho Chi Minh uses this drought to recruit members for his movement.
December 23, 1945 Ho Chi Minh launches their first large-scale attack against the French. By now the Viet Minh are 30,000 strong and the numbers continue to grow.
October 2nd 1945 Simultaneous offensives launched in Africa and northern Italy by the French. This time French forces are prepared for chemical warfare and they expect to break the Italian lines this time.
October 7th 1945 With the Italian lines on the verge of collapse, nerve gas is used for first time in history to try to stop the French. The French offensive is stopped due to the terrible casualties inflicted to the unprepared troops. The results of the use of this experimental weapon never tested were a shock to both the Italians and the rest of the world.
October 9th 1945 With world public opinion outraged by the use of this new weapon and the latest ill-fortunes of the Italian forces being made public to the Italians, King Victor Emmanuel III asks Mussolini for his resignation. Mussolini, after a late bid to save his position, gave his resignation early in the morning of the 10th of October.
October 10th 1945 Count Ciano, Italian temporary leader offers peace based on October 1st frontlines. The offer is refused.
October 14th 1945 Benghazi captured by French forces. Italians continue their escape east.
October 21st 1945 Tobruk abandoned by Italian forces. More than 20,000 men flee by sea from this port before the evacuation of the city. Italian forces are actually fleeing east. Any sense of trying to defend is now gone.
October 28th 1945 Bardia and Fort Capputo surrenders to French forces. Close to 50,000 men cross into Egypt to be interned.
October 25, 1945 The German speaking portion of the Tyrol in Italy rises up and declares itself free of the Italians. German Alpine troops are requested by the leaders of the revolt to move into the area to maintain the peace.
October 31 1945 The French gained the initiative in mid June and never lost it. Their simultaneous campaigns in July, while one of them could be considered a failure, were too much for the Italian forces. Even with reinforcements from their Axis allies the tide could not be turned back, especially when efforts went in vain to get Franco’s Spain to join the war. By the end of October the end was near.
November 11th 1945 Italian garrison in Corsica asks for terms due to the lack of supplies and according to their commander, “To ease the suffering of the civilians on the island.”
November 17th 1945- In an accord brokered by the United States and the League of Nations, the warring factions in Colombia agreed to end the conflict that caused thousands of deaths and devastated the economy of that nation. President Vandenberg sees this accord “as giving peace to this generation of Colombians and hopefully to the coming ones.”
December 15th 1945 “The Christmas Offensive” starts. The French used chemicals weapons offensively for the first time in the war and a small amphibious force was landed behind the enemy lines.
December 18th 1945 The landing behind the lines is contained on the beachheads but the front line on the passes was ready to burst. With both forces near exhaustion
December 21, 1945 Italian defenses on the passes were broken. The road to Northern Italy was open for the French.
December 23rd 1945 Count Ciano asks for a ceasefire to discuss terms of surrender. After deliberation the French government agreed.
January 15, 1946 Conservative Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe is elected president of Chile.
January 29th 1946 The British mediated Treaty of Nice is signed. The terms were harsh but not as bad as expected. The French recovered French Somaliland and kept Libya and Sardinia. Albania was granted its independence. Abyssinia also regained its independence once more and was given Eritrea as a sea access, both as a reward for the Abyssinian insurrection that tied down Italian troops and to placate the UK, who did not wish to see the French presence grow in East Africa. Similarly, Italian Somaliland stayed in the hands of the Italians due to British worries about French encroachment in East Africa and their preference to have a now weak Italy in control of that area than a strong France. The Franco-Italian border was demilitarized. The Italian army was reduced to 200,000 men and prohibited from having chemical weapons or armored vehicles. Also the two newest remaining battleships, the Littorio and the Vittorio Veneto were taken by the French as war booty while the Italian navy had to discard their submarine fleet and was prohibited from building more battleships, aircraft carriers or ships with guns bigger than 12”. Italy’s bid to be a major power was over. Another result of this treaty was the effective end of the Axis alliance, as the Italians were forced to repudiate all previous security agreements.
January 30, 1946 Italy agrees to cede the German-speaking Tyrol to Germany.
February 20, 1946 Perón is victorious in Argentine elections. He aggressively pursues policies aimed at giving an economic and political voice to the working class and greatly expanding the number of unionized workers.
June 3, 1946 the National Motor Company begins the production of trucks.
August 14, 1946 Dictator Vargas of Brazil sees the realization of one of his cherished dreams; The National Steel Company begins production at the Volta Redonda plant between Rio de Janeiro and Săo Paulo.
August 26, 1946 Philippines awarded their independence by the United States; a very peaceful transition from Commonwealth to Republic.
August 29, 1946 Start of communist guerilla campaign in China. Chiang accuses the Soviet and the Republic of Manchuria of aiding the rebels, charges they deny.
September 27, 1946 Communist forces capture Xian. Evidence of heavy artillery and crew served weapons verified by foreign witnesses.
October 18, 1946 US President Arthur Vandenberg pledge his support to the government of the Republic of China. Loans are granted to purchase newer equipment to fight the communist aggression.
December 11, 1946 - After the Tunisian War has ended, the first significant change in the League of Nations is accepted by the Assembly (which consists of all member states). From now on, the Council will be in constant meeting, as a diplomatic front and coordination hub for multinational actions.
January 14, 1947 Communist insurrection started in Luzon Island by a group later know as the Huks.
February 4, 1947 President Lettow-Vorbeck announces that he will not seek re-election to the Presidency.
February 14th 1947 First free elections in Italy since the 1920’s. A coalition of center-left factions wins the election as a response of the electorate to the failure of the fascists during the war.
March 13, 1947 Communist strikes on the Japanese port of Osaka and other major ports turns violent. Troops called to break the disturbances. Japanese Communist Party outlawed as a result. Emergency powers are given to Admiral Yamamoto to rule Japan until the Communist menace is eliminated.
April 20, 1947 The first successful test detonation of an atomic bomb performed by Germany.
June 20, 1947 In the second dual Presidential and Reichstag elections, the SPD candidate, senior statesman Otto Braun wins the presidency on the second ballot. SPD leader Erich Ollenhauer becomes Chancellor of a center-left coalition government. He and UK Labour Government Prime Minister Clement Attlee would come to work closely together over the years.
August 1, 1947 Though delayed by security concerns caused by the recent Tunisian War in North Africa, the Partition of the Palestinian mandate goes into effect, creating a Jewish state called Israel in the Northwest, Palestine in the rest of the mandate, and leaving a large British controlled enclave in the middle centered on Jerusalem. The event is marred by violence by extremist groups from both sides dissatisfied by the arrangement, but the large British troop contingent keeps the event relatively peaceful.
March 12 1948 Miklos Horthy is reported to die from a heart attack in his sleep. Shortly thereafter, a popular coup is launched against the fascist government by a coalition of republicans and monarchists, secretly sponsored by the German government. As part of the coalition agreement, a constitutional monarchy is established under the Hapsburg heir, Otto I. However, in return for German assistance and non-interference, Otto renounces all claims to former Hapsburg lands outside of Hungary proper. One of the first acts of the new government is to repeal the oppressive numerus clausus and anti-Semitic laws.
March 29, 1948 Werner von Braun becomes head of the new civilian German Space Agency he has lobbied for years to have formed.
April 8, 1948 Admiral Yamamoto announces the Emergency is over and elections will be held on June 8th 1948 to elect a new Prime Minister. The Japanese communist movement has been stamped out. With their leaders dead, jailed or gone into exile the movement is effectively dead.
June 12, 1948 Mohammed Hatta and Sukarno ask the Dutch Government in a letter published in Batavia to begin a process of gradual independence to Indonesia. Both are jailed for sedition.
July 4, 1948 Schwinn declares that men’s bicycling has doubled in the past decade, making it one of the most popular activities in America.
October 5, 1948 Japan is accepted back as a member of the League of Nations after Admiral Yamamoto put in a request for admittance as one of his last officials acts as de facto ruler of Japan.
July 8, 1948 - Portugal announces the formation of the Portuguese Union, comprised of Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, and Portugal's few other small colonies. It is modeled on the examples of the French Union and British Commonwealth.
November 2, 1948 Democrat Claude Pepper wins the US Presidential Election.
February 7, 1949 With Huk influence now covering more than ž of the island of Luzon, the Philippines government ask the League of Nations for help in stamping this rebellion. Japan pledge air support and two SNLF brigades to help defeating the rebellion. Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Germany also pledge their support but in a smaller scale than Japan.
February 11, 1949 The United States, worried by how much the League and especially Japan can extend their influence over Philippines, also offers help in the form of air support, loans for the purchase of weapons and a mix Marine-Army Task Force comprised of forces already stationed in Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States.
August 14, 1949 The last British forces leave India except for the ones in the Calcutta naval station, the airbase near Bombay, and sundry other bases necessary for the defense of the Commonwealth.
October 2, 1949 The German Reichstag passes an amendment to have the Presidential election go to a run-off if there is no majority winner in the first round.
October 4, 1949 The Chinese Communist stronghold in Yennan falls to Nationalist Army. End of organized communist resistance in China. While low-level guerilla warfare will continue the threat of a Communist insurrection achieving their goal of defeating Chiang’s government is considered over.
November 1, 1949 The guerilla war in Vietnam continues with no end in sight. By now the Viet Minh is close to 45,000 men strong.
December 2, 1949 Charles de Gaulle, a hero of the French-Italian war, ordered to Indochina to take command of the forces in the region.
May 21st, 2006, 09:06 PM
March 29, 1950 Process of Vietnamization of forces serving in Indochina started. By July 1954 close to 50% of French forces fighting the guerillas would be Vietnamese soldiers. This was a result of the losses incurred during the French-Italian war, which created a manpower drain in the French forces at the time.
April 8, 1950 Combined United States-Japanese force capture Huk stronghold in Mt Abak. Casualties are heavy but Huk leader captured during operation. General Maxwell Taylor, US commander in theater, praised the performance of the Japanese soldiers and said this event could be the beginning of a closer relationship between both nations. Picture of Japanese and American soldiers jointly raising each other flags made the front page of Times Magazine.
June 26, 1950 - The Eugenics Federation of America joins with similar organizations in other nations to form the World Eugenics Federation.
July 17th 1950-Vikdun Quisling is named ambassador to the Soviet Union. The former Norwegian Minister of the Interior during the early and middle 1940’s, is known for leaning to the extreme right and this post is considered by many a political exile caused by his now unpopular views. Within months of his arrival in Moscow, he would be found dead in his office, apparently by his own hand.
August 9, 1950 President Claude Pepper is assassinated by a group of gunmen while visiting New York City. The assailants are identified as four Puerto Rican independence sympathizers. Vice President Harry S Truman is sworn in as President of the United States later that day. The fall-out from the assassination leads to discrediting of the Puerto Rican independence movement.
September 28th 1950 Outfielder Joe Matthews of the Chicago Cubs wins the homerun crown with 51 HRs and later is named National League MVP.
October 1, 1950 Berlin film studios proudly announce they have now outdone Hollywood movies at the international box office for three years straight. The competition between the two film meccas remains fierce.
April 7th 1951: Dr. Mossadeq elected Prime Minister of Iran. He formally nationalized the nation’s oil industry.
May 1, 1951 The Soviet Union test detonates its first atomic bomb, developed mostly from plans stolen from Germany through espionage.
May 8, 1951 Chinese and French officers met to discuss cooperation to eradicate Viet Minh on both side of their borders.
May 18th 1951: Alcide de Gaspari reelected Prime Minister after the short government of the Italian Social Movement under Count Galeano Ciano is disbanded by the King. The Italian’s People Party will rule the 1950’s in Italy, first under de Gaspari and later under Fernando Tromboni. A staunch Catholic and Conservative party, they moved in the direction of better relations with their neighbors during the period.
September 1, 1951: Great Britain declares an embargo aimed at the nation of Iran. Great Britain challenge of the nationalization of the oil industry failed after the League’s International Court ruled in favor of Iran. Still Iranian economy began to suffer due to the lack of foreign exchange and oil revenues.
September 9, 1951 Operation Joint Strike started by both the Chinese and French in each other sides of the border. Operation last until the end of November and close to 15,000 enemy men are either killed or captured. With the destruction of the Viet Minh sanctuaries on the other side of the Chinese border the war entered a lull in the tempo of operations until the Viet Minh recovered from the terrible casualties of this operation.
November 16th 1951: An anti-Semitic campaign masterminded and planned for years by Lavrenty Beria and Georgy Malenkov finally ends with the arrest of thousands of Jewish doctors and other professionals as traitors to the Soviet Union. The deportations and casualties in the Jewish community will continue until the dead of Stalin in 1953.
December 8, 1951 With war in the Philippines winding down, the German detachment began embarkation home. The German detachment during the war never was bigger than a couple of close support bomber squadrons and two special civic action groups.
January 3, 1952 League of Nations officially announces their mission to the Philippines to be over. Still Australians troops stayed until May 16th 1952 and Japanese forces until October 10th 1955.
February 6, 1952 Border clashes between Soviet Union and China in the Sinking-Soviet border and the Mongolian-Soviet border used by Stalin to launch an invasion of both borders areas. Sino-Soviet War of 1952-53 starts with this action. Stalin gambled that with his very public demonstration that he knows possessed the Atomic bomb the League of Nations wasn’t going to risk general war for some territory in the middle of Asia.
March 7, 1952 United States detonates their first atomic bomb in the Nevada desert.
March 17th 1952: General Fazhollah Zahedi attempt of a coup fails due to the Shah’s doubts in giving support to the General. General Zahedi goes into exile to Turkey.
April 18th 1952: New coalition government takes control of Iran. Dr. Mossadeq still on power but more National Front and Tudeh party members take control of the government. The new Minister of War was a member of the Tudeh and while the Shah was still technically the ruler of the nation the reins of power were on the hands of the Coalition.
May 17th 1952: Soviet “technicians” invited by the Tudeh Minister of War to help modernize the nation’s military.
May 18th 1952- With the unlikely support of the Peronists in Argentina and the Uruguayan Communists, the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (or MNR) took power in Bolivia and began a process of nationalization of the mines, agrarian reform and the division of the large estates to be distributed to the peasants.
July 8, 1952 - After years of talks between NEA members Greece and Turkey brokered by Britain, there is still no clear decision on a path for Cyprus. Britain announces that it will retain control of the island for the foreseeable future.
August 9th 1952- An arms sales agreement was signed today between the United States and Chile. US President Truman stated that “…Chile is a beacon of democracy in South America and it’s our nation’s duty to help the country stay that way….”
September 29th 1952- Boston Red Sox outfielder Ted Williams wins the American league batting championship with a .379 batting avg.
November 4, 1952 Harry S Truman wins the US Presidential election.
March5, 1953 - The United States of America finally joins the League of Nations after heavy pressure from President Truman on Congress.
March 10, 1953 Treaty of Beijing signed. Republic of China is forced to recognize lost of the province of Sinking to the Soviets and other small territorial concessions on the Mongolian-Chinese border. Truman's response to this treaty was that, “The fear of this new weapon, the atomic bomb, is the only reason the free nations of the world stood idle while this unequal treaty was imposed on the Chinese people.”
May 7th 1953 Joseph Stalin dies from heart attack on his dacha on the outside of Moscow. With his death, Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-communist commission begins to lose momentum.
May 12th 1953: Georgy Malenkov announced as the successor of Joseph Stalin as leader of the Soviet Union.
June 5, 1953 Truman, disgusted by a recent outbreak of egregious lynchings in the South, particularly one involving Buffalo soldiers who were veterans of the Philippines campaign, starts a civil rights commission and orders the desegregation of the military.
June 21, 1953 Great Britain detonates their first atomic weapon on the Australian outback. The Japanese are impressed by reports of this explosion and begin a crash program.
August 17, 1953 Mohammad Hatta and Sukarno, just released from prison after serving five years sentences, gave a speech asking the Indonesian people to fight for their freedom and to throw the Dutch out of their country. They immediately went into hiding. This date is considered the start of the Indonesian War of Independence or the Indonesian Insurrection, depending of the point of view.
February 17th 1954- Loose coalition of Kaganovich, Molotov, Khrushchev and Zhukov participated in a successful palace coup against Beria and Malenkov. Beria is killed and Malenkov dismissed. End of Jewish persecution in the USSR.
May 18, 1954 Charles de Gaulle is replaced as commander of the French forces in Indochina and retires from military service soon after to enter politics.
July 16, 1954 Otto Braun wins reelection as President of Germany in the run-off.
July 19th 1954: Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov flies to Warsaw to discuss a thawing of the relations between both nations. Talks failed due to the Polish Foreign Minister’s General Komorowski-Bor to accept Soviet forces on their soil. The Poles didn’t trust the intentions of the Soviets and also the provocation the stationing of Soviet forces in Polish territory was a risk that must likely was going to be viewed as a threat to the NEA.
September 7th 1954: King Farouk of Egypt died of what is considered heart failure after a state dinner. His infant son, Farouk II, succeeds him. A regent council is created to rule until the time the boy can assume his role as King.
September 22, 1954 The Republic of China and the United Kingdom sign an extension of the lease of the city of Hong Kong that will finally end the British ownership of the city in the year 2050.
September 24, 1954 Secret meeting between Chinese government officials and moderate members of the Viet Minh promises covert support if they tone down their socialist leaning, turn more into a nationalist movement instead of a communist one and get rid of the more radical members of their movement.
January 1, 1955 German President Otto Braun dies, becoming the first president of the Republic to die while in office.
January 22 1955 After a decade-long stalemate in the discussion of using Esperanto as the official language of the League of Nations, France finally agrees to a compromise: the official documents are written in Esperanto, French, German and English, while international discussions are held in Esperanto. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from the League, headed by the most prominent enemy of Esperanto, Stalin, there were no objections, as Esperanto was seen to be an independent language, without the appearance of cultural subservience.
March 2, 1955 Konrad Adenauer becomes the new President of the German Republic after a whirlwind campaign. Gains for his party are expected in the next Reichstag election.
March 13th 1955- Lazar Kaganovich and Vladimir Molotov replaced as leader of the Soviet Union and Foreign Minister in that order. The pro-reform minded Khrushchev and Zhukov ousted the two staunch Stalinist members and began secret reforms to the Soviet institutions.
June 6th 1955: Poland signs a trade agreement with Hungary and the Central European Republic. While failing to negotiate with the Baltic States or Germany many experts considered this a move in a direction of thawing relations between the NEA and Poland.
July 5, 1955 Trade and Cooperation Agreement signed by the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. Chiang’s victories over the guerillas in his country and over the Viet Minh gave him a false sense of security that came crashing down with the defeat in the war of 1952. Both Japan and his nation considered the Soviet Union the main threat and this treaty is the realization that their best approach was cooperation.
November 8th 1955: First joint military exercises between Chinese and Japanese celebrated in Formosa thru the month.
April 4th 1956- Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia celebrated the anniversary of his return from exile with a declared long week holiday that also celebrated the end of Italian occupation ten years ago. Foreign dignitaries were invited to the different ceremonies celebrated during the week.
April 7th 1956 A veteran of the Negro League, Jackie Robinson, now of the Brooklyn Dodgers, hits a single on his first at bat in the major leagues, becoming the first black man since the late 19th century to play Major League Baseball.
June 20, 1956 The Great Transportation Exposition is held in Berlin. A retrospective on the Zeppelin line is a centerpiece, as this is the last year of commercial passenger flights for the airlines as jet planes now dominate the market. Zeppelins will stay in service for decades to come for freight transport due to it being much cheaper. Also featured at the Expo is the newest line of speed trains for the German-Europa lines, which are the densest within the German Republic, but is coming to dominate transportation in most of Europe. The auto is relegated to a recreational vehicle for getting away to the far-off countryside. A popular attraction is the panorama display from the German space industry. Many stars of the Berlin Movie Industry, which rivals Hollywood in the USA, put in an appearance at the Expo.
September 8th 1956- The Kingdoms of Hungary and Bulgaria are admitted into the NEA after German recommendation in favor of their membership.
March 2nd 1957 From his secret capital in the province of Aceh, the self-proclaimed president of Indonesia, Sukarno, asks the Netherlands government to end the conflict and together to begin a peaceful transition to independence. The Dutch response was to ask Sukarno to turn himself in and to end the rebellion. The impasse continued.
March 3, 1957 The German A-11 rocket launches the first satellite into orbit. This will be the last great achievement of an independent German Space Program, as spending priorities on domestic programs will not permit further unilateral funding for the very expensive Space program. The German government begins to seek partners for Space exploration.
April 10, 1957 The United States of America form the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) as a response to the A-11 rocket launch, vowing to restore American confidence in their technological advantage.
May 7, 1957 Attorney Thurgood Marshall wins in the Supreme Court with Johnson v. Board of Education, a judgment stating that separate facilities are inherently unequal.
August 17th 1957- Mustafa Barzani gives a speech in Mosul calling for independence for the Kurdish community in Iraq from the ruling Hashemite dynasty. This speech would spark the beginning of the Kurdish Conflict. Both Iran and the USSR support Barzani's call at the time as a way to undermine the British Commonwealth's Iraqi Kingdom.
November 11th 1957- The Netherlands, suffering the third year of a civil war in their East Indies colonies, asks the Northern European Alliance for membership. Their goal is to get the other member nations involved in the war in the East Indies, though membership by no means assures this. By the end of the year parts of Sumatra, Bali and Borneo are effectively in hands of the rebels while a terrorist campaign against government forces is being fought in Java.
February 17th 1958: Netherlands accepted in the Northern European Alliance but was dismayed when other member nations refused to get involved in the bloodbath in the East Indies.
March 16th 1958- Charles de Gaulle, hero of the Tunisian War, elected Prime Minister of France.
April 15th 1958- 110 dead in terrorist bombing in downtown Baghdad. British High Commissioner and King Faisal II jointly declare a state of emergency in the Kingdom.
April 16th 1958- Chile and Peru sign the Andean Pact, a defensive agreement, due to fears of the Argentines and problems in neighboring Bolivia.
April 17th 1958- High-level guerilla activity began operations in the mountains of northern Iraq. King Faisal II orders armed forces to stomp rebels.
July 4, 1958 The Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America pool their resources to launch a joint space initiative, the North Atlantic Space Agency. The Central European Republic and other Alliance nations soon join the group as junior partners.
August 13th 1958- American Marines landed in Cuba to help in squelching rebellion in the Santiago and Oriente provinces. The President of the USA declared "the United States will not allow a nation so close to our borders to be destabilized by criminals and outlaws. We will stand by General Batista to the end." But privately the US asked Batista to retire while a more reform minded leader could be found to be put in charge of the Cuban nation.
September 18th 1958 France explodes their first atomic bomb in the Sahara desert.
September 21, 1958 As a sign of goodwill towards its partners in the space program, the United States allow foreign scientists of NASA into ARPA. As a boon for the USA, costs are shared between the partners as well.
October 4th 1958- Summer campaign versus guerillas in Northern Iraq ended in an inconclusive manner. King Faisal II asks British government for help.
October 8th 1958- British Prime Minister McMillan pledge help to the Iraqi Kingdom in the form of weapons and advisors.
November 4, 1958 - The League of Nations' great reform is enacted - a revised charter is agreed upon by which sanctions of the League are now legally binding (although even in the early 21st century, not all member nations have ratified this), the Council is strengthened (it now consists of 6 permanent members - France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, the USA, and China - and 6 changing non-permanent members), and the commissions are given more funding.
January 1, 1959 - The election of nationalist Charles de Gaulle in France coupled with the first detonation of a French nuclear weapon in the previous year breaks down the final resistance in the Italian government and they formally petition to join the NEA. March 17, 1959 - Italy joins the NEA.
August 5th 1959: The United States of America and the Philippines complete negotiations with the Sino-Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere to form the Pacific-Asia Co-Prosperity Association (PACPA). One of the main goals of the Association is to strengthen capitalism in the region to combat the spread of Communism.
August 7, 1959 - Cyprus becomes a full member of the British Commonwealth. The day is marked by small riots from both Greek and Turkish Cypriots.
August 8th 1959- France announces their intention to create a French Union, similar in composition to the British Commonwealth. According to insiders, the colonies most likely to get self-rule by 1960 are Syria, Lebanon and Madagascar.
August 14th 1959- The People’s Republic of Uruguay signs a trade and cooperation agreement with the Soviet Union. The agreement includes the stationing of Soviet agricultural technicians in the nation to ensure the good use of the Soviet imports. Unfortunately, Soviet theories of agriculture will lead to a few famines instead.
September 9, 1959 - The World is shocked when the process of De-Stalinization finally goes public (having been ongoing secretly within the Communist Party of the USSR for years). The revelations of this time would make public the fact that Stalin was the greatest mass murderer in known history, causing many Communist regimes in other parts of the world to attempt to distance them from Stalinism, and generally discrediting Communism in the eyes of the rest of the world.
December 25, 1959 Japan explodes their first atomic weapon on Bikini Atoll.
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August 11th 1960-With an ongoing two years guerilla war in the Andes seemingly without end, the MNR Bolivian government accepts the Argentinean offer of troops to help in defeating the rebels and finalizes an arms purchase with the USSR. Uruguayan and Soviet technicians also arrived to help the Bolivians train in their new equipment.
April 17th 1960- Kurdish War enters its second year. No end in sight. British pledge combat troops to try to end the impasse. First corroborated proof of Iranian “volunteers” fighting with rebels.
September 19th 1960- Francisco Franco is assassinated by a car bomb. His will names the young Bourbon Prince Juan Carlos his heir to control of the nation. Although there are some attempts to block this, the army rallies around the young man and control is quickly restored in Madrid.
September 27th 1960- France recognizes the new Spanish government as the legitimate representative of that nation and stops their covert support to guerillas in that country.
October 30th 1960: Italy grants independence to their last colony of Somaliland. The nation takes the name of Somalia. The first new African nation since the founding of South Africa.
November 28th 1960- First British land forces enter combat in Iraq. The so-called “Christmas Gift” offensive that lasted until January 16th caused massive casualties to the rebels and effectively ended high tempo operations by them but still low-level activity continued.
January 1, 1961 By the beginning of the decade, the World Eugenics Federation has made significant progress in legalizing birth control, abortion, and passing sterilization laws in many Western Protestant nations and several Asian nations struggling with growing populations. The Soviet Union embraces birth control and abortion as the rights of women comrades but has consistently rejected outright sterilization laws claiming they are counter to Lysenkoism. Most Catholic nations reject the positions of the World Eugenics Federation based on the teachings of the Church. France does as well, but more in the interests of increasing their shrinking population.
January 3rd 1961-The Bolivian War starts with the advance of Chilenian forces in the direction of Sucre while Peruvian forces began their advance in the direction of La Paz. The Bolivians and their allies were surprised by the Andean Pact response to their suppression of the right wing guerillas.
February 18th 1961- Terrorist bombing to the British barracks of the Sherwood Foresters in Mosul killed 47 troopers and wounded 122. This date considered the beginning of the second phase of the wars. This phase turned into an urban terrorist campaign due to the superior performance of British troops on the field of battle reduced guerilla activity during this time.
April 5, 1961 - The Republic of China detonates its first atomic bomb.
April 14th 1961- La Paz falls to Peruvian forces. But with the weather deterioration due to the coming fall the fronts stabilized until the Spring.
May 24th 1961- Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the West, landing in Berlin on this date to meet with the German President and Chancellor.
June 14th 1961- Conflict expands into Syria. First reported terrorist attacks in Northern Syria.
August 13, 1961 Bishop Karol Józef Wojtyła is martyred along with two others when Polish police open fire on an 'illegal' protest march against Polish eugenics and anti-Semitic laws. Bishop Wojtyła would eventually be canonized as one of the first Polish saints in many years.
August 14th 1961- Protest in Port Said calling for the British withdraw from the Suez Canal area broken up by British military police. 12 dead in the confrontation and while publicly the Egyptian government supported the British action; negotiations began in Geneva to end the British presence in the area.
October 8, 1961 The Soviet Union shocks the world by sending the first man into orbit. Funding of the North Atlantic Space Agency will increase significantly as the member nations dedicate themselves to putting a base on the moon by 1980.
October 13th 1961- British Commonwealth sanctioned South Africa and the Federation of Rhodesia due to their policy of apartheid.
October 15th 1961- Los Angeles Dodgers outfielder Willie Mays wins the National League MVP after leading the Dodgers to the World Series. The Dodgers lost the series but thanks to the 321 AVG, 52 Hrs and 132 RBIs by Mays they won the National League pennant by 7 games over the Cardinals.
October 28th 1961- Joint Bolivian-Argentinean offensive pushed the Chilenians close the original border but offensive need to be ended by the end of November due to Peruvian decision to help the Chilenians by launching an offensive of their own on November 15th and Argentina shifting forces to help Uruguay repel the Brazilian invasion.
November 13th 1961- First round of negotiations between the British and Egyptian government ended in an impasse. While both sides agreed to a gradual devolution of the area to Egypt, the British plan (return to Egypt in phases with a final handover in 2000) was seem by the Egyptian representatives as too extreme.
November 21st 1961- Brazil invades Uruguay. Brazilian High Command shocked by the Uruguayan prepared positions, their well equipped forces and the ferocity of their resistance. Their advance was negligible and their casualties heavy.
December 15th 1961- Brazilian advance into Uruguay stopped by the arrival of Argentinean forces to the theater. A slow grinding process will be started to push Brazilians out of Uruguayan territory that would take all summer.
January 8th 1962- Chilenians start a summer offensive after their materials losses had been replaced by US aid.
February 3rd 1962- After months of negotiation ending in failure, South Africa abandoned the Commonwealth and declared independence.
February 17th 1962- Federation of Rhodesia followed the South African example and declared independence from the Commonwealth.
March 16th 1962: After close to ten years of war the Netherlands agreed to a ceasefire to begin negotiations to end the Indonesian war. By now the islands of Sumatra and Borneo are, except for some small enclaves, under the control of the rebels plus guerilla activity exists in all the islands in the archipelago.
March 18th 1962- Great Britain declares the actions of South Africa and Rhodesia to be illegal and to rescind their declarations of independence.
March 19th 1962: The Imperial Japanese and the Kuomintang governments recognize the Indonesian rebel government as the representative of the Indonesian people. The covert help to the Indonesian movement since late 1957 was suspected but not verified until secret files of both the Chinese and Japanese governments were declassified in the early 21st century.
March 21st 1962- Chilenians end offensive due to exhaustion. While they recovered the territory lost during the enemy attack of October and November the war was not even close to be over.
March 22, 1962- South Africa and Federation of Rhodesia present their case to the League of Nations in Geneva.
March 26th 1962- Peruvians end their offensive due to exhaustion. Casualties in both the Peruvian and Chilenians offensives were very heavy for both sides involved and a diplomatic solution was being searched by all sides to end the conflict.
March 27th 1962- British Prime Minister Rab Butler declares the actions of South Africa and the Federation of Rhodesia as illegal and null. Ask the Commonwealth members for support on a police action to remove the now considered illegal governments in those nations. While public reaction is mixed in Canada and Australia-New Zealand, he receives a lot of support in favor of this action in the African colonies and the Indian Federation.
April 2nd 1962- South Africa and the Federation of Rhodesia mobilize their Citizen Force, expecting action by the Commonwealth against them.
April 3, 1962 - Ludwig Erhard of the DVP becomes the first member of that party to win the Presidency of the German Republic. He had started out his career with the DNVP under Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, but left the party for the DVP after Goerdeler retired from politics.
April 6th 1962- Northern Rhodesia and Nysaliland announced their intention of staying in the Commonwealth. Rhodesian security forces began fighting with pro-Commonwealth factions in those areas. Considered the date the South African War started.
April 8th 1962- Canada pledge a Canadian Expeditionary Force composed of elements equal to a division plus support elements attached. This force was ready for deployment by the middle of May 1962.
April 9th 1962- Australia and New Zealand announced a combined ANZAC force equivalent to two infantry divisions and support units were going to be ready for deployment by the middle of May 1962.
April 10th 1962- Indian Federation’s Prime Minister Hatta pledges, “The whole might of the Indian Armed forces is at the disposition of the Commonwealth to eliminate the scourge apartheid is to the Indians living in South Africa.” No mention was made of the effects of that institution on the African natives.
April 29th 1962- Brazil agrees to Montevideo Accord. They will pull out of the remaining Uruguayan territory under their control plus they would pay reparations for the losses incurred to Uruguay in exchange of a five-mile demilitarized zone inside Uruguayan territory and no further claims against Brazil would be made in the future.
May 6th 1962- Task Force Albacore, anchored around the 41st Commando Brigade, captures Walvis Bay after 24 hours of heavy fighting. With the capture of the area a forward deployment base began to be build to receive further reinforcements to end the bid of South African independence.
May 7th 1962- Us President secretly pledge US ground troops to the Andean Alliance to try to end the conflict. The only US Airborne Division, the 6th Infantry, and the 1st Infantry Division are activated for deployment overseas.
May 8th 1962- First Indian forces began arriving in Tanganyika to be marshaled for the move south.
May 28th 1962- Meetings between warring factions ended in Caracas without an agreement being reached. League of Nations offers to mediate the conflict but the Andean Alliance refuses, counting on US support to resolve the conflict in their favor.
May 31st 1962- First registered combat between Indian and Rhodesian forces in Nyasaland. Rhodesian forces routed due to less numbers and lack of supplies.
June 4th 1962- Task Force Desert Rat, anchored by the 7th Armored Brigade, began driving in the direction of Windhoek. Resistance was minimal due to complete air superiority in the area.
June 7th 1962- British government announces a blockade of the South African coast. Raw materials and equipment continued to reach South Africa thru Mozambique.
June 19th 1962- Windhoek is captured by Task Force Desert Rat. Northern and central South West Africa abandoned by South Africans with hardly any fighting.
June 29th 1962- Battle of Auob River. First major engagement of the war. British 7th Armored Brigade ambushed by a South African Citizen Force task force in South West Africa supported by 10 Centurion tanks. All South African tanks destroyed but British advance south is stopped.
July 8th 1962- Anchored by the Rhodesian Light Rifles regiment, a joint Rhodesian- South African task force invades Botswana. South Africans leaders recognized that with British control of South West Africa, Botswana was a dagger aimed at their lines of communication with Rhodesia and needed to be neutralized.
July 15, 1962 A great Pan-European maneuver nearly ends in a spectacular failure. While demonstrating the military power of the NEA, it also displays the lack of efficient communication between member militaries.
July 28th to Aug 1st 1962- Task Force Maple Leaf, anchored around the CEF, landed north of Cape Town while Task Force Lowlands, anchored the 52nd Infantry Division, and landed east of the city. After short fighting near the approaches of the city the South African commander in area agrees to ceasefire and pulls out of the city to save civilians lives after destroying the port facilities.
Aug 4th to Aug 12th 1962- Battle of Durban. Task force Wombat, the Anzac expeditionary force, landed in the outskirts of Durban on the 4th and after 8 days of heavy casualties to both sides captured the city of Durban. TV pictures of the wounded being flown by helicopter to the hospital ships and the naval bombardment of the city by the supporting Royal Navy battleships made world’s newscasts.
Aug 14th 1962- The commander of the Task force Bangalore, Field Marshall R. M. Singh declares Nyasaland secured. Task force Bangalore, composed of three Indian divisions supported by the King African Rifles, began advancing into Northern Rhodesia with increased resistance being found.
Aug 19th 1962- British government offers terms to the South African and Rhodesian governments to end hostilities. Terms rejected by both the South African and Rhodesian leaders.
Aug 27th 1962- Commonwealth forces began buildup of their troops on the area to continue operations to the interior. While expansion of the beachheads in Durban and the Cape continued at a slow deliberate pace, British military leaders decided against launching any major offensive operations until the arrival of overwhelming forces. By the end of November three British divisions have arrived to South West Africa, four British to the Cape Town area with the 1st Armored included, six Indian divisions to the Durban area plus three more Indian divisions to the Northern Rhodesia area. Also massive influx of RAF, RAAF and RIAF units arrived to the theater.
Aug 28th 1962- South Africa and the Soviet Union complete a secret agreement for the shipment of weapons in exchange of gold. Weapons began to be received by the South African forces thru Mozambique’s ports by the end of October. While the majority of the weapons received where antitank portable missiles, also around 60 T-58 tanks arrived by the end of October disguised as “farm machinery”.
September 11th 1962- Indian Prime Minister Hatta, British Prime Minister Rab Butler and other Commonwealth leaders meet in London to discuss how to continue prosecution of the campaign and how to administer the area after all its over.
October 4, 1962: 29 year old German artist Jürgen Kaider finishes his final painting "Lichter einer großen Stadt" before commiting suicide in his apartement in Vienna. Kaider's life and work became the inspiration for the postromantic art style, which tried to fuse romantic themes with the cold modern world. Like Kaider himself, this movement was largely a hay fire, although it paved the way for postmodernism and the neo-gothic architecture style.
November 4th 1962- Massive and surprise air offensive launched by combined US-Andean Alliance air assets. By the end of the week they had complete control of the air over Bolivia.
November 13th 1962- In the first combat airdrop since the Tunisian War the US 6th airborne division is dropped behind the main front to capture the passes leading to the front. They effectively cut off close to 40% of the combined manpower of Bolivia and Argentina in the theater.
November 15th 1962- Andean Alliance started their final offensive. While starting slowly by the 17th the Bolivian-Argentinean forces recognized their predicament and began to withdraw in an attempt to force the passes open in their attempt to escape the encirclement.
November 18th 1962- Brazil rejoins the war and invades northeastern Bolivia. Many experts consider this event the reason the Argentines asked for a cease-fire three days later.
November 21st 1962- Argentina asked for a cease-fire. Very lenient terms offered to end hostilities.
November 22nd 1962- Argentina accepts terms. With their economy in shambles after close to two years of war and with the far right opposing Peron due to his help to the Communists in Uruguay, it was enough for the Argentinean government to agree to a cease-fire. Argentinean troops ordered to stay in place and not to engage advancing forces.
November 24th 1962- Santa Cruz falls to Brazilian forces. The Bolivian leaders escape to Argentina and the new provisional government ask for terms of surrender. Date considered end of war.
January 7, 1963 American scientist and ARPA employee J.C.R. Licklider proposes a global network of connected computers. While the response is lukewarm within ARPA, the Hungarian minister of defense gets a hold of the memo and offers Licklider a leading position to form such a network to improve coordination between the militaries of the Alliance.
January 8th 1963- Commonwealth begins offensive against Rhodesian and South African forces. Indian and Anzac forces moved north from Durban in the direction of Pretoria while British and Canadian forces also moved north from Cape Town fanning to eliminate enemy forces in the Cape province. In Northern Rhodesia a massive Indian force pushed the Rhodesians south.
January 17th 1963- Pietermartizburg falls after a short nine day siege. Indian Field Marshall Bhutto publicly admits he's the one to blame for the heavy casualties suffered by the Anzac forces tasked with capturing the city but his decision to refrain of using heavy artillery to defeat the entrenched enemy to save civilians lives was applauded by sectors of the Commonwealth.
January 19, 1963 - NEA member nations on the continent form a customs and trade block, extending the relation from a defensive one to also encompass an economic aspect. The UK has a special status in the economic arrangement in acknowledgement of its dual membership in the NEA and the British Commonwealth.
January 21st 1963- South African forces destroy the dams in the Drakenbergs area in an attempt to slow down the advancing Indians. It was an overall failure, barely slowing the enemy advance.
January 27th 1963-first recorded use of Soviet portable AT weapons by a South African commando unit near Harrismith. The South Africans began to attack the under protected supply trains in an attempt to slow down the advancing Commonwealth forces.
February 14, 1963 - Berlin based band 'Sealion' with their eclectic mix of American Rhythm and Blues and Klezmer music take the music scene by storm in Europe, releasing their first album on this date. They are eventually followed by several other bands with the 'Berlin Sound'. In England and America this period of pop culture is referred to as the 'Berlin Invasion'.
February 18th 1963- Port Elizabeth's garrison commander Robert Holden surrenders the city and refuses orders to fight from South African command. "No civilian will suffer due to the mistakes from the bastards in the General Staff." Many considered this the beginning of the disintegration of the South African forces.
February 24th 1963- City of East London surrenders after six days of heavy fighting between Indian and South African forces. Charges of atrocities by both sides are reported.
March 7th 1963- With the continued deterioration of the condition in South Africa, British Prime Minister Rab Butler announces British forces will withdraw from Iraq for service in South Africa, an attempt at the ‘Iraqization’ of the Kurdish Conflict. It was announced a small ground reaction force was going to be kept in Kuwait and some air support squadrons were going to stay in service in Iraq.
November 3rd 1963- Last British ground forces in Iraq cross the border into Kuwait. This date considered being the beginning of the third stage of the Middle-Eastern conflict.
March 24th 1963- Battle of Bloemfontein. 3rd South African Corps defeated after heavy fighting with the Indian Expeditionary Force. All South African T-58 tanks destroyed in an armor encounter between them and the Indian 4th Armored Division east of the city. Poona Light Horses first unit to enter the city.
March 26th 1963- City of Bloemfontein declared secured by Field Marshall Bhutto.
March 29th 1963- City of Kimberly captured by Canadian forces. Against recommendations of Field Marshall Bhutto to continue the advance, the Commonwealth forces stopped their advance to let their supply trains catch up with them. Enemy commando activity was taking their toll in the supply trains but natives began volunteering to help in hunting the commandos.
May 21st 1963 - Peru and Chile formally join PACPA under the sponsorship of the USA. With increasing cooperation between the PACPA member nations, the USA considers the admission of the Andean Pact countries both as a diplomatic victory and strong warning against further communism in the Pacific Region and South America.
June 12, 1963 - The Peace of Pretoria ends the Southern African Conflict. With the collapse of regular forces in South Africa, the Commonwealth forces, with India providing most of the manpower, has endured and triumphed. Commonwealth forces from throughout the world will in years to come take turns garrisoning the region as a robust irregular terrorist resistance continues for the next decade or more. Diamond and gold wealth is taken in reparations to the Commonwealth for the war, and equality is forced in the region on paper, though in practice it is the 'coloured' and 'mixed' who gain true equality, but the 'blacks' make significant strides, and over the next decade will advance to more truly equal footing. Southern African forces are reduced to a defense force level.
March 13th 1964- Iraq accuses Iran of funding and arming guerrillas in Kurdistan. Iran denies the charges and orders a mobilization of their armed forces in response.
March 31, 1964 - For the first time since the 1940s, the US surpasses Germany as the number one trading partner of Brazil. The rest of the 1960s would see the position going back and forth between the two economic powers.
April 7th 1964- Third round of negotiations between Egypt and Great Britain ended in another impasse due to the Egyptian refusal to accept a 20-year phased handover.
May 4th 1964- Iranian troops cross the border into Iraq near Basra and in the Northern provinces. Start of the Iraq-Iran War and the end of the ‘Iraqization’ policy.
July 7th 1964- Combined British-Iraqi force defeat Iranian advance in the direction of Basra thanks to air superiority and sheer luck. Iranian forces got lost and stumbled into the marshes, making maneuvers very difficult for them.
July 16th 1964- With British air and land forces concentrated in the south, Iranian forces achieved air superiority over the Kurdish provinces and using armor and mechanized forces captured Kirkuk.
July 20th 1964- Ceasefire agreed between the parts to try to reach an understanding to end conflict.
July 23rd 1964- With Iraqi refusal to discuss the Iranian terms, combat resumes in the South and in the Northern provinces.
July 28th 1964- Last Iranian forces in Basra province pushed out of Iraqi soil. British forces began to move north in the direction of Mosul.
August 3rd 1964- Mosul falls to Iranian forces. Reports of Soviet advisors in Iranian armored units corroborated by United States reporters in the city. Rab Butler announces Indian forces marked for deployment in South Africa will be sent to Iraq.
August 4th 1964- Mustafa Barzani gave a speech in Mosul asking the world to recognize the independence of Kurdistan. Both Iran and USSR disavow this speech.
August 7th 1964- With rising unrest in their Kurdish areas, Turkey asks the NEA for help in controlling the situation in those areas.
August 10th 1964- The German 7th Division (Airborne) and the Central European 2nd Division (Airborne) arrive to eastern Turkey to help in diffusing the situation in that area.
August 12th 1964- With the seemingly deteriorating situation and with unrest in their Kurdish provinces, Iran agrees to a League of Nation brokered ceasefire.
August 22nd 1964- Mustafa Barzani after meeting with the Soviet Foreign Minister, agrees to the conditions being negotiated in Jerusalem.
September 14th 1964- The Dutch East Indies achieve independence on this date and change their name to the Republic of Indonesia.
October 5th 1964- Agreement reached in Jerusalem. An autonomous Kurdish government will exist but still as part of the Iraqi nation. Iranian forces began pulling out of Iraq while being replaced by the German 7th Division (Abn) serving as observers of the League of Nations to ensure both sides were complying with agreement.
November 29th 1964- With rising unrest in Syria, Prime Minister De Gaulle declares state of emergency in Syria and blames the Soviet Union for the growing problems in the Middle East.
March 1, 1965- Demographers in the Soviet Union announce that the population in the Far East of the Soviet Union has doubled since settlement was opened up in the post Stalin era, and expect it to double or even triple within the next few decades.
April 19th 1965-German forces in Iraq replaced by League of Nations’ combined Infantry division composed of troops from Mexico, Romania and China.
May 15, 1965 The first connection between two supercomputers in Budapest and Vienna is successfully established. During the first tests, problems with communication are realized. To address these, the PENNET (Pan-European Network) team is stocked up to include Dietrich Dorfmann, a German scientist and inventor of the theories of packet-switching.
July 17th 1965- An agreement is finally reached in the discussions between the Egyptian and British nations in regard to the Suez Canal. The Canal will be transferred to the Egyptian nation on the year 1980 with gradual transfer starting in 1968. Many viewed the agreement as a victory but nationalistic elements considered this agreement as surrender to the British and protests in Egyptian major cities began thru the summer and continued thru the fall.
August 13th 1965- King Faisal II of Iraq assassinated by a disgruntled veteran blaming the Royal family for the problems of the nation. Chaos ensues in the non-Kurdish area of the nation and British forces from Kuwait move in to try to keep order.
August 15, 1965 - Laos becomes a full member of the French Union.
February 26, 1966 - Cambodia is accepted as a full member of the French Union.
February 8th 1967- All leaders of the Iraqi factions agree to a cease fire and meet in Geneva in an attempt to end of the civil war.
May 18th 1967- The Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, gave his famous speech in favor of segregation including the line, “Segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.”
May 19th 1967- An accord is reached that transform Iraq into a Republic. A position of president was created, with a six years term with no chance of reelection. All sides view this as a way to ensure no faction could entrench themselves in power. Elections were decided to be held in October of 1967 with League of Nations observers on site to ensure no fraud is committed.
July 4, 1967 - Caribe formally admitted as the fifty-first state of the Union. In the aftermath of the assassination of President Pepper, the Puerto Rican independence movement was discredited and a strong statehood movement took root, with increased English education being seen as vital to that effort. The statehood movement in Puerto Rico spurred a parallel movement in the US Virgin Islands as well. By the mid 1960s, congress was willing to admit both to the Union, but only as a single state. After difficult negotiations, it was finally decided that they would merge to become the State of Caribe.
September 27th 1967- New York Yankees outfielder Lou Brock breaks the record of stolen bases in a season, ending the season with 115 stolen bases. Brock, acquired by the Yankees after the 1965 season from the Cubs, “has changed the Yankees from a power ball to a small ball club” according to his manager Yogi Berra.
January 8th 1968- Imad Fahkir Hasan elected first president of the Republic of Iraq.
January 30, 1968 - Timed to coincide with the New Year, Vietnam formally gains its independence from France. Despite the best efforts of the French government, they were unable to talk the Vietnamese nationalists into joining the French Union, and eventually acknowledged their full independence after decades of struggle.
November 25th 1968 – Outgoing President Richard Nixon signs the Civil Rights legislation bill. There are protests in some major cities of the Southern states as a result.
February 11, 1969 - The League of Nations Commissions of International Cooperation and Education proudly announce that one-fifth of the generation born after the Great War is fluent in Esperanto, with those born after 1950 being a major contributing factor.
March 1, 1969 A series of scandals and protests in Germany challenge the sterilization laws. Legislation is passed repealing forced sterilization. Most NEA nations follow suit over the next few years.
April 8, 1969 Ludwig Erhard easily wins reelection to the Presidency of the German Republic.
June 2, 1969 NASA sends the first men to the moon (symbolically, a German, American, and Briton).
August 11, 1969 Germans celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Weimar Constitution (date of its announcement).
October 24, 1968 The first standing connection between five supercomputers in Budapest, Vienna, Zagreb, Prague, and Munich is established. The Pan-European Network is officially established, although the pure military background was abolished along the way, when it became clear what a valuable tool it would be for research.
November 17th 1969- On the seventh anniversary of the resignation of President Batista, Cuban Foreign Minister Frank Pais acknowledged the help United States gave his nation to achieve the status of a stable democracy in a speech in Matanzas, Cuba.
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January 3, 1970 - Former President Lettow-Vorbeck dies at the age of 99 years old. He lived to see a German set foot on the Moon.
January 14th 1970- Marches in Algiers and other Algerian, Moroccan and Tunisian cities in protest of the way the African nations were represented in the French Union. One of the main concerns of the protesters was that the former colonies have the same representation as a district in France, even when they have larger populations than many of that so called districts. They accused the government in Europe of trying to set the balance on their favor.
May 12, 1970 Enoch Powell (Con) becomes Prime Minister of the UK.
May 1, 1971 - Workers and Students participate in the worst May Day street riots of the 20th Century. Protests rock the French Union, organized by the Socialist Party and workers’ unions. Asking for equal pay between metropolitan French and citizens of the Union; the protests were peaceful overall but in some places, especially the Arab parts of the Union, riots erupted.
September 30 1971 – Paramilitary violence begins to escalate beyond the typical in Northern Ireland beginning on this date and lasting for the next several weeks.
October 14th 1971-British Prime Minister Edmund Powell stated that “the Irish question needs to be resolved,” as a response to the terrible bloodshed of the last couple of weeks in Northern Ireland.
November 5th 1971- National guardsmen called to help enforce some of the Civil Rights initiatives on the Southern states. The sight of armed troops patrolling some of the cities in the South was considered by many political analysts as one of the reasons of the defeat of Kennedy in the 1972 elections.
November 29th 1971- Yuri Andropov elected Soviet leader in response of what many considered the failure of the Khrushchev years. The new hardliner leader promised the “Soviet Union will last as long as their citizens are willing to make sacrifices and the enemies of the Rodina will be eventually crushed.” In later years many viewed this as an attempt to divert the Soviet citizens’ attention way from internal affairs to minimize the problems that existed in the Soviet Union at the time.
April 12, 1972 Sterilization laws are reversed in the USA by the Supreme Court as 'cruel and unusual', one of the major reasons cited also being their disproportionate use on Americans of African descent.
August 9th 1972- Italy asks the League of Nations to order a plebiscite to be held in Sardinia as a response to a poll taken in 1970 that stated that more than 69% of the population considered themselves Italians and wished to have some kind of political ties to their mother country. France refused outright, stating they acquired the area as per the treaty that ended the Tunisian War over 25 years before and no political changes were on the agenda for the near future. The League stated they would investigate further into the case.
September 3, 1972 - The Munich Incident starts. The UK had successfully petitioned the IOC to allow the Mandate of Jerusalem to send a team to the Olympics this year under their own flag. A Jewish terrorist organization struck for the first time outside the Levant when they took the Jerusalem team hostage. German Special Forces managed to kill most of the terrorists before any of the hostages could be executed, but one terrorist managed to fire his weapon at one of the Palestinian members of the team. Ironically, a fellow Jerusalem team-member, this one Jewish, threw himself in the line of fire saving his team mate's life at the cost of his own. More tragically, the incident set off nights of anti-Semitic rioting in the major cities of Europe, with many synagogues and Jewish businesses being vandalized. The German President and Chancellor made a joint appearance with leaders of several other European nations to decry this wave of violence, stating that such throwbacks to an earlier age must never happen again. Unfortunately, this would only be the first example of international terrorism as both Palestinian and Jewish terrorist groups took their grudge match to the international stage.
November 7, 1972 - Ronald Wilson Reagan is elected President of the United States of America.
January 21st 1973- President Reagan on his inaugural speech dashed the hopes of the segregationists with a defense of the Blacks’ rights and an assurance that the Civil rights initiatives under President Kennedy will be continued under his administration. He stated “We can’t be the standard of freedom against the evils of totalitarian regimes until our house’s defects are mended. We can’t be the beacon of liberty for this World until all our citizens enjoy the same rights and benefits, without distinction or separation.”
February 8, 1973- Attempted assassination of the Chief Justice of the United States of America by a new terrorist group referring to itself as the 'Sanger League'. Their manifesto cites the reversal of sterilization laws as their chief issue.
March 11, 1973 The PENNET begins to show growing problems with the establishment of a Berlin-London-connection.
April 18th 1973- Start of the “Krakow Spring.” The city major, Anton Woreslaw, declares that change was needed if Poland was going to survive and asked for democratic elections.
May 11, 1973 President Reagan makes his famous 'Evil Empire of the East' speech about the USSR and its Asian Satellite States.
June 9th 1973- “Krakow Spring” ends with the arrest of Woreslaw and the crushing of the pro-democracy movement in his city. While Woreslaw died while in prison in 1975 while awaiting trial for treason, he was turned into a martyr by the pro-democracy movement in Poland at the time and his memory is revered in modern Poland.
September 14th 1973- Border clashes between Chinese and Manchurian soldiers escalated into a battle with hundred of casualties on both sides. Start of the so-called “Manchurian Crisis” that almost ended in a nuclear exchange between the Soviet Union and the PACPA in early 1974.
January 8th 1974- Yuseef Katani sworn in as the first Shiite president of the Republic of Iraq, following the Sunni Ali Arwan after his six-year term was over. The transition was peaceful, another example that the 1967 accord brokered by the League of Nations to end the “Iraqi Troubles” was holding on.
March 29th 1974- League of Nations asks both the Soviet block nations and the PACPA nations to back down and accept a League of Nation’s mediation to end the border disputes between Manchuria and China. Small clashes since September culminated in a major battle in early March with thousands of casualties to both sides. Records unclassified in the early 21st Century proved the Japanese Empire was ready to deploy nuclear weapons in support of the Chinese if the situation has turned worse to the Chinese. With the known Soviet policy of retaliation in kind many expects now agree the World was very close to a nuclear conflict during the spring of 1974.
June 1, 1974 Declassified documents in the 21st century would show that US covert support to the rebels fighting the Communist government of Uruguay reached its highest level at this date.
July 17th 1974- The German band “Sealion” ended their farewell tour with a sold concert in Yankee Stadium in New York City. The band, one of most popular groups of all time, decided to break up after their lead singer, Johan Lennowitz, converted to Buddhism and decided to follow a solo career under the auspices of his wife the Japanese artists Keiko Onawa. Attempts by other members of the group, especially bassist Georg Horst and the Alsatian born guitarist Paul Mecarde, to change Lennowitz mind about leaving the band failed and all members decided to part ways after one final tour.
February 3, 1975 - Cambodia and Laos are allowed to peacefully withdraw from the French Union after several years of complaints that the Union does not represent Asian interests well.
March 12, 1975 The Leaders of Germany, USA, and Brazil meet in Havana to discuss democratization in South America.
May 15, 1975 German scientist Hugo Wagner proposes a new standard for PENNET-communication, the "General Transfer Protocol" GTP, as a means to establish network connections between networks.
August 20, 1975 - Portuguese Union forces crush the last of the insurgent factions in Angola after a decades long struggle.
April 10, 1976 Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm wins the presidency, returning the office to the SPD for the first time since 1955. His term would see the final rapprochement between Poland and the German Republic.
July 4, 1976 Bicentennial of the signing of the US Declaration of Independence.
October 11, 1976 The “PENNET crisis” is recognized, and a spirited debate over the future of the PENNET occurs. Hugo Wagern's plans for the GTP protocol are based on German notations, however, British scientists argue in favor of British notation, arguing that future spread of the PENNET system to the Commonwealth as well as NASA would be facilitated by this. The debate slowly creeps up to the higher levels of the government.
November 2, 1976 Ronald Wilson Reagan is re-elected President of the United States of America by the largest electoral vote in history.
October 17th 1976- Indonesia is accepted as a member of the PACPA.
September 11, 1976 - Communists take over of the government of Afghanistan and invite Soviet troops to enter the nation to 'maintain order'. This marks the beginning of the war in Afghanistan. The Indian Confederation becomes a major supplier of support and arms to the Mujahedeen, most of it smuggled through Iran, which continues to feign friendship with the Soviet Union but has begun to take a separate course in politics.
December 18, 1976 "The PENNET crisis", as it has been commonly known, is ended with the compromise to use Esperanto as the language for notations and technical documentation. While everyone believes this to be an interim solution, it will later prove too costly to change everything to other languages. Historians believe this to be the date when the PENNET became a true ‘internet’, the network of networks that would eventually connect everything.
October 9, 1977 - The Nuclear Powers meet for an unprecedented multilateral summit, and pledge to freeze building of new nuclear weapons beyond replacement levels, and to work jointly to prevent further proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world.
March 4, 1978 - The Uruguay Communist government is ousted from power and the new government pledges free elections by the end of the year.
July 12th 1977- Kingdom of Vietnam accepted as member of PACPA.
May 7, 1978 - Massive street protests in cities throughout Poland calling for democratic reform and the release of political prisoners. Troops are called to disperse the protestors, but they refuse to fire. Within the month, many pro-democracy prisoners are released in an attempt to diffuse the situation, but the ruling regime is forced to resign by the summer. The NEA warns the Soviets not to take advantage of the chaos in the country.
June 20, 1978 - A reform government is established in Poland, and the first free elections are called for the fall of that year.
August 20, 1979 The NASA moon base, a capsule buried under the lunar soil, goes into operation, a year ahead of the deadline set in 1961.
May 22nd, 2006, 12:23 AM
January 12th 1980- In a ceremony in Port Said the Suez Canal is officially handed over to the Egyptian government. Still a sizable British presence stays in the area as per the treaty.
December 3, 1980 - Following the rapprochement between Germany and Poland other NEA members Lithuania and the Central European Republic follow suit and also agree to settle the border question and to open up trade and cultural exchanges.
March 17 1981: The US-American Band Electrolynx released their groundbreaking album Machinea, which kicked off the music styles later known as "Electrobeat", "Stutt", and "Base Beat". Electrobeat is basically electronic instrument popular music, Stutt is where the song texts are stuttered, not spoken, and Base Beat is a music form which consists of almost solely of base beats, hence the name.
June 12, 1981 - The last members of the small pro-eugenics terrorist group, the Sanger League, are apprehended. While initially enjoying some degree of support by those in favor of the old eugenics laws in the USA, by the new decade most Americans have changed their views on eugenics as well as disagreeing with the violence of the small Sanger League.
August 23, 1981 - Despite weak protest from a distracted Soviet Union, Poland is admitted to the NEA. Many consider this only proper, seeing as the existence of Poland as an independent nation has for decades been guaranteed by the threat of NEA intervention should the Soviet Union have ever tried to take the nation into their sphere.
Monday 21st September 1981: after Prime Minister Eyskens refuses to call a referendum on effective Flemish independence, Flemish terrorists launch what becomes known as "Lundi sanglant" (Bloody Monday). Bombs go off across Wallonia, at Namur station (6 dead), Liege-Guillemins station (24 dead) and Mons station (14 dead).
Tuesday 22 September 1981: Wide scale rioting for several days across Francophone Brussels. One Flemish right-wing Volksunie MP is beaten to death as he arrives at the Gare Centrale.
Saturday 26th September 1981 - Terrorists car-bomb the Charleroi office of the Parti Socialiste- leading member Guy Spitaels killed along with 8 others.
Sunday 27th September 1981 - A Walloon group bombs Bruges's Grote Markt. 9 Belgians, 12 American tourists, 3 Germans and a Spaniard die. Germany and America threaten to ask the League of Nations to bring in peacekeepers.
Thursday 1st October- The Eyskens government falls. New PM Dehaene, a Fleming himself, promises full Flemish autonomy but not independence. Street violence begins to subside.
Friday 16th October- Flemish terrorists, following the example of Breton terrorists some years earlier, launch a mortar attack on the Elysee in Paris- no casualties. They call for Flemish villages in Northern France to be ceded, but Mitterrand refuses to accept this.
October 20, 1981 In response to the terrorist attack in Paris, French forces move into Belgium. Immediate protest from several NEA nations, and a mobilization of border troops in the Netherlands and Germany begins.
October 23, 1981 Emergency meeting of the League of Nations results in an agreement between the French and NEA nations for the French to gradually withdraw and be replaced by League peacekeepers from Switzerland and Canada by the end of the year.
December 30, 1981 Last French forces withdraw from Belgium, however the terrorist incidents that plagued the French over the past several months would be inherited by the Swiss and Canadian League forces.
May 20, 1982 - Increasing unrest within the Soviet Union over claims of corruption and mismanagement of the economy and the Afghan conflict leads to protests on the Polish model in several cities of the USSR. Here, however, while some units of the military and even KGB refuse to fire on civilians, others carry out their orders. In a few sites, units of the Red Army turn on others to protect protestors. This date is generally agreed to be the beginning of the Soviet Civil War.
August 17, 1982 - The fitful Soviet Civil War continues. By this date, the western SSRs of Byelarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia have declared themselves independent. The NEA is on a high state of alert at the borders, and through diplomatic channels implies that if the Soviets move to retake these SSRs, they risk NEA intervention.
January 18, 1983 - Intercine warfare in the Russian SSR as shifting loyalties and fractured commands continue to keep the situation confused in the Soviet Union. By this date, the Central Asian SSRs of Volga German, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have declared independence from the increasingly erratic Soviet Union (the military and the Party both are claiming to represent the Soviet Union now, in opposition to one another). Iran, India, and Republican China are among the first nations to recognize these new republics.
February 9, 1983 - The charismatic leader of the Russian SSR Far Eastern federal district has held the region in relative peace compared to the rest of the Russian SSR, but finally gains the agreement of the various regions of the district to formally break away from the Russian SSR. China and Japan tentatively offer support, but are hesitant due to uncertainty as to whether the leadership is still communist or not.
March 3, 1983 - Red Manchuria, in collaboration with the hard line faction of the Red Army, launches an invasion of the Far Eastern federal district. Fierce fighting ensues on the Southern border in the Amur, Jewish, and Maritimes Oblasts. Yakutia is invaded, but the sparser population, harsh weather, and long distances mean there is very little fighting as most units simply struggle to cross the region. Most observers believe the fledgling break-away district will be inundated.
May 18, 1983 - The world is surprised at the fighting spirit of the Far Eastern federal district, as they have managed to throw back most of the Manchurian invasion forces that had numerical superiority and had equipment only slightly older than the Far East units. However, to do so the Far Eastern forces have had to virtually abandon Yakutia. The Empire of Japan and Republican China issue an ultimatum to Manchuria to withdraw from the Far Eastern federal district or face their entry into the war.
May 30, 1983 - The world is horrified when a rogue Russian military leader launches a nuclear tipped tactical nuclear weapon at Vladivostok, causing hundreds of thousands of casualties. Fortunately, the weapon was one of the newer 'clean nukes' and does not lead to much fallout. Support for the hard-liners in Russia melts away as the Russian people are appalled by this use of a nuclear weapon on fellow Russians. This marks the first use of a nuclear weapon in war. It is only the speedy arrest of the culprit and his denouncement by the military hard-liners that stops a possible launch of nuclear warheads on military targets by China and Japan.
June 3, 1983 - The hard-line forces retire from the field and control is turned over to the reformist forces in Russia. A democratic nation is proclaimed. While the new Russia will retain Yakutia, overtures for reunification with the Far Eastern federal district fall on deaf ears. The Manchurian invasion and nuclear attack on Vladivostok have permanently severed those ties in the minds of most Russian 'Easterners'.
June 14, 1983 - The Far Eastern federal district renames itself the Northern Pacific Federation, a clear indication of where it identifies itself geopolitically. On the announcement that the government will be pursuing free market reforms and multiparty democracy, it is embraced by the other Pacific powers.
January 14, 1984: French sculptor Marcel Villeau presents his newest work "Vladivostok" (a sculpture which he destroyed) to the public. This is considered to be the beginning of Annihilism, an art form which propagates senseless destruction, which is seen as inevitable and thus beautiful.
April 12, 1984 - In the wake of the nuclear attack on Vladivostok, the Soviet successor states, USA, Germany, UK, France, China, and Japan reach a series of sweeping accords to limit nuclear proliferation, and to secure nuclear materials in several parts of the former Soviet Union.
September 5, 1984 - The successor states to the Soviet Union are admitted as one group into the League of Nations, the timing arranged so as to not show favor to any one group.
March 12, 1984 - Russian emigree's stage a month long protest in Paris against the artwork of Marcel Villeau, especially against his annihilistic work, Vladivostok, which they consider disrespectful to the nuclear tragedy.
March 21, 1984 - Moldova votes to join with Romania in a referendum.
May 1, 1984 - The Northern Pacific Federation officially joins PACPA.
July 4, 1984 - Byelarus and Ukraine are admitted to the NEA. There is popular sentiment in Germany for the Republic of the Volga to join as well, but Russia puts pressure on the NEA to forestall this.
February 9, 1985 - The League of Nations passes an omnibus Non-Proliferation treaty which pledges all non-nuclear members of the league to not pursue nuclear weapons technology. A few member nations do not ratify, however.
March 20, 1985 - Japan vetoes entry of Central Asian nations, citing concerns about the slow rate of economic and political reforms in those nations.
April 11, 1985 - First mass demonstrations break out in both the People's Republic of Korea and the Choson Prefecture of Japan in favor of the formation of an independent and united Korea. This will become a yearly event.
August 19, 1985 - Georgia joins the NEA. While the Republic of the Volga is still not accepted for membership, a number of economic and cultural agreements have been made, and significant economic aide is coming from Germany.
September 01, 1985 - After long consideration, the French parliament dropped a proposed law which would make the new art style of annihilism illegal. The law was called for by a group of Russian and Vietnamese emigrants who consider the art style both disrespectful to human suffering and encouraging terroristic activities.
September 7th 1986 - Belgium gave independence to the Congo after a process of Africanization that lasted 40 years.
October 1, 1987 - Economists in the USA announce that the international economy in the developed world has reached an all-time high in economic growth in the past fiscal year. Some people begin to talk about the end of the business cycle, while others are more skeptical.
November 12, 1987 - Civil war breaks out in Xianjiang, pitting the ruling communists against reformers.
June 19, 1988 - The NEA announces plans to convert all remaining diesel train lines within the economic alliance to electric, and at the same time increase their speed. Most of the needed changes are in former Soviet Republics.
June 20, 1988 - After veiled threats of direct intervention, China succeeds in brokering a ceasefire and a plan for free elections and economic reform. The agreement had been held up for several months by accusations from the government faction that China had been funneling money and weapons to the reformists.
March 30, 1989 In the US university Berkeley, professor Frederick Chamberlain essentially creates the global net using a system for nonlinear linking of documents on the basis of an internet connection with a computer in Oxford (disregarding his many failed attempts earlier).
July 23, 1989 - In an otherwise peaceful hurricane season, a Category 5 Hurricane Franklin hits the US state of Caribe, resulting in nearly 500casualties. Beefed up building codes in the state are credited with saving many lives.
September 3, 1989 - The member states of the French Union, after decades of arrogance from Paris, vote to eject France from the Union. They rename themselves L'Union des Nations. French remains the lingua franca of the Union.
September 8, 1989 - France threatens military action in retaliation for the outrage of their supposed ejection from the union.
September 9, 1989 - The League of Nations warns France that such an act would contravene International Law.
September 11, 1989 - France declares the crisis an internal one, and demands the League stay out of it.
September 12, 1989 - The British Commonwealth, NEA, and the Portuguese Union all call on the French to use peaceful means to resolve the issue.
September 13, 1989 - Rioting breaks out throughtout France as has not been seen in nearly a decade, primarily by French of ethnic origin from other parts of the now defunct Union. the rioters and protestors call for France to respect the autonomy of the members of the Union. They also fear the use of nuclear weapons, as was seen in the break-up of the Soviet Union.
May 22nd, 2006, 12:34 AM
February 14, 1990 China again sponsors several Central Asian Republics for membership in PACPA. Japan does not veto this time, mostly due to US mediation, but proposes several milestones to be met that will delay, possibly prevent, entry for them.
February 16, 1991 - The People's Republic of Korea announces the induction of several businessmen into the Party. The People's Republic of Manchuria denounces the Koreans as selling out the principles of Marxist-Leninism.
April 11, 1991 - Protests in Choson in favor of a reunified and independent Korea again turn violent after years of escalation. The deaths of several children amongst the protestors however brings more criticism from the international community.
August 11, 1991 The first netbrowser for the global public, "Obsidian", is released by computer crack Gene "Gemfreak" Curry.
February 16, 1992 The state-sponsored connection of the internet's servers is given up as too costly. Over time, global business forms around selling connections to the internet, while the root servers end up under the control of the member states that they stand in (it soon becomes a matter of prestige with the geek populace to have an internet root server in the country). The regulation of the technical level is transferred to a technical committee of the League of Nations, just as telephone lines were years ago.
March 2, 1992 - Comments by the Chinese Education Minister in favor of Korean reunification draws a firestorm of criticism from the Japanese government and press. The Minister is forced to resign as a result.
October 30, 1992 - Manchuria acknowledges possession of several nuclear devices left by Soviet troops during the Soviet Civil War. They also claim to have the detonation code. The Northern Pacific Federation protests violently and demands that the League of Nations take action to remove the weapons. PACPA declares their support for the removal of nuclear devices from Manchuria as well.
January 13, 1993 - Talks between PACPA and Manchuria for the removal of nuclear weapons from that nation in return for economic and humanitarian aide fails after the Republic of China refuses to guarantee the independence and borders of Manchuria, which they have always claimed as a rogue province of the Republic.
April 1, 1993 - The Japanese approach the People's Republic of Korea about the idea of reunification with Choson as an autonomous province in federation with Japan. The idea is dismissed out of hand, but does result in more subdued protests that year in Choson and the merits of the offer are debated.
October 9, 1993 Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Azerbaijan form the Turko-Aryan League, a trade association.
February 2, 1994 - Crisis in PACPA over the admission of Central Asian nations. China issues an ultimatum; fast track their admission, including Xinjiang, or they will withdraw from PACPA. The PACPA meeting quickly devolves into a shouting match and China walks out.
March 23, 1994 - China announces formally their withdrawal from PACPA, though they pledge to continue their economic relationship with the USA. Instead, China announces the formation of the Asian Economic Community with Xinjiang and the Central Asian Republics.
April 11, 1994 - Several Chinese ministers are quoted as supporting Korean reunification on the annual day of protest in the Koreas. Japan calls back their ambassador for 'consultation'.
August 17, 1995 - A prominent independent newspaper in Choson breaks news about human rights abuses within the People's Republic of Korea. This chills the reunification movement, which had been growing in Choson Prefecture as economic reform in PRK had made them more attractive to the Southerners.
June 3, 1996 - Maiden launch of NASA's first completely reusable launch vehicle, which can be turned around quickly and cuts the cost of space launches by a factor of 10.
May 1, 1997 End of 'The Slow Purge' in the People's Republic of Korea. Several old guard oligarchs are eased out of power over the past few years, removing the perpetrators of several of the more egregious human rights abuses of the past and bringing to power a new generation of technocrat.
June 1, 1997 Korea sends a delegation to Tokyo to open discussions on possible federation with Choson with the Empire in some form of codominion.
November 19, 1997 - The world is shocked by the release of a chemical warfare agent in a crowded train station in Jerusalem, killing 100s. However, the world is perplexed as to the identity of the culprits as both Zionist and Palestinian terrorists claim responsibility for the attack.
April 14, 1998 Negotiations between the People's Republic of Korea and Japan on reunification break down.
May 28, 1998 - NEA member, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia gains its first Muslim Prime Minister.
December 10, 1998 The People's Republic of Korea joins China in the Asian Economic Community, further chilling relations with Japan.
March 3, 1999 After several guarantees for further reform, and in return for promises of massive Japanese investment, the People's Republic of Manchuria joins PACPA as a probationary member. This is largely seen as a direct counter to the joining of the PRK to the AEC.
June 6, 1999 First cloning of a mammal successful, after decades of effort.
July 30, 1999 - The League commission on the millennium problem announces that modernization programs are running apace to make certain that computers do not suffer difficulties due to the coming year 2000. Despite this, fiction about apocalyptic happenings due to computer failures continue to be popular.
May 25th, 2006, 11:10 PM
Weimar World Timeline 2000 - 2009
January 1, 2000 Despite doomsayers, only minor computer glitches occur with the changeover to the new year.
March 15, 2000 The Yugoslavian Prime Minister is slain by a deranged Serbian extremist for being Muslim.
January 1, 2001 Official beginning of the new millennium.
June 3, 2002 Completion of the first Oberth Class Orbital Space Station, which includes for the first time spin to create 'artificial gravity'. This first one is fairly small, but the basic design will persist as future constructs grow larger in size.
May 19, 2003 The Oslo Conference notes that the widespread use of nuclear power for electrical generation and most mass transportation having converted to electric (principally by rail) has led to substantial decreases in CO2 emissions over the past several decades. However, this and other greenhouse gases and pollutants are still a problem in developing countries.
April 20, 2004 The NEA states finalize plans for European Federation, the fruition of decades of closer cooperation and planning within the NEA.
December 25, 2005 During the Christmas Mass, an assassin kills the Pope, claiming he was the antichrist and the European Federation is the New Rome.
June 1, 2006 Official 'permanent' population on the Moon reaches 1000. In actuality, very few personnel spend more than a few years in one of the moon bases.
October 9, 2007 After rebuilding and passing several tax and business incentives, the State of Caribe is back on its feet, being named the top state to do business in in 2007.
February 15, 2008 Despite a 12th hour international relief effort, massive famine breaks out in Manchuria. A military junta topples the Politburo and imposes martial law.
August 20, 2009 First gene therapy becomes available for widespread clinical use.
June 10th, 2006, 11:41 PM
Weimar World Timeline 2010-2019
March 1, 2010 Worldwide sale of hybrid automobiles surpass that of regular vehicles for the first time.
March 7, 2011 - Gerry Bernstein becomes the first Jewish Reichspraesident of the German Republic.
November 11, 2011 Major decompression accident occurs in the original module of the first NASA Moonbase. Fortunately it had been relegated to storage years ago, and only one life is lost. However, this spawns a round of investigations into the safety of older space habitats.
April 20, 2012 Announcement that within the European Federation, that for the first time electrical generation by nuclear power has surpassed gas and coal burning. There is some protest from the nascent anti-nuclear movement that gained impetus from the Vladivostok tragedy, but most Europeans view nuclear power as a good thing.
June 21, 2013 Opening of the Russian and Aleutian Pacific Heritage Festival in Anchorage, Alaska. This joint project between the State of Alaska and the Northern Pacific Republic Federation celebrates the cultural ties between the two regions, as well as underscoring the strong economic ties that have emerged since the birth of the Northern Pacific Federation as a democracy.
September 22, 2014 On the sixtieth anniversary of the treaty, the Republic of China puts pressure on the British Commonwealth to rescind the 1954 lease extension and return Hong Kong to Chinese rule. The Japanese back British resistance to the idea.
March 18, 2015 First manned mission to Mars.
March 20, 2016 Researchers announce the successful development of a vaccine for malaria. Much of the final work was done in a research consortium of British Commonwealth African states. This event marks the entrance of African science as a significant player in 21st century research.
April 1, 2017 Hackers from the USA manage to shut down 90% of the computers in the world despite increased surveillance due to April Fool's Day. While the virus self-destructed after midnight, it raises increased concerns about information technology security, and the increasing dependence of the world on computer technology. Despite what was obviously meant as a harmless prank, several deaths are blamed worldwide on the computer virus.
February 25, 2018 German Volga wins its first ever Olympic Gold Medal in the speed skating competition at the 2018 Winter Olympics.
April 19th, 2007, 09:30 PM
Thus ends the first hundred years of Weimar World....
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